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Farmer characteristics associated with improved and high farm business performance

Farmer characteristics associated with improved and high farm business performance

Arguably, the UK and European policy environments in the second decade of the 21 st Century differ consider- ably from those present at the turn of the millennium. Given the food shortages and accompanying price spikes of 2007 and 2008, the growing need for land to produce food, fuel and ecosystem services, combined with a growing world population, lead to a need for policy development and implementation that does not separate ‘productivist’ and ‘non-productivist’ outcomes, but provides a combination of the two that is increas- ingly being recognised as ‘sustainable intensification’. Farmers will be directed to enhance production acti- vities while reducing input use, lowering greenhouse gas emissions and providing biodiversity and landscape services all set against a changing climate. Successful farm businesses will rely upon technical, business and environmental information from a range of sources to achieve these requirements whilst also meeting their individual contemporaneous and future objectives. These represent grand policy challenges and ones that are potentially much more complex than observed in agricultural history to date. It is clear that financial drivers play a large role in farm-business decision making (Robinson 1991), but equally this is often only a necessary and not sufficient condition to determining multiple actions and outcomes (Siebert et al., 2006). Farmer self-identity (Burton, 2004; Stock, 2007), inter- generational objectives (Wheeler et al., 2012), education (Wilson, et al., 1998) and managerial ability and actions (Wilson, 2011) all inter-link leading to complex and individually well-founded decision making by farmers; the challenge for policy makers is how to understand and respond to these multi-objective drivers and com- municate with farmers in order to generate multi-output objectives. In conclusion, whilst individual business managers can adapt their businesses in order to meet the challenges that lie ahead, both UK and EU policy makers should establish policy frameworks for meeting the food-energy-environmental sustainability outcomes that are cognisant of the complex issues involved in con- temporary farm business management decision making.
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Australian farm business performance insights from effective farm business managers

Australian farm business performance insights from effective farm business managers

construction. Malcolm (2004) provided examples of metrics that are not consistent indicators of value but were being employed in benchmarking programs. Others have suggested that the link between production and benchmarking methods needs to be reliable (Ronan & Cleary, 2000). Benchmarking, and other measure-based assessments of farm business performance can however be defended on the grounds that they are still useful tools (Ronan & Cleary, 2000; Ronan, 2007), provided the basis for the measurement is sound. Percentages and averages are often provided to producers based on what is considered desirable or average, however percentages are relative measures and do not provide good insights in isolation and averages can hide the variation that exists within data (Wilson et al., 2004; Fleming et al. 2006). These types of measures still do not get directly to the underlying practices that led to the results and how those practices may be distributed, yet it is the practices that are often of most interest to producers. Furthermore, comparison of businesses should include consideration of the resources and capabilities available within an individual enterprise. The technique employed needs to reflect the production process prior to measuring the outcome and the goals.
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Key performance indicators for goal attainment in dairy farming : essential elements for monitoring farm business performance : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Agricultural System

Key performance indicators for goal attainment in dairy farming : essential elements for monitoring farm business performance : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Agricultural Systems management at Massey University

business structure is often complicated because of the intricate interaction between business and family requirements. This research investigated whether owner­ operator dairy farmers were using performance indicators that represented goal attainment. Detailed business analyses and discussions took place on ten f arms . Only two farming couples had developed formal business plans including vision and mission statements. Only one of these farms was actively implementing strategic management. Amongst the remaining farming couples goal identification ranged from no identification to well defined goals. Most identified goals were of a strategic nature yet there was no strategic management in place to monitor their progress. The lack of strategic management seen amongst farming couples is possibly relates to their locus of control. To alter the locus of control a better understanding of individuals perceptions of success and control needs to be gained so that knowledge and skill deficits can be identified. Nine of the ten farming couples had an incomplete view of their business, which reflected the operational and tactical management focus. The business analyses highlighted that the area that was of the greatest concern to farm business health was the cost of capital, in particular the cost of equity. Most farming couples struggled to relate the analysis results to their goals, which again reflected their operational and tactical management focus. The Balanced Scorecard was introduced as a strategic planning tool for farmers, however, its effectiveness could not be tested because of the lack of strategy amongst the farming couples. The Balanced Scorecard was able to provide a framework to assist in the understanding of strategic mana gement and its importance to holistic farm business management.
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Key performance indicators for goal attainment in dairy farming : essential elements for monitoring farm business performance : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Agricultural System

Key performance indicators for goal attainment in dairy farming : essential elements for monitoring farm business performance : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Agricultural Systems management at Massey University

business structure is often complicated because of the intricate interaction between business and family requirements. This research investigated whether owner­ operator dairy farmers were using performance indicators that represented goal attainment. Detailed business analyses and discussions took place on ten f arms . Only two farming couples had developed formal business plans including vision and mission statements. Only one of these farms was actively implementing strategic management. Amongst the remaining farming couples goal identification ranged from no identification to well defined goals. Most identified goals were of a strategic nature yet there was no strategic management in place to monitor their progress. The lack of strategic management seen amongst farming couples is possibly relates to their locus of control. To alter the locus of control a better understanding of individuals perceptions of success and control needs to be gained so that knowledge and skill deficits can be identified. Nine of the ten farming couples had an incomplete view of their business, which reflected the operational and tactical management focus. The business analyses highlighted that the area that was of the greatest concern to farm business health was the cost of capital, in particular the cost of equity. Most farming couples struggled to relate the analysis results to their goals, which again reflected their operational and tactical management focus. The Balanced Scorecard was introduced as a strategic planning tool for farmers, however, its effectiveness could not be tested because of the lack of strategy amongst the farming couples. The Balanced Scorecard was able to provide a framework to assist in the understanding of strategic mana gement and its importance to holistic farm business management.
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Farm Labor Monopsony: Farm Business And The Child Hierarchical Model Of Fertility

Farm Labor Monopsony: Farm Business And The Child Hierarchical Model Of Fertility

Arthur Lewis (1954) classic article on duel labor markets suggests that subsistence labor, due to high fertility and overpopulation, causes low wages. Basu (1999) and Dessy (2000) show a compelling theory for high fertility in developing countries where regions go into a poverty trap of low labor demand, low wages and overpopulation. An alternative explanation for overpopulation has to do with a simple farm business model where farming families have a labor monopsony for their own child labor. Child labor, not from society at large but from the farm family’s own children, can be a source of labor to run a farm business. The farm business model shows how, due to simple monopsony characteristics, it may be cheaper for a farmer to use fertility induced, family child labor, rather than expensive non-family labor, to provide his labor supply and increase his rent. Children can provide the farmer with labor that has a psychological barrier to exit, making it easy to add human capital without paying a high wage. However, due to sibling rivalry and child psychological growth stages of binding, delegating and expelling, older children will be forced to leave the farm inducing greater fertility to replace them. We assume capital investment options and the use of technology are limited for such farms due to monsoon rainy seasons, dense forests or steep hills, which suggests the need for labor intensive farms. The end result is that child labor is a way to provide significant profit to a farm business.
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Family farm business and access to rural development polices: a demographic perspective

Family farm business and access to rural development polices: a demographic perspective

An important result of our analysis confirms previous studies on limited access to rural polices on behalf of Italian farms (Bartoli and De Rosa, 2011). Very small percentages of farms gain access to funds; in this context some differences on the basis of demo- graphic variables emerge. Most of the first type of family farms does not use rural pol- icy measures to sustain farm growth (Table 3). On average, 95% of farms have not used any measure of the rural development plan. However, the presence of young farmers raises the percentage of policy consumption, but within the group of young farmers different aptitudes stand out. Single young farmers display the highest percentage of access to policies (14.4%). On the other hand, moving to other young families (childless and couple with children), the percentages decrease, even if they remain above the average (respectively 9% and 10%). In the remaining family farms, statistically signifi- cant results are found in extended families and partially in single mature farms. In the other typologies a systematic lower level of access is evident, above all in the childless
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Social metabolism: The kinetics of entropy and motivational energy in transforming farm business of India

Social metabolism: The kinetics of entropy and motivational energy in transforming farm business of India

A farming system is defined as a population of individual farm systems that have broadly similar resource bases, enterprise pattern, household livelihood and constraints and for which similar development strategies and intervention can be applied. Farming system in India has been characterised with high level of adoption, rejection and discontinuance. Agriculture in India demands transfer of technology, external supply of inputs as well as knowledge, where rural people have become mere recipient of input and technology. In India in general and West Bengal in particular through the continuous imposing of knowledge and motivating the rural people a gap has been found between motivation unleashed and accomplished made and there is a gradual dissolving of the most advance societies due to intrinsic disorder that may be referred to as social entropy. This is responsible for institutional conflict, organizational disorder or social entropy. Social entropy is a macro-sociological system theory. It is a measure of the natural decay within a social system. It can be defined as the decomposition of social structure or of the disappearance of social distinctions. Social entropy is the amount of motivation unavailable for performing in system.
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Diversification of farm business

Diversification of farm business

in order to compare the data with the Farm Structure census (Survey), similar categories were created for the diversification activities. These have shown that up to 94% (or 64 of all projects) focused on the sector of agritourism and rural tourism. Agritourism and rural tourism includes construction and conversion of facilities into weekend houses, boarding houses, agritourism, horse-riding, hunting areas, and agri- tourism services associated with winter sports. other categories only included 4 projects. The projects in the nitra region focused on crafts and generation of energy from renewable resources. Support was paid out to the projects dealing with processing of wood and agricultural products.
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Sample representativeness verification of the FADN CZ farm business sample

Sample representativeness verification of the FADN CZ farm business sample

Economic outcomes of Czech agriculture have since 1994 been assessed based on the surveys carried out in the network of the agricultural primary production test farms (FADN CZ). The FADN farms report their results annually, hence, currently the sample of farms is comparatively stable with a long series of results. The network has been organized and administered by the Research Institute of Agricultural Economics in Prague (ÚZEI, currently) under the title of „Sample survey of economic outcomes by enterprising subjects“. Already during the period of the CR admission to EU being prepared, it was decided to pay attention to EU legislation as concerns the surveys and to accept gradually the system of economic results indicators in agriculture of EU member States. The new system employs the agricultural bookkeeping data network with some other indicators added. Currently, the FADN sample serves an important information resource to the EU, concerning the actual economic situation of Czech agriculture, and it also can be applied for international comparison. The FADN data have to be faultless and of high quality and the sample of reporting units has to be representative. The paper deals with the sample representativeness verifi cation and with representativeness of some selected indicators of the agricultural primary production. The basic data have been obtained from the last survey fi nished in 2008. The entire population is being described by the ČSÚ data. The agricultural bookkeeping data network covered 1,677 farm subjects in 2008, grouped into farms with single-entry and with double-entry bookkeeping. Outliers were discovered and excluded by means of exploratory analysis. Representativeness by regions and by production branches was verifi ed by means of statistical test procedures. Using one-sample and two-sample tests, average levels of the intensity indicators in crop production and livestock production were compared. The original data from the farms with double-entry bookkeeping in 2008 showed in most cases full conformity with the data from the entire population. Once the outliers were excluded from the data, the indicators under study showed conformity with the ČSÚ data from the both types of farms.
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Accounting developments and implications for farm business

Accounting developments and implications for farm business

A considerable research brief exists if we are to fill this knowledge gap, and if we are to ascertain the potential for developing management-accounting systems [r]

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Hop Farm Business Plan and Economic Study

Hop Farm Business Plan and Economic Study

The marketing strategy will largely consist of business to business sales through cold- calling and on-site visits. due to the nature of the industry, it’s likely that word of mouth marketing will be integral to operations as well. In the future, we hope to look into the online marketplace as a way to reach individual consumers in the homebrew market. Additionally, surplus product can be sold to hop supply companies if necessary.

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Sowing Seeds of Success: A Systemic Evaluation of Women in Agritourism.

Sowing Seeds of Success: A Systemic Evaluation of Women in Agritourism.

Study results showing a high presence of young and educated women, especially among first generation farmers, entering agritourism with a strong decision-making capacity contributes to the evidence that farm women are shifting identities (Brasier et al., 2014). Specifically, the large proportion of respondents who identified themselves as full-time farmers and decision makers in agritourism suggests that women are changing their role in farm household dynamics from the private (farm family caregiver) into the public (farm business operator) realm of agriculture. Yet, this study’s results indicating that women’s caregiver role negatively influence their personal aspirations confirms that entrepreneurial women farmers could feel an additional burden because farm tasks add to their household responsibilities (Ball, 2014). Furthermore, the positive association found between the caregiving burden with the importance of self-fulfillment and business continuance may indicate that the quest for the work-household tasks balance so widely stated in the business literature (Dyke & Murphy, 2006) may not be as prioritized in entrepreneurial farming. Instead, the likelihood of passing on the farm to the next generation was found in this study to be a strong predictor of women’s success in the farm household in both, family (building family connectedness) and business (business continuance) aspects.
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Organic Dairy Farming

Organic Dairy Farming

There is now significantly more data available to determine the financial performance of organic dairy farming in Wales. The latest data based on the financial periods from 2003/04 to 2004/05 indicates that the profitability of organic dairy farming at that time was marginal in comparison to conventional milk production. The Welsh Farm Business Survey data indicates that conventional dairy farming was more profitable than organic dairy farming; however, the organic milk price premium received was negligible for this sample. The identical organic farm sample based on farms located across England and Wales indicates slightly better net farm incomes compared to conventional farms, but this was based on managing more cows on a greater area and receiving a greater milk price premium of 2.6 ppl above conventional price. Organic dairy farming in less favoured areas (LFA’s) appeared economically unsustainable at the then organic milk price of 18.7 ppl for this farm sample. With the recent strong increases in demand and prices for organic milk, this situation is likely to be transformed in 2005/6 for those producers with access to organic outlets.
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Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2005/06 (OF 0373)

Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2005/06 (OF 0373)

Tables 22 to 25 show costs of production data for organic milk, beef and lamb production. The 2005/06 average and top 5 (low cost) results are shown alongside whole sample data for 2004/05. It should be noted that the data are not from identical samples and are derived from supplementary organic farm data collected by the IRS Farm Business Survey Unit. The cost of production data are calculated according to standard procedures whereby the variable costs relate to actual enterprise costs while the forage costs are apportioned according to the weighting of the livestock enterprise on the basis of livestock units associated with each livestock enterprise. This method is also carried out for allocating the fixed/overhead costs and other outputs, except that there is a further adjustment to account for the weighting of any arable enterprises within the whole farm system. Here, values are allocated on the basis of livestock units and the percentage area that is utilised by the livestock enterprises as a whole. This method assists preventing the allocation of arable costs to the livestock enterprises. All outputs and costs are then divided by the unit of production, this being litres for milk and kilograms (liveweight) for beef and lamb production.
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An Evaluation of MM Anupol Poultry Farm through SWOT Analysis: An IFE and EFE Matrix Approach

An Evaluation of MM Anupol Poultry Farm through SWOT Analysis: An IFE and EFE Matrix Approach

Based on the interview conducted by the researchers, it has been disclosed that having a good management system is very significant in running a business like poultry farm since one has to use common business sense when running and operating a farm business. He added that the first step is to determine the market and see if the existing business has enough space and facility to supply the needs in the market. Having a formal education as he added is also essential as to proper management of the labor force, technical know–how in operating the farm, knowledge on proper bookkeeping and accounting and even the customer relations management and dealing with different stakeholders. The high degree of specialization in the egg production is seen as strength because it provides opportunities to perform better due to more knowledge of a specific part of the production chain and due to costs being divided over larger units [7].
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Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2003/04 (OF0189)

Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2003/04 (OF0189)

All whole farm results for each farm type in Section 4 and the appendices are simple averages. Within summary sections on each farm type, tables show breakdowns of average outputs, inputs and incomes in £/ha; for cropping, horticulture (arable/field vegetable and intensive horticulture holdings), lowland and LFA dairy, and LFA and lowland cattle and sheep and mixed farms for identical and full samples. It should be noted that the identical samples were derived from individual organic farm data that were available for both 2002/03 and 2003/04 financial years. Comparable conventional farms for the identical samples are based on the 2002/03 cluster data only from conventional farms that appear in both years. To illustrate further, where the conventional farms from a cluster do not appear in 2003/04, these are removed from the 2002/03 cluster set to define a new cluster set per organic farm for 2002/03 and subsequently 2003/04 by default. The full sample represents the full set of organic data available for 2003/04 with newly derived comparable conventional farms based on the 2003/04 Farm Business Survey data.
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Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2007/08 (OF 0373)

Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2007/08 (OF 0373)

This report includes the newer Farm Business Income (FBI) measure adopted recently by Defra and the Welsh Assembly Government. This income measure is intended to reflect more closely actual profitability of farm businesses and does not include the adjustments designed to make farms comparable in terms of land tenure, reliance on borrowed capital and reliance on unpaid staff which Net Farm Income and Management and Investment Income were intended to do. As a result of the exclusion of notional costs for unpaid resources, Farm Business Income values are typically higher than Net Farm Incomes, but the relative performance of organic and conventional farms is similar in most cases. Defra have slightly changed the methodology for calculating FBI, therefore 2006/07 and 2007/08 FBI figures are not directly comparable. In general 2007/08 FBI figures are slightly higher than in 2006/07 due to changes in the calculation of imputed rent for farmhouses and farm cottages within the FBI calculation.
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Economics of Production of Ginger in Wayanad District of Kerala, India

Economics of Production of Ginger in Wayanad District of Kerala, India

Cost concepts defined by Commission for Agricultural Costs and prices (CACP) were followed. Cost concepts were used to estimate the cost of cultivation and to derive the measures of efficiency viz., farm business income, family labour income, net income and farm investment income. The cost concepts viz., Cost A 1 , Cost A 2 , Cost B 1 , Cost B 2 , Cost C 1 , Cost C 2 and Cost C 3 were used in the present study and they are derived as follows.

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The Effect of GST on Farm Management Information Systems and Business Management Skills

The Effect of GST on Farm Management Information Systems and Business Management Skills

In order for a farm management information system to be deemed to exist, information from a farm record system must be used to support farm business decision-making. Prime decision makers were also requested to indicate how information is used. For accounting records, four uses for information were detailed: (1) to show how much we have spent, or how much we have to spend, (2) to show how the farm business has run in the past so we can decide how to run it in the future, (3) to provide information to help us make big decisions, like purchase of equipment or whether to buy the farm next door, and (4) to provide information to help us decide what to do when problems come like drought, sickness, low prices and so on. For production records, four uses were also detailed: (1) to provide information to help decide which animal to breed, or which to cull, (2) to help decide which animals to market, (3) to provide information to help decide what to grow or when to grow it, and (4) to decide how much seed, fertiliser, herbicide or insecticide to use.
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Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2006/07 (OF 0373)

Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2006/07 (OF 0373)

To identify comparable farm data with similar resource endowment, pre-defined ranges were used for land (UAA), milk quota ownership (dairy farms only), proportion of permanent pasture and rough grazing land, and the farm business size in standard gross margins (ESU) per farm. The range was defined by a percentage deviation from the value of the respective organic farm (e.g. +/- 20%) and/or an absolute value to prevent organic farms with small values being lost from the sample. It was not possible to identify comparable cluster farms for horticulture businesses. Overall, the combination of variables for deriving farm clusters can be taken as a reasonable guide to identifying comparable resource endowment.
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