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Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2008/09 (OF 0373)

Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2008/09 (OF 0373)

Summarised and detailed financial input, output, income, returns to labour and capital, liabilities and assets and some physical performance measures are presented based on current FBS data collection and collation guidelines 3 . The full samples of organic farms per robust farm type are sufficiently large to give some reasonable level of confidence in the data although it should be noted that the organic farm samples are not necessarily statistically representative of their type, as most have been selected to meet the statistical needs of the Farm Business Survey as a whole, not this study. However, the results can be seen as a reasonable indication of farm income levels for comparable organic and conventional farms. Smaller farm samples should be treated more cautiously as there is a possibility for outliers (especially larger farms) to have a significant influence on the average results (these effects can be seen within the full horticulture sample). An additional element of this work is the inclusion of comparable conventional farm data (obtained from the main FBS sample) for the farm types shown. Each organic farm within this study was matched with an appropriate cluster of conventional farms based on the resource endowment indicators for individual organic farms. Indicators included farm type, FBS region, Less Favoured Area (LFA) status, utilisable agricultural area (UAA); milk quota held (where applicable) and farm business size. The cluster farm data were averaged for each farm type to derive the comparable conventional farm (CCF) data based on the organic farms from the identical and full farm samples. This report includes the newer Farm Business Income (FBI) measure adopted by Defra and the Welsh Assembly Government. This income measure is intended to reflect more closely actual profitability of farm businesses and does not include the adjustments designed to make farms comparable in terms of land tenure, reliance on borrowed capital and reliance on unpaid staff which Net Farm Income and Management and Investment Income were intended to do. As a result of the exclusion of notional costs for unpaid resources, Farm Business Income values are typically higher than Net Farm Incomes, but the relative performance of organic and conventional farms is similar in most cases. 2008/09 FBI data now also includes “directors remuneration”, which is shown as a capital withdrawal from the business, though this affects very few farms.
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Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2007/08 (OF 0373)

Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2007/08 (OF 0373)

This report includes the newer Farm Business Income (FBI) measure adopted recently by Defra and the Welsh Assembly Government. This income measure is intended to reflect more closely actual profitability of farm businesses and does not include the adjustments designed to make farms comparable in terms of land tenure, reliance on borrowed capital and reliance on unpaid staff which Net Farm Income and Management and Investment Income were intended to do. As a result of the exclusion of notional costs for unpaid resources, Farm Business Income values are typically higher than Net Farm Incomes, but the relative performance of organic and conventional farms is similar in most cases. Defra have slightly changed the methodology for calculating FBI, therefore 2006/07 and 2007/08 FBI figures are not directly comparable. In general 2007/08 FBI figures are slightly higher than in 2006/07 due to changes in the calculation of imputed rent for farmhouses and farm cottages within the FBI calculation.
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Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2009/10 (OF 0373)

Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2009/10 (OF 0373)

The results include a large number of variables for both financial and physical outputs, inputs in addition to factors such as labour and investment returns. This report focuses on the newer Farm Business Income (FBI) measure adopted by Defra and the Welsh Assembly Government, but the previously used Net Farm Income (NFI) figures are also shown in the detailed appendix data. The newer income measure is intended to reflect more closely actual profitability of farm businesses and does not include the adjustments designed to make farms comparable in terms of land tenure, reliance on borrowed capital and reliance on unpaid staff which Net Farm Income and Management and Investment Income were intended to do. As a result of the exclusion of notional costs for unpaid resources, Farm Business Income values are typically higher than Net Farm Incomes, but the relative performance of organic and conventional farms is similar in most cases. Please note there were methodology changes to land and building valuation so opening and closing values may vary between sample years.
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Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2010/11 (OF 0373)

Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2010/11 (OF 0373)

used Net Farm Income (NFI) figures are also shown in the detailed appendix data. The newer income measure is intended to reflect more closely actual profitability of farm businesses and does not include the adjustments designed to make farms comparable in terms of land tenure, reliance on borrowed capital and reliance on unpaid staff which Net Farm Income and Management and Investment Income were intended to do. As a result of the exclusion of notional costs for unpaid resources, Farm Business Income values are typically higher than Net Farm Incomes, but the relative performance of organic and conventional farms is similar in most cases. Please note there were methodology changes to land and building valuation so opening and closing values may vary between sample years.
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Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2011/12 (OF0373)

Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2011/12 (OF0373)

IBERS, Aberystwyth University/Organic Research Centre 5 income measure is intended to reflect more closely actual profitability of farm businesses and does not include the adjustments designed to make farms comparable in terms of land tenure, reliance on borrowed capital and reliance on unpaid staff which Net Farm Income and Management and Investment Income were intended to do. As a result of the exclusion of notional costs for unpaid resources, Farm Business Income values are typically higher than Net Farm Incomes, but the relative performance of organic and conventional farms is similar in most cases. Please note there were methodology changes to land and building valuation so opening and closing values may vary between sample years.
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Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2006/07 (OF 0373)

Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2006/07 (OF 0373)

The analysis is focused on businesses with more than 16 European Size Units (ESU) (see below) and having at least 70% organic land status in 2006/07. Of the total 180 businesses with some organic land identified in the Defra Data Archive, 24 were not analysed due to a technical problem which will be addressed in the 2007/08 report so that the full set of data collected will eventually be utilised. Of the remaining 156 businesses, only 133 met the >70% organic criterion (Table 1). (In 2005/6, only 64 of the 101 businesses in the main FBS sample met this criterion, which indicates that the majority of new businesses recruited did meet the criterion as planned.) Of the 133 >70% organic holdings, 3 specialist poultry holdings were excluded as there were too few of this type to present group results, and for 17 it was not possible to identify comparable conventional businesses (this was also the case for the 8 horticultural businesses but their results have been presented without comparative data). However, the gross margin results from 16 of the 17 businesses could be utilised. Of the remaining 113 businesses whose whole farm data could be used, six came in below the 16 ESU limit (Table 2), but have been retained in this analysis.
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Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2005/06 (OF 0373)

Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2005/06 (OF 0373)

Tables 22 to 25 show costs of production data for organic milk, beef and lamb production. The 2005/06 average and top 5 (low cost) results are shown alongside whole sample data for 2004/05. It should be noted that the data are not from identical samples and are derived from supplementary organic farm data collected by the IRS Farm Business Survey Unit. The cost of production data are calculated according to standard procedures whereby the variable costs relate to actual enterprise costs while the forage costs are apportioned according to the weighting of the livestock enterprise on the basis of livestock units associated with each livestock enterprise. This method is also carried out for allocating the fixed/overhead costs and other outputs, except that there is a further adjustment to account for the weighting of any arable enterprises within the whole farm system. Here, values are allocated on the basis of livestock units and the percentage area that is utilised by the livestock enterprises as a whole. This method assists preventing the allocation of arable costs to the livestock enterprises. All outputs and costs are then divided by the unit of production, this being litres for milk and kilograms (liveweight) for beef and lamb production.
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Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2003/04 (OF0189)

Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2003/04 (OF0189)

Summarised and detailed financial input, output, income, returns to labour and capital, liabilities and assets and some physical performance measures are presented based on current Farm Business Survey (FBS) data collection and collation guidelines. The full samples of organic farms per robust farm type are sufficiently large to give some reasonable level of confidence in the data; however, it should be noted that the organic farm samples are not statistically representative of their type, although they can be seen as a reasonable indication of farm income levels for comparable organic and conventional farms. Smaller identical farm samples should be treated more cautiously as there is a possibility for outliers (especially larger farms) to have some influence on the average results.
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Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 1999/00 and 2000/01

Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 1999/00 and 2000/01

The conventional farms selected need to be ‘comparable’. The objective is to isolate the effect of the farming system on profits, so the choice of characteristics for comparison must be restricted to ‘non-system determined’ factors, i.e. location (climate, topography, soil, and market distance), size and tenure. The use of clusters of similar conventional farms to compare with each organic farm has the advantage over paired farm comparisons in that the specific circumstances of individual conventional farms do not distort the comparison. The average for a group of organic farms can then be compared with the average for the group of matched clusters with greater confidence when the farm size, type and location characteristics of the organic and conventional groups are similar.
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The impact of resource reallocation and credit availability on farm incomes in the Rupandehi district of Nepal : a linear programming approach

The impact of resource reallocation and credit availability on farm incomes in the Rupandehi district of Nepal : a linear programming approach

all of them can be included in this study because on an overall basis, they are of little importance. To derive reasonable average input/ output coefficients a significant number of observations is necessary. Thus, crops like lentil, linseed, onions, etc., are not included in the analysis. Maize and millet have been excluded for two reasons: Firstly, there are less than 5 observations from a total of 100 for each of these crops;"*’ and, secondly, these are hill crops grown in the foothill areas of the district, where there is not a significant area of cultivated land. Similar considerations lead to the exclusion of sugarcane. Because of the bulky nature of sugarcane, transportation costs are very sensitive to the location of the farm. Thus each farm tends to represent a special case. Only one per cent of the sample farms grew sugarcane for the year in question. Barley is seen to have a negative gross margin for the year in question. Farmers may well have planted it expecting a substantially higher price than that
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Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2006/07 (OF 0373)

Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2006/07 (OF 0373)

Due to a data processing error, results from 23 newly recruited organic businesses in southwest England were omitted from the original report. In agreement with Defra, a supplementary report has been prepared which sets out the results for the full organic sample, including the missing farms, and compares these with the original full organic samples published in July 2008. In most cases, the differences between the two samples are minor (i.e. within £20/ha NFI difference). The original cropping, horticulture and LFA dairy results were not affected by the missing data problem so these farm types are omitted here.
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Organic Farm incomes in England and Wales 2004 05(OF 0189)

Organic Farm incomes in England and Wales 2004 05(OF 0189)

Each year, Farm Business Survey Centres around the UK submit FBS data to DEFRA. Within the remit of this project, it has been possible to derive further organic farms that form part of the farm sample from other FBS Centres in the UK with the introduction of organic indicators in 1999. This has proved a valuable method of increasing the sample number of organic farms. In 2004, farm income data from 2402 farms were submitted to DEFRA, of which 105 farms had organic or in-conversion enterprises on farm. From this total, 78 farms met the farm selection criteria; however only 68 farms have been included in this report as it was not possible to derive comparable conventional farm data for the other 10 farms. The other 27 farms were not included within the report as 6 were still in conversion to organic status and the remaining 21 had organic areas less than 70% of their total agricultural area.
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Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2012/13

Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2012/13

This report includes a section on methodology, which shows the data sourcing and sampling techniques used to obtain a representative organic farm sample, as well as an explanation of the clustering procedure used to select comparable conventional farms (CCF) to match the organic farms. The financial results are presented with an explanation of the results and brief highlights, followed by summary data for each farm type. As in previous years, the 2012/13 report uses Farm Business Income (FBI) indicator as the headline profitability figure, in line with publishing by Defra and the devolved administrations. Detailed gross and net margins are included for livestock and cropping enterprises, as are benchmark costs of production per tonne and per litre for arable and milk respectively.
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Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2001/02

Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2001/02

The combination of organic farm recruitment by IRS and HDRA plus the use of data from existing FBS data represents a four fold increase in the sample size in each group compared with the earlier studies, although recruitment difficulties still raise issues about whether the samples can be considered to be representative or not. Therefore, it should be noted that it has been possible to succeed in the objective of increasing the size of the organic farm sample; but, the recruitment process was not able to identify a statistically representative sample of organic farms, despite aiming to do so. For this to occur, it would be necessary to include organic farming within the sampling stratification frameworks for the Farm Business Survey itself and better harmonisation between administrative data and Farm Structure Survey/June Census data (Offermann in Recke et al., 2004) 4 .
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Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2002/03

Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2002/03

Each year, Farm Business Survey Centres around the UK submit FBS data to DEFRA. Within the remit of this project, it has been possible to derive further organic farms that form part of the farm sample from other FBS centres in the UK with the introduction of organic indicators in 1999. This has proved a valuable method of increasing the number of organic farms. In 2002, farm income data from 2845 farms was submitted to DEFRA, of which 107 farms had organic or in-conversion enterprises on farm. From this total, 65 farms met the farm selection criteria; however only 50 farms have been included in this report as it was not possible to derive comparable conventional farm data for the other 15 farms. The other 42 farms were not included within the report as 22 were still in the conversion phase of their organic status and the remaining 20 had organic areas less than 50% of their total agricultural area.
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Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2013/14

Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 2013/14

An additional element of this work is the inclusion of comparable conventional farm data (obtained from the main FBS sample) for the farm types shown. Each organic farm within this study was matched with a cluster of conventional farms based on the resource endowment indicators for individual organic farms. Indicators included farm type, FBS region, Less Favoured Area (LFA) status, utilisable agricultural area (UAA); farm business size and milk quota held (where applicable). The milk quota indicator was relaxed in 2012/13 due to the reduced constraining effect of milk quota size and this approach was continued in 2013/14. The clustered conventional farm data were averaged for each farm type to derive the comparable conventional farm (CCF) data based on the organic farms from the identical and full farm samples.
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Farm incomes in the European Community 1990/91

Farm incomes in the European Community 1990/91

The report provides detailed farm output, cost and income results for a wide variety of farm groups such as different farm sizes and different production types in the European Community [r]

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Low farm incomes and the rental market for cropland in Vietnam

Low farm incomes and the rental market for cropland in Vietnam

Land reforms left Vietnam with very small farms. As mentioned previously, one of the key features of land reform was its egalitarian nature although the land allocation process varied between regions. The aim of the egalitarian land reform was to maintain equality and to avoid conflicts over land distribution during the break-up of collective fields. Land reform gave all rural households that wanted to farm the right to access land (1993, 2003 Land Laws). In most cases, local rural authorities specified a certain amount of agricultural land per capita (measured in adult equivalents) and allocated land to households primarily according their number of adult equivalents (WB, 2002). Other factors, like land quality, the irrigation system, distance to plots and social policies, were also taken into account in the allocation process. For example, the quality of land used to produce annual crops was divided into six categories and, in order to maintain equality, each household was allocated plots in these different categories. As a result, the small farms were severely fragmented (Marsh et al., 2006).
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Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 1998/99

Organic farm incomes in England and Wales 1998/99

1997/98) to collect and collate data on the financial performance of organic farms, differentiated by farm type 1 . This was achieved through the collation of financial data collected under three different MAFF-funded research projects supplemented by data collected on other farm types. The samples of organic farms are small because of the limited number of organic holdings over 8 ESU (European Size Units) with identifiable holding numbers in 1996, when the previous study was started. As the sample is small there is limitation on how the results may be extrapolated to the wider population of organic farms, especially as the structure and objectives of those converting to organic production in the late 1990s may be different from those that converted in the 1970s and 1980s.
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Farm accountancy data network. Farm incomes in the European Community 1990/91 including selected results for 1986/87 to 1989/90

Farm accountancy data network. Farm incomes in the European Community 1990/91 including selected results for 1986/87 to 1989/90

TOTAL OF STANDARD GROSS MARGINS IN EACH SIZE CLASS 2.1 SHARES OF FARMS REPRESENTED IN EACH DECILE, BY MEMBER STATE SHARES OF EACH MEMBER STATE'S FARMS IN EACH EUR DECILE 21 21 2.2 QUINTI[r]

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