In most situations that require firstaid there will be no life-threatening danger, however a minor injury or illness can still create significant pain and anxiety and requires the nurse to adopt a calm and reassuring in manner in order to identify what is wrong, and to give the most appropriate treatment for that situation. Fractures and burns can be extremely painful and distressing and require urgent assessment and appropriate treatment to minimise further damage or pain to the victim.
In this article, the authors will propose a conceptual design to build a smart firstaid to provide medical services in real time, this design based to connect all people with a smart firstaid center to send an immediate medical intervention. Authors try to address the citizen needs by covering some previous articles to clarify the objectives, follow that identify the main and sub functions that satisfied the user needs, until reach to the domain stage of design.
Abstract: According to the world health organization census 92% of heart attack death occurs during the time of bringing the heart victims to the hospital. So far there is no other handheld firstaid device existing for heart attack. This paper introduces a novel Electronic Aider which provides FirstAid when a person is suffering from heart pain. Heart attack occurs when clots and fats blocks the blood flow in the narrowed artery. The device aims to create 150Hz controllable vibration which collapse the block temporarily in the blood vessels. Since, the tightly bonded block becomes loose, blood can flow through gaps and so pain decreases. Additionally, it has a compact defibrillator which can be used to provide electric shock safely when a person die unfortunately because of severe cardiac arrest. External defibrillators are medical devices that diagnose life-threatening abnormal heart rhythms, or cardiac arrhythmia, and treat them by delivering electrical pulses to the heart which will restore its normal rhythm. They are used in emergency situations to patients who have affected due to sudden cardiac arrest. When this device is used it first disrupts the block and saves life of people. The proposed E-Aider can be placed in every firstaid boxes that has substantial advantages like low cost, compact size and easy to use. The results obtained through the experiments prove that vibrations are capable of disturbing the block. In this paper, the conducted experiments results are analyzed and the description of electronic device is briefly reported.
a process or surgical steps. Medical Illustrators may even get into designing interactive flash cards for learning anatomy and also for the general public a series of basic firstaid animations depicting the correct way of administrating self-care. In an emergency situation these would be very beneficial to society, especially since more and more people are carrying video-capable cell phones and personal digital assistants. These devices provide immediate access to instructional animations, permitting effective treatment of time sensitive emergencies.
When University employees are stationed in remote locations such as research field stations or on field trips that are not served by a local jurisdiction emergency medical service, there must be at least two employees on-site at all times who have advanced first-aid training. Arrangements for advanced first-aid training can be made through EH&S at 206-543-7201.
In choosing materials for splinting, you are only limited by imagination: sleeping bags, foam pads (and they can be cut to fit the problem), extra clothing, and soft debris from the forest floor stuffed into extra clothing can all serve as splints. For rigidity, there are items such as sticks, tent poles, ski poles, ice axes, lightweight camping chairs, and internal and external pack frames. Lightweight commercial splints are available as additions to your first-aid kit. Splints can be secured in place with things like bandannas, strips of clothing, pack straps, belts, and rope. Useful items in your first-aid kit for securing splints include tape, elastic wraps, and roll gauze. Large triangular bandages are helpful in creating slings and swathes.
Casualties carried by manual means must be carefully and correctly handled, otherwise their injuries may become more serious or possibly fatal. Situation permitting, transport of a casualty should be organized and unhurried. Each movement should be performed as deliberately and gently as possible. Casualties should not be moved before the type and extent of injuries are evaluated and the required firstaid is administered. The exception to this occurs when the situation dictates immediate movement for safety purposes (for example, it may be necessary to remove a casualty from a burning vehicle); that is, the situation dictates that the urgency of casualty movement outweighs the need to administer firstaid. Manual carries are tiring for the bearers and involve the risk of increasing the severity of the casualty’s injury. In some instances, however, they are essential to save the casualty’s life. Although manual carries are accomplished by one or two bearers, the two- man carries are used whenever possible. They provide more comfort to the casualty, are less likely to aggravate his injuries, and are also less tiring for the bearers. The distance a casualty can be carried depends on many factors, such as—
Using just one of the many strategies mentioned previously, such as a Girls only ICT club, may be considered a short term first-aid solution. Longitudinal research should investigate the long term impact of these types of projects on the lack of participation by females in ICT at the tertiary level or in employment. However, perhaps without this project the female participants’ ICT confidence would have been below that of their male peers rather than on par with them. Independently, projects such as go gURLs may act as a motivator and improve attitudes and ICT skill base but there is need for a cohesive whole school, systemic or social vision regarding the barriers to girls’ participation in ICTs in an increasingly technology based society.
DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2018.612008 80 Journal of Biosciences and Medicines knowledge towards the key first-aid skills such as cardiopulmonary resuscita- tion (CPR). The pre-post efficacy study suggested that participants’ know- ledge as well as skills have been significantly improved after the workshop. The correctness rate of objective questions for CPR was raised from 68.4% to almost 100%; For Heimlich method, the accuracy rate was elevated about 2.4 fold. We also surveyed the social awareness among the participants. The ratio of people who are willing to take a leading role in emergency rescue at the ac- cidental site with the absence of medical professionals increased from 11.5% to 23.2%. To conclude, our study indicates that the one-day first-aid work- shop not only significantly improved students’ skills and knowledge, but also raised their social awareness. Therefore, there is an urgent need to implement first-aid education into the curriculum of WKU and other Chinese Universi- ties.
21 Employers are responsible for meeting the first-aid needs of their employees working away from the main site, for example those who travel regularly or who work elsewhere. The assessment should determine whether those who travel long distances or are continuously mobile should carry a personal first-aid kit. Organisations with employees who work in remote areas should consider making special arrangements such as issuing personal communicators and providing additional training. Where employees work alone, other means of summoning help, such as a mobile phone, may be useful to call for assistance in an emergency. Work patterns
Committee, must prepare and implement a written infectious disease plan for firstaid attendants who may be likely to be exposed to infectious materials when providing firstaid. The plan, its contents, implementation and review are required by Section 85 of the Regulations. The plan must address hazard and risk information, preventative measures and training. See the Regulation for more information on this requirement. 1
Results: Nearly 60% of the responders had witnessed more than two emergencies in the previous six months and 55% had actively participated in helping the injured person. The nature of the help was mainly by calling for an ambulance (41.5%), transporting the injured (19.7%) and consoling the victim (14.9%). Majority (78.1%) of the responders informed that they had run to the victim (42.4%) or had called for an ambulance. The predominant reason for not providing help was often the ‘fear of legal complications’ (30%) that would follow later. Significant number (81.4%) of respondents reported that they did not have adequate skills to manage an emergency and were willing to acquire knowledge and skills in firstaid to help victims.
6.1 ITC qualifications are for life but the license to practice is only for 3 years. Thus if the firstaid qualification is required as a unit for a larger qualification, the larger qualification will remain valid. If the qualification is required in its own right then it will have to be re-validated by attending another firstaid qualification training course.
Cooling a burn or scald may reduce oedema formation, infection rates, the depth of injury and the need for grafting, as well as inducing analgesia and promoting more rapid healing (2). Previous reviews of firstaid for burns and scalds (2, 37) have identified a large number of research articles dating back to 1956. These found that cooling of thermal burns with cold tap water immediately after the injury is sustained and continuing at least until pain is relieved is the most efficacious approach. Application of ice or ice water was found to lead to additional tissue injury (2). However many of these studies measured only short-term outcomes, such as effect on pain and oedema, and had not looked at the effects of different cooling strategies on re-epithelialisation (regrowth of damaged skin) and scar formation, which represent the most important outcomes to patients (37). In addition the optimum temperature and duration of cooling with water was unclear (2, 37). The most recent research has investigated the optimum temperature and duration of water cooling using porcine models and has measured important long term outcomes.
The present proportion of persons with firstaid train- ing was high compared to reports from Australia, New Zealand, USA, and Sweden that show proportions of 45–79% [15–19]. Our yearly overall training rate, at 6% of the population per year, was also high compared to a recent American study . We found that 54% of inter- viewees had received training within the last 5 years, which is higher than the rates of 25–37% in international literature [15, 17, 19]. Most prior studies have only ex- amined CPR training and cannot be directly compared. However most of the Norwegian FirstAid Council’s courses are centred on CPR, and; thus, most of the re- spondents with firstaid training likely had CPR training. It would be of interest for future studies to further inves- tigate the content (CPR, treatment of injuries, other con- ditions, and their relative proportions), mode (classic instruction, video-based, or other), and lengths of firstaid training offered to the populace.
As aid to remember the “ five-finger-rule ” to basic firstaid a poster was designed together with the participating children. Because of the fact that the children were not able to read written language, a poster of a hand with pictures for the five items was developed. The pictures were based on the children’s suggestions and the agree- ment to it from the group. This led to a poster mnemo- nic, which consists of both - written language and pictures. The content of this poster was reassessed in a discussion with the children seven months after the course and the children concluded to adapt the poster. Changes were that point four included two different types of telephones and that point five was expanded and should include both - an eye with tears and a hand, which illustrates to help and to comfort when somebody is crying (additional file 3 and figure 2).
basis of the aforementioned available data at this time, intramuscular injection of epinephrine into the lateral thigh seems to be the preferred route for therapy in first-aid treatment. Intravenous administration carries risks of dilution errors and dosing errors, and many of the serious adverse effects attributed to epinephrine have followed large overdoses given intravenously. This route of administration should be reserved for those with severe anaphylaxis that does not respond to intra- muscular epinephrine and/or individuals with anaphy- laxis who are being treated in hospital settings.
Use of IoT based devices and sensor is flourishing now a days in almost every vital domain including health care. Increasing demand for preliminary action on daily check up's such as blood pressure ,heart rate, fever ,urgent ECG monitoring due to increase in Heart Attack and other theft to human health need to be diagnose like a Firstaid treatment. Moreover, to justify the quantity of the Kit material available in FirstAid and to continuously monitor that, use of sensor can be implemented.system implements a low cost heart rate and body temperature monitoring system. As well as the quantity of medicines inside a Smart First-Aid System. This system is implemented in Android platform since Android devices are available. The device is portable and light weight so that it can be carried easily anywhere. Through this system it is possible to monitor the heart rate and body temperature continuously It is assumed that all the user of the system have a generalized knowledge to operate the FirstAid System without harming it.
4.4 School staff should not be involved in the general management of medical conditions unless a special arrangement is made by written agreement between staff, parents and the student’s doctor and ratified by the principal. (Refer to the Administration of Prescribed Medication, Catheters & Injections to Students ). Schools will also need to address firstaid/medical issues as they arise. It may be necessary to contact Injury Prevention & Management for advice. If a firstaid officer believes a patient requires an ambulance, the officer should not hesitate to call one.