Fatty Acid Content

Top PDF Fatty Acid Content:

Fatty acid content and composition in edible Ruspolia differens feeding on mixtures of natural food plants

Fatty acid content and composition in edible Ruspolia differens feeding on mixtures of natural food plants

The most common fatty acids found included pal- mitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids. With exception of α-linolenic acid (12–16%), other common fatty acids (Table  3) had relatively similar proportions to those found in earlier studies [4, 6]. The contents of SFA and MUFA in R. differens were not altered by the diversifying natural food plant diets, suggesting that diets offered insects relatively similar SFA and MUFA contents. Fatty acids such as palmitic acid is used as precursors for the biosynthesis of long chain fatty acids [14]. The low content of SFA could suggest that certain MUFAs are synthesised from SFA precursors [14]. Bio- synthesis of MUFA and SFA is a common phenomenon in many insect groups [14]. In comparison to [4] that reared neonate nymphs to maturity, the contents of SFA and MUFA in this study were generally low. Pos- sibly the diet offered to R. differens in [4] was richer in SFA and MUFA compared to our grass inflorescences. When compared with insects analysed in [15], our sam- ples had relatively low fatty acid content.
Show more

6 Read more

Trans Fatty Acid Content of Iranian Edible Oils

Trans Fatty Acid Content of Iranian Edible Oils

Clinical and epidemiologic studies showed that among dietary factors the type of fatty acids (FAs) in the diet plays an important role in determining risk of chronic disease. The aim of our study was to determine the levels of Trans FA (TFA) in edible oil samples consumed in Tehran, Iran analyzed by gas chromatograph (GC). The mean of total TFA was 0.45% ranging from (0.11% - 1.61%) for liquid frying oils and 2.92% ranging from (0.46% - 5.40%) for solid oils. The major TFA observed in these two groups was elaidic acid in solid oils. The highest content of total saturated fatty acid (SFA) was detected in solid oils with average of 32.07 and palmitic acid was the major SFA in these four groups. Linoleic and linolenic acid are the most important poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). The variance in the percentage of TFA in the edible oils probably resulted from differences in the type of oils, quality, heating, processing technique and storage condition of the edible oils. The results indicated that, edible oils contain considerable proportions of trans fatty acids. Therefore, it is important to assess the content of TFA in edible oils in Iran.
Show more

8 Read more

The scope for manipulating the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of beef: a review

The scope for manipulating the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of beef: a review

of increases in SFA deposition as total fat increases [35]. Beyond this, fatty acid composition has been noted to have low to moderate heritability [47, 80, 81, 30], but ef- forts to use genetic selection to improve beef fatty acid composition have been limited for a number of reasons [30]. First, fatty acid composition is not a single trait and it is not clear at present the type or number of fatty acids or their derived parameters that should be in- cluded as criteria in a breeding program. Second, if the PUFA/SFA ratio is one criterion for selection, the favor- able correlation with reduced fatness suggests that an improved PUFA/SFA ratio can probably be more easily obtained by selecting for lower fatness versus direct se- lection for individual fatty acids. Third, measuring fatty acid composition on a large number of animals for breeding value estimation would be expensive using con- ventional techniques (i.e., gas chromatography). Beyond conventional breeding strategies, however, recent devel- opments in genomic technologies have provided oppor- tunities for marker-assisted selection. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been found for a number of candidate genes involved in fatty acid metabolism [82–85]. A 54 k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip has also now been used to investigate possibilities for marker-assisted selection of multiple traits from basic meat quality to nutritional composition including mineral and fatty acid composition [86]. Greater ad- vances in the area may thus be on offer with >54 k chips, and with this, the potential for finding quantitative trait loci (QTL) and identify specific genes associated with variation in fatty acid composition. Rapid and low cost fatty acid analysis is, however, needed to match the pace of development in genomic technologies (higher speed genotyping at lower and lower costs). Along this line, the use of newer non-destructive technologies, such as near infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS), to measure beef fatty acid composition have shown promise [87–89], with the ability to predict the content of a number of fatty acids in beef fat related to human health. Further study of fatty acid synthesis and metabolism in beef cat- tle at the fundamental biochemical and molecular levels is also required to help explain breed, inter-animal and tissue (e.g., adipose vs. muscle) differences. Understand- ing these differences would then allow opportunities to identify physiological and nutritional factors that influ- ence gene expression and enzyme activity, providing additional avenues to improve beef fatty acid compos- ition [90].
Show more

13 Read more

ECTOPIC OVEREXPRESSION OF MUCACP-Δ9 DESATURASE LEADS TO Ω-7 FATTY ACID ACCUMULATION IN TOBACCO LEAVES

ECTOPIC OVEREXPRESSION OF MUCACP-Δ9 DESATURASE LEADS TO Ω-7 FATTY ACID ACCUMULATION IN TOBACCO LEAVES

MucACP-Δ9D from cat’s claw (Macfadyena unguis-cati) was ectopically overexpressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaves to increase the content of omega-7 (ω-7) fatty acids, which have nutraceutical and industrial values for polyethylene and biofuel production. Overexpressed MucACP-Δ9D localized in the plastid resulted in an increased ω-7 fatty acid (C16:1Δ9 and C18:1Δ11) content from trace level in the wild type to 25.4-29.7% in the transgenic tobacco leaves. The C16:0, C18:2, and C18:3 fatty acid content decreased by 30-50%, 24%, and 38.7% in the transgenics compared with the wild type, respectively. This evidences that the ectopically expressed MucACP-Δ9D enzyme actively converts C16:0 to C16:1Δ9. MucACP-Δ9D overexpression in tobacco had no adverse effects on any agronomic traits, including plant growth, development, or seed germination. The present findings provide an excellent germplasm resource and a new technological path for commercial production of valuable fatty acids, using high-biomass vegetative organs of a non-food crop as platforms.
Show more

7 Read more

Mychonastes aferHSO-3-1 as a potential new source of biodiesel

Mychonastes aferHSO-3-1 as a potential new source of biodiesel

The aims of this work were to discover new microal- gae species with high lipid content, yield and suitable fatty acids for biodiesel production. In our previous work, we analyzed the biomass, lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of 77 microalgae strains isolated from Shandong province and Beijing, China. Strain HSO-3-1 produced lipids up to 53.9% of its dry weight. Meanwhile, fatty acid analysis of strain HSO-3-1 by GC- MS indicated the presence of C24:1 (nervonic acid, 14.7 mg/g of total lipid, 3.8% of the total fatty acid content), which has been shown to have potential in biomedical applications. So we carried out further investigations on strain HSO-3-1.
Show more

8 Read more

The Bleu Blanc Cœur path: impacts on animal products   and human health

The Bleu Blanc Cœur path: impacts on animal products and human health

Extruded linseed added to animal feed has a strong impact on the C18:3 n-3 content. On the other hand, the PUFA-LC n- 3 derivatives do not vary very much in relation to ALA in the diet. BBC sector products are able to respond to the aims of the ANSES (French Agency for Food, Environmental and Oc- cupational Health and Safety) who recommend that all food vectors enabling the ALA input in the human diet to be in- creased should be taken into consideration. What is more, the saturated fatty acid content reduces, which has a positive im- pact on human health. The interest of these products for human
Show more

6 Read more

Altered fatty acid, protein, oil, and starch corn lines and method for producing same

Altered fatty acid, protein, oil, and starch corn lines and method for producing same

Improved corn lines having high protein and/or oil content and a method for producing such a lines. In another embodiment, improved corn lines having high oleic fatty-acid content, and/or either elevated or lowered saturated fat content, and a method for producing such a lines. In yet another embodiment, improved corn lines having a starch composition including starch components having a lower peak onset, having lower or higher enthalpy of gelatinization (cal/g), having lower or higher range of gelatinization (° C.), and/or having lower or higher percentage retrogradation. According to the present invention, new genes are introduced from a novel source, viz. Tripsacum dactyloides L., into the Corn-Belt genome or other conventional corn lines and thus the genetic diversity is increased and germplasm and value-added trait enhancement are allowed through traditional plant breeding practices. Introgression merges Tripsacum genetic material into the corn breeding stock. Selection for lines having desired characteristics from the corn lines as well as having improved protein, oil, and/or starch characteristics provides the improved breeding stock of the present invention. In one embodiment, selection is based on near-infrared reflectance
Show more

72 Read more

Phytochemical Constituents, Biological Activities, Therapeutic Potentials and Nutritional Values of Moringa oleifera (Zogale): A Review

Phytochemical Constituents, Biological Activities, Therapeutic Potentials and Nutritional Values of Moringa oleifera (Zogale): A Review

palmitoleic, stearic and arachidic acid and a lower content of linoleic, and linolenic acid [32]. This seed oil contains an identical fatty acid profile such as olive oil except for linoleic acid [45] [46]. To obtain the highest yield of oil from seeds, the solvent-assisted extraction using chloroform and methanol in the ratio of 3:1 at 100°C is seen to be most favorable. However, oil extracted with these solvents is not recommended for human consumption because of the residual amount of these toxic substances. Thus, hexane is routinely used in the extraction of oil from Moringa seeds, because of its efficiency and ease of recovery. The thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) analysis revealed that the oil degrades at a temperature of about 425–450°C [47]. In terms of health effects, the M. oleifera leaves, immature pods, flowers, seeds, and seed oil have a low saturated fatty acid content and high monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids content that can enhance the health benefits of Moringa-based foods.
Show more

7 Read more

Bovine milk in human nutrition – a review

Bovine milk in human nutrition – a review

The main trans 18:1 isomer in milk fat is vaccenic acid, (18:1, 11t, VA), but trans double bounds in position 4 to 16 is also observed in low concentrations in milk fat [82]. The amount of VA in milk fat may vary; constituting 1.7% [83], or 4–6 % of the total fatty acid content [84]. Typi- cally, the concentration of VA may be about 2–4% when the cows are on fresh pasture and about 1–2 % on indoor feeding [67]. Normally, naturally increase in 9c,11t-CLA in milk also results in increased concentration of VA [85]. VA has a double role in metabolism as it is both a trans fatty acid and a precursor for 9c,11t-CLA. As demonstrated by Kay et al. [86] approximately 90 % of 9c,11t-CLA in milk fat was produced endogenously involving delta-9- desaturation of VA. Vaccenic acid can be converted to 9c,11t-CLA in rodents [87], pigs [88] and humans [89]. Trans fatty acids have been shown to increase blood lipids [90]. Industrially produced trans fat are shown to increase the risk of coronary heart disease as they have adverse influence on the ratio of LDL on HDL, and on Lp(a) [44,91]. It has been questioned if VA has these same adverse effects. In one study with hamster, Meijer et al. [92] found that VA was more detrimental to cardiovascu- lar risk than elaidic acid (18:1, 9t) due to a more increas- ing effect on LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio. Furthermore, Clifton et al. [93] showed that VA was an independent predictor of a first myocardial infarction. In contrast to this, it has been shown by Willett et al. [28] that trans fat from animals did not give an increased risk for CHD. As recently demonstrated by Tricon et al [85], a combination of naturally increased concentration of VA and 9c,11t- CLA in milk fat did not result in detrimental effects on most cardiovascular disease risk parameters. However, it remains to clarify if VA has unhealthy effects on blood lip- ids.
Show more

16 Read more

FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF CULTIVATED EDIBLE MUSHROOM LENTINUS TUBERREGIUM VKJM24 (HM060586)

FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF CULTIVATED EDIBLE MUSHROOM LENTINUS TUBERREGIUM VKJM24 (HM060586)

This is consistent with the observations that, in mushrooms, unsaturated fatty acids predominate over the saturated in the total fatty acid content (Die´z & Alvarez, 2001; Longvah & Deosthale, 1998; Mauger et al., 2003). A rapidly expanding literature documents the importance of trans fatty acids (TFAs) in human health due to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease where they are negatively correlated with plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration and positively correlated with plasma LDL-cholesterol level (Minamide & Hammond, 1985). It is also important to point out that, in contrast to other fungi (Die´z & Alvarez, 2001; Longvah & Deosthale, 1998), no other fatty acids with an odd number of carbon atoms have been detected in considerable amounts.
Show more

6 Read more

Transgenic flax/linseed (Linum usitatissimum L ) – expectations and reality

Transgenic flax/linseed (Linum usitatissimum L ) – expectations and reality

This review summarizes the history, important milestones, current status and perspectives of biotech flax/ linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.), supplemented with some of our original research, breeding and data on environmentalsafety. We show how recent biotechnology methods and genetic engineering contributed to the flax/linseed breeding in order to speed up the breeding process (doubled haploids technology; in vitro selection with the use of pathogenic toxins or heavy metals; genetic transformation) and for the creation of new flax/ linseed cultivars. The focus is laid on genetic engineering which represents an excellent technology to enrich the flax/linseed genepool with genes of interest, which are not naturally present in the flax/linseed genome. Different methods of flax transformation are mentioned, as well as various genes of interest that have been used for flax transformation to date aimed at improving transgenic flax properties, affecting both qualitative and quantitative traits. The fatty acid content and composition, the lignan (especially secoisolariciresinol digluco- side – SDG) content, flax fibre quality, tolerance to herbicides and resistance to diseases belong, among others, to flax traits that have already been modified by genetic engineering. Selection genes, reporter genes and also promoters that have been used for the vector construction are also summarized. This paper describes different fields of utilization of genetically modified (GM) flax with different improved properties. The history of the only so far officially registered transgenic linseed cultivar Triffid is described in detail. Finally, potential risks and benefits of flax modification are evaluated and also the prime expectations of GM flax and real current state of this technology compared. Unfortunately, the products created by this technology are under strict (albeit not scientifically-based) legislative/political control in the European Union (EU), which prevents the access of products, created by breeders using this top technology, to the EU market.
Show more

19 Read more

Physical and chemical characteristics of frying oil in Indonesia in a repeated
frying model

Physical and chemical characteristics of frying oil in Indonesia in a repeated frying model

Repeated frying until 15 batches caused changes in fatty acid composition. Poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (e.g. linoleic and linolenic) drastically decrease, meanwhile there is only a slight increase in trans fatty acid content. Oil composed mainly with unsaturated fatty acid (soybean and corn oil), have higher deterioration rate compared to palm oil (which is composed from a balance mixture of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids) and coconut oil (which is mainly composed of short chain saturated fatty acid). The deteriorations are also exhibited in the gradual increase of the FFA, Totox values and the formation of secondary oxidation products (conjugated diene and triene). Color change in palm oil, expressed in Yellowness Index, steadily increased during repeated frying. However, the color change did not occur in other cooking oils.
Show more

7 Read more

Fatty Acids Profiles of Stipe and Blade from the Norwegian Brown Macroalga Laminaria hyperborea, Using Off-Line SPE and GC-MS

Fatty Acids Profiles of Stipe and Blade from the Norwegian Brown Macroalga Laminaria hyperborea, Using Off-Line SPE and GC-MS

We have identified and quantified 42 different fatty acids in L. hyperborea, as shown in Table 1. This is a significantly higher number than previously reported by others [9,14,17]. The fatty acid profile was determined for the NL, FFA, and PL fractions in stipe and blade separately. While up to 41 different fatty acids were detected within a lipid fraction, the same 10 fatty acids predominated in all fractions in both stipe and blade. These predominating fatty acids constitutes more than 90% of the total fatty acid content in all the fractions, as shown in Figure 1. They are found in amounts varying from 0.65 to 1200 µg/g DW (Table 1). A fatty acid was classified as predominating if it was above 2% of the total fatty acid content, in at least one of the lipid fractions in either stipe or blade. These fatty acids correspond to those identified by others [9,14,17]. Schmid and Stengel [14] also identified C18:3n-6, at 1.2% in stipe and 5.5% in blade. Which differs from our results where C18:3n-6 is not above 2% in any of the blade lipid fractions. This could be due to geographical and/or seasonal variations. Only a maximum of two trans fatty acids, C14:1 trans-9 and C16:2 cis/trans-7,10, were identified in the samples, both in relatively low amounts (≤ 2.53 µg/g DW).
Show more

14 Read more

Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science

Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science

Saturated fatty acids (PA, SA) were detected in considerable level in perilla seed oils. PA and SA are some of the main fatty acids present in animals, vegetables and, human milk fats. Several controversies are there about health and adverse impact of PA and SA on human health, particularly about role of PA in CVD and carcinogenicity (Hunter et al., 2010; Fattore and Fanelli, 2013). Other than these fatty acids, some others were detected in perilla seed oil samples (Table 2). Even though, PA, SA and other saturated fatty acids are there in perilla, rich amount of almost 89 % of fatty acid content is made up of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats (ALA, LA, OA). Thus the nutrient quality, with respect to fatty acid content, of perilla seed was not compromised with any of the pre-treatments of current study.
Show more

8 Read more

Comparison of fatty acid and cholesterol content  of Pakistani water buffalo breeds

Comparison of fatty acid and cholesterol content of Pakistani water buffalo breeds

Present study evaluates the milk fatty acid (FA) composition and cholesterol content of two main Pakistani dairy breeds water buffaloes, i.e. Kundi and Nili-Ravi (n = 25 for each breed). The buffaloes were housed together and received the same diet. The results show a significant variation (P < 0.05) in the FA content of the two breeds. The milk fat of Kundi buffalo was found to contain significantly lower (P < 0.05) amount of saturated fatty acid content than Nili-Ravi buffaloes (66.96 and 69.09 g/100 g). Determined mean monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) contents (27.62 vs. 25.20 g/100g) and total trans fatty acids (3.48 vs. 2.48) were significantly elevated (P < 0.05) in the milk fat of Kundi buffaloes. Amount of fat and conjugated linoleic acid content was higher (P = 0.04) in Kundi buffalo as compared to Nili-Ravi buffaloes (7.00 vs. 7.78 g /100g and 0.80 vs. 0.71g / 100g), while cholesterol content was not different among both breeds ranging from 8.89 – 10.24 mg /dl. Present studies show that in future genetic selection programs along with altered buffalo nutrition may be able to result in optimum levels of various fatty acids in milk.
Show more

6 Read more

TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR 4 interacts with WRINKLED1 to mediate seed oil biosynthesis

TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR 4 interacts with WRINKLED1 to mediate seed oil biosynthesis

Empty vector (EV) was used as a control. C) Fatty acid content of seeds of WT and tcp4. E) Fatty acid content of seeds of WT and tcp2 tcp4 tcp10.. TCP4 repressed the transactivation a[r]

27 Read more

Comparison of sterols and fatty acids in two species of Ganoderma

Comparison of sterols and fatty acids in two species of Ganoderma

of fatty acids was higher in cluster II. Palmitic acid, lino- leic acid, oleic acid and stearic acid were the main fatty acids in Ganoderma, which were in accordance with the previous reports for G. lucidum spore [15,36]. It was reported that fatty acids from the spores of G. lucidum could inhibit tumor cell proliferation. Nonadecanoic acid (C19:0) showed the highest inhibitory activity, fol- lowed by heptadecanoic acid (C17:0), stearic acid (C18:0, SA) and palmitic acid (C16:0, PA) [20]. Actually, saturated fatty acids including SA and PA are proapop- totic agents [37]. Unsaturated fatty acids LoA and OA have been revealed their anticancer activities [38-42] by activating GPR40 [38] and inducing oxidant stress and mitochondrial dysfunction [42] in cancer cell lines. Therefore, the similarity of two species of Ganoderma in fatty acids may be related to their antitumoral prolif- eration effect.
Show more

8 Read more

Phytoconstituents and Nutritional Properties of the Fruits of Eleutherococcus divaricatus and Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus: A Study of Non-European Species Cultivated in Poland

Phytoconstituents and Nutritional Properties of the Fruits of Eleutherococcus divaricatus and Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus: A Study of Non-European Species Cultivated in Poland

Copyright © 2017 Daniel Załuski et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Eleutherococcus fruits have been consumed in Russia and Asia throughout the centuries. Currently, there is an increasing interest in these products by the community of Western Europe. Many people suffer from micronutrient deficiencies, known as malnutrition, which consequently influences body condition. The aim of this study was to investigate pharmaconutrition, proximate, mineral, and fatty acid composition, total phenolics content, and total flavonoids content of Eleutherococcus divaricatus and Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus fruits cultivated in Poland. Eleutherococcus divaricatus and E. sessiliflorus contain a high amount of protein and fibres (16.70% and 12.28%; 61.41% and 45.63%, resp.). The fruits were generally high in K (21 g/kg) and low in sodium (0.001 g/kg). In terms of fatty acid composition, both species had a high amount of monounsaturated fatty acids (54.84–57.95%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (36.22–37.0%). Using LC-ESI-MS/MS, protocatechuic acid has been identified as the most abundant compound, ranging from 260 to 810 𝜇g/100 g DE. Among flavonoids, hyperoside was found to be in the highest amount (120–780 𝜇g/100 g DE). Considering a rich chemical composition of the fruits, a better understanding of their health benefits is important in order to increase their utility and to enrich dietary sources of health promoting compounds. Because of a high amount of protein and a low calorific value, the fruits should be considered food for vegans or vegetarians.
Show more

8 Read more

INVESTIGATION OF PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND STORAGE CONDITIONS ON THE PROPERTIES OF EXTRACTED TIGER NUT OIL FROM DIFFERENT CULTIVARS

INVESTIGATION OF PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND STORAGE CONDITIONS ON THE PROPERTIES OF EXTRACTED TIGER NUT OIL FROM DIFFERENT CULTIVARS

The effect of storage on some of the physiochemical parameters (thiobarbituric acid TBA, free fatty acid, Peroxide value, Moisture content) analyzed for both the chips and oil samples showed that there was both increase and decrease during storage but they did not exceed the maximum limits as recommended by CODEX Alimentarius indicating that tiger nut oil is also a good oil and can play important roles in providing food security, enhancing livelihoods, improving nutritional status and social wellbeing of vulnerable groups. Tiger nuts and its products could thus, go a long way in aiding to alleviate problems of malnutrition.
Show more

6 Read more

Physico-chemical Properties and Assessment of Edible Oil Potential of Peanuts Grown in Kurram Agency, Parachinar

Physico-chemical Properties and Assessment of Edible Oil Potential of Peanuts Grown in Kurram Agency, Parachinar

Peanuts mainly consists of protein 22–30 % and oils 44–56 % providing high energy source of 5.64 cal/g [9, 10]. Peanut oil mainly composed of unsaturated fatty acids and is consequently susceptible to lipid oxidation [11]. The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids of peanuts has been reported as 1.8 compared to 2.9 for soybean oil, 4.3 for corn oil and 8.7 for sunflower oil [12]. Peanut oil principally contains less linoleic acid (a relatively unstable fatty acid) than other seed oils. Oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acids account for calcium. A total 90 % of the fatty acid profile of peanuts, although five other fatty acids are present in at least 1 % proportions [11].
Show more

7 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...