GASTRIC ULCERATION

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TO ESTABLISH THE ULCEROGENIC POTENTIAL IF ANY, OF GINGER JUICE ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSCOE (ZINGIBERACEAE) ON IMPORTANT PARAMETERS OF GASTRIC ULCERATION

TO ESTABLISH THE ULCEROGENIC POTENTIAL IF ANY, OF GINGER JUICE ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSCOE (ZINGIBERACEAE) ON IMPORTANT PARAMETERS OF GASTRIC ULCERATION

The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of gastric-ulceration by ginger-juice (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) in rat. (A) Albino rats (n=6-12) were administered G.J at two doses (2ml & 4 ml/rat, p.o) as single administration and chronic treatment over period of 30 days. Following this assessment was done for possible gastric lesion. Effect of treatment with G.J acutely and chronically (30 days) administered, was assessed. Parameters used during assessment were total acidity, gastric volume & pH and ulcer index ‘UI’ (acute and chronic). Acute & chronic administration of G.J (2ml & 4ml/rat, p.o) caused an increase in pH and vol. of gastric content, a decrease in total acidity and no significant change in ulcer index.
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Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and gastric mucosa: is there a relation with gastric ulceration?

Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and gastric mucosa: is there a relation with gastric ulceration?

Both the design of our study and the results themselves, however, cannot lead to the conclusion of a definitive relation between fatty acid composition and gastric ulcer- ation status. In addition, it is known that when multiple comparisons are undertaken, there is an effective increase in the significance level. Adjusting for multiple compari- sons using the Bonferroni correction (adjusted alpha = 0.001), results in only C14:1n-9 c, C20:1, C16:2n-4 and C21:5n-3 remaining statistically significant at the unad- justed 5% level (Table 1). None of these fatty acids con- tributed more than 1% on average to the total fatty acid content. The biological relevance of the statistically signif- icant results is not clear. The role that CLO status may play in the relation between fatty acid composition and the presence of gastric ulceration could not be investigated (or accounted for in the statistical analysis) as 18 of the 19 subjects without a gastric ulcer from whom a gastric mucosal sample was taken, were CLO negative. Since it is known that H. pylori infection alters not only the gastric mucosal phosphatidylcholine content, but also its fatty acid composition, which may consequently cause the gas- tric mucosal barrier to weaken, further investigation is needed in order to clarify the relation of the fatty acid composition of the gastric mucosa to H. pylori coloniza- tion.
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Gastroprotective effect of Oxalis corniculata (whole plant) on experimentally induced gastric ulceration in Wistar rats

Gastroprotective effect of Oxalis corniculata (whole plant) on experimentally induced gastric ulceration in Wistar rats

The objective of the present study was to investigate the antiulcer activity of methanol extract of Oxalis corniculata (whole plant) using pylorus ligation and indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in Wistar rats. The extract was preliminary evaluated for acute oral toxicity test using Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines 423. Further, it was studied for antiulcer potential at the dose levels of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg. Ranitidine was used as a standard drug (100 mg/kg). Acid secretory parameters like gastric volume, pH, total acidity and free acidity were measured in pylorus ligation model, whereas numbers of ulcers, ulcers score and ulcer index was measured in pylorus ligated and indomethacin treated rats. Pretreatment of test extract significantly (p<0.05) decreased the gastric volume, total acidity, free acidity and increase in the pH of the gastric fluid in pylorus-ligated rats. It also showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in number of ulcers, ulcers score and ulcer index in pylorus ligated and indomethacin treated rats. Results of the study suggest that, the methanol extract of Oxalis corniculata possesses significant antisecretory and antiulcer effects and justify the traditional usage of this herb to treat peptic ulcers. Key words: Antiulcer, indomethacin, Oxalis corniculata, pylorus ligation, ranitidine
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Characterization of the non-glandular gastric region microbiota in Helicobacter suis-infected versus non-infected pigs identifies a potential role for Fusobacterium gastrosuis in gastric ulceration

Characterization of the non-glandular gastric region microbiota in Helicobacter suis-infected versus non-infected pigs identifies a potential role for Fusobacterium gastrosuis in gastric ulceration

Helicobacter suis has been associated with development of gastric ulcers in the non-glandular part of the porcine stomach, possibly by affecting gastric acid secretion and altering the gastric microbiota. Fusobacterium gastrosuis is highly abundant in the gastric microbiota of H. suis-infected pigs and it was hypothesized that this micro-organism could play a role in the development of gastric ulceration. The aim of this study was to obtain further insights in the influence of a naturally acquired H. suis infection on the microbiota of the non-glandular part of the porcine stomach and in the pathogenic potential of F. gastrosuis. Infection with H. suis influenced the relative abundance of several taxa at phylum, family, genus and species level. H. suis-infected pigs showed a significantly higher colonization rate of F. gastrosuis in the non-glandular gastric region compared to non-infected pigs. In vitro, viable F. gastrosuis strains as well as their lysate induced death of both gastric and oesophageal epithelial cell lines. These gastric cell death inducing bacterial components were heat-labile. Genomic analysis revealed that genes are present in the F. gastrosuis genome with sequence similarity to genes described in other Fusobacterium spp. that encode factors involved in adhesion, invasion and induction of cell death as well as in immune evasion. We hypothesize that, in a gastric environment altered by H. suis, colonization and invasion of the non-glandular porcine stomach region and production of epithelial cell death inducing metabolites by F. gastrosuis, play a role in gastric ulceration.
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Healing Potential of Picrorhiza kurroa (Scrofulariaceae) rhizomes against indomethacin induced gastric ulceration: a mechanistic exploration

Healing Potential of Picrorhiza kurroa (Scrofulariaceae) rhizomes against indomethacin induced gastric ulceration: a mechanistic exploration

The present study revealed that gastric ulceration in mice was associated with a marked increase in the mucosal EGF level. The increase is expected since ulcer healing would require more EGF for an effective signal transduction. However, the increase was significantly lesser compared to the PK-treated mice. In comparison, Omez altered the EGF level much less. The endogenous EGF level stimula- tion by PK is promising for its use as an anti-ulcer agent. Of the many growth factors, VEGF promotes endothelial proliferation and migration, and accelerate ulcer healing [35]. It promotes restoration of the connective tissue and microvessels (angiogenesis) in injured mucosa. Indomethacin inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation and release of the α-granule, which stores VEGF. Conse- quently, indomethacin treatment would reduce VEGF release. We also observed significantly reduced serum VEGF level due to ulceration that was reversed by PK, but much less by Omez.
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A Woman with Black Beads in Her Stomach: Severe Gastric Ulceration Caused by Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

A Woman with Black Beads in Her Stomach: Severe Gastric Ulceration Caused by Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

cous membranes were dry. Her abdominal exam was without tenderness, organomegaly, or masses. Rectal exam was negative for macroscopic and occult blood. Laboratory data (with normal values in parentheses) revealed a white blood cell count of 5.1 (4.5–11 × 10 9 /L); hemoglobin of 14.4 (12–15.5 g/dl); mean corpuscular volume of 86 (80– 96 fL/red cell); platelet count of 158,000 (150,000– 450,000/mm 3 ); blood urea nitrogen (BUN) of 17; creatinine (Cr) of 0.7 (BUN 6–20 mg/dL; Cr 0.6–1.2 mg/dL); AST of 48 (5–40 U/L); ALT of 35 (7–56 U/L); alkaline phosphatase of 215 (30–120 U/L); total bilirubin of 1.1 (0.2–1.2 mg/dL); albumin of 3.1 (3.5–5.5 g/dL); lipase of 68 (0–160 U/L); and CA 27–29 tumor marker of 599 (normal < 38 U/ml). CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis without contrast showed diffuse gastric antral thickening. UGI endoscopy showed diffuse, severe gastritis and extensive antral ul- ceration (Figure 1). Maroon blood and superficial duo- denal bulb ulcerations were also present; biopsies were taken. On histologic examination, black, spherical foreign bodies consistent with yttrium microspheres were visu- alized, documenting radiation-induced gastric ulceration. (Figures 2(a) and 2(b)). Biopsies were negative for Heli- cobacter pylori. She received a pantoprazole drip and symptomatic treatment for 72 hours. Since symptoms persisted and her oral intake was insufficient, a jejunos- tomy tube was placed on the 8th hospital day and enteral nutrition begun. She also received oral steroids. Symp- toms improved. She was discharged on the 25th hospital day on a steroid taper, liquid hydromorphone, lorazepam, ondansetron, and pantoprazole.
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Anti-Ulcerogenic Effects of Salmalia Malabarica in Gastric Ulceration – Pilot Study

Anti-Ulcerogenic Effects of Salmalia Malabarica in Gastric Ulceration – Pilot Study

Various factors are known to be involved in the generation of ROS, which play an important role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative mucosal le- sions. Flavonoids are usually attributed with their antioxidant activity, which might be involved in gastroprotection during ulcerogenesis. In our pre- liminary phytochemical analysis, we found that Salmalia malabarica also contains flavonoids. Li- gation-induced ulcer of the pyloric end of the du- odenum is an important method for the mea- surement of mean ulcer index in ulcerogenesis. It causes the accumulation of gastric juice in the stomach and this may result in an increase in total acid output, which is the root cause of ulcer [49]. Pyloric ligation-induced ulcers are suggested to be caused by autodigestion of mucosa by the gastric juice that leads to the loss of integrity of the muco- sal barrier by excessive acid-pepsin secretion [35]. The major cause of gastric ulceration in the liga- tion of the pyloric end model may be the stress- inducing secretion of HCl in excess amounts from the parietal cells, which ultimately leads to gastric ulcer. Extract of Salmalia malabarica in the pylor- ic ligation-induced model reduced the mean ulcer index in a dose dependent manner (Fig. 3) produc- ing a percentage of protection index of 68.94% and 79.84% at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively. We also noticed that Salmalia malabarica extract showed a significant reduction
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ImproWin® in the treatment of gastric ulceration of the squamous mucosa in trotting racehorses

ImproWin® in the treatment of gastric ulceration of the squamous mucosa in trotting racehorses

The horses were clinically examined and the ulcer endo- scopically verified and scored prior to start of treatment by one investigator (IRH). Prior to gastroscopy, food was withheld for 18–24 hours. Water was freely accessible up to the time of examination. A 3.3 meter videoendoscope c was passed and the stomach manually insufflated with air through a garden spraypump system attached to the bi- opsy channel in the endoscope until the internal stom- ach folds appeared flattened. Feed material adherent to the non-glandular mucosa was flushed away with water through a separate garden spraypump system so the entire non-glandular portion of the stomach could be visualised, including the greater curvature, the lesser curvature and the dorsal fundus. The number and the degree of ulcers of the non-glandular mucosa were recorded in accordance with the Equine Gastric Ulcer Council (EGUC) recom- mendations [21]. The glandular area of the stomach was not evaluated for the purpose of this study. Additionally, the degree of ulceration was recorded on a 10 cm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) by the investigator after each endo- scopic examination. The VAS is a subjective overall score of the ulcer severity marked on a continuous scale from 0–10, where 0 is no ulceration and 10 is the maximum score. This scale is validated in humans [24] but not in horses. In accordance with the prerandomisation code, the treatment was started the same day as the initial examin- ation. The treatment dose of ImproWin W and placebo b was 40 grams (50 ml) powder once a day mixed in the feed with water. In the few cases where the horses refused to eat the powder mixed into the food, the powder was mixed with water into a paste and given in a syringe by mouth. The horses were all trained as normal during the treatment period and they were allowed to participate in races.
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GASTROPROTECTIVE POTENTIAL OF BIOACTIVE FRACTION FROM LASIA SPINOSA RHIZOME ON EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED GASTRIC ULCERATION

GASTROPROTECTIVE POTENTIAL OF BIOACTIVE FRACTION FROM LASIA SPINOSA RHIZOME ON EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED GASTRIC ULCERATION

Increase in gastric motility, vagal over activity, mast cell degranulation 22 decreased gastric mucosal blood flow 23 and decreased prostaglandin syntheses are involved in genesis of stress induced ulcers 8 . The incidence of ethanol-induced ulcers is predominant in the glandular part of stomach was reported to stimulate the formation of leukotriene C 4 (LTC 4 ), mast cell secretary products and

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Folic Acid Supplementation Ameliorates Inflammation and Apoptosis in Ethanol Induced Gastric Ulceration in Rats

Folic Acid Supplementation Ameliorates Inflammation and Apoptosis in Ethanol Induced Gastric Ulceration in Rats

DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2017.512011 104 Journal of Biosciences and Medicines twenty-one days while omeprazole (Group Five) was given seven days prior to ulcer induction with 95% ethanol. Meanwhile, overall control rats (Group One) received distilled water, while ulcer control group (Group Two) received ethanol only. Groups Six and Seven had animals treated with folic acid (2 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg) for twenty-one days and omeprazole for the penultimate seven days re- spectively. The lesions formed one hour after ethanol administration. Gastric tissues selected for biochemical analysis were used freshly, while those for histo- pathology were stored in 10% formalin. All studies on animal experimentation were conducted in accordance with the current Animal Care Regulations and standards approved by the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR, 1996) and the experimental protocol approved by the Central Animal Facility And Ethics Committee of College of Health Sciences, Igbinedion University, Okada, Edo State, Nigeria.
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Evaluation of Antiulcerogenic Activity of Clerodendron Infortunatum Extract on Albino Rat Gastric Ulceration

Evaluation of Antiulcerogenic Activity of Clerodendron Infortunatum Extract on Albino Rat Gastric Ulceration

The gastric juice was collected 4 h after PL and centrifuged for 5 min at 2000 rpm. The volume of the supernatant is expressed as ml/100 g body weight while total acid output was determined by titrating with 0.01N NaOH, using phenolphthalein as indicator and is expressed either as µEq/ml for concentration or µEq/4 h for output. Peptic activity was estimated following the method of (Debnath et al., 1974) and expressed either as µmol of tyrosine/ml for concentration or µmol of tyrosine/4 h for output. Dissolved muco-substances were estimated in the 90% alcoholic precipitate precipitate of the gastric juice. Protein (Lowry et al., 1951), total hexoses, hexosamine, sialic acid and fucose, the constituents of the above dissolved muco-substances, were estimated (Sanyal et al., 1983). The results are expressed in µg/ml. The ratio of total carbohydrates (TC, sum of total hexoses, hexosamine, fucose and sialic acid) to protein (P) has been taken as the index of mucin activity (Sanyal et al., 1983). DNA content was estimated and
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Synthesis and anti inflammatory activity of novel aspirin and ibuprofen amide derivatives

Synthesis and anti inflammatory activity of novel aspirin and ibuprofen amide derivatives

The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most common therapeutic groups of agents used worldwide for the treatment of pain, fever and inflammation [1]. However, the usefulness of these agents is limited due to the higher incidences of the observed gastrointestinal (GI) damage that includes gastric ulceration, perforation and their associated complications [2]. These side effects are a result of two different mechanisms, where the first involves a local action comprising of a direct contact effect due to ion trapping mechanism that resulted from the acidic nature of these drugs and their behavior under the local moderately acidic or neutral condition of the stomach[3].The second mechanism which is considered as a key element in the NSAIDs-induced gastropathy is based on their generalized systemic action which follows their absorption and is related to their intrinsic effect in inhibiting the cyclooxygenases (an enzyme-dependent synthesis of prostaglandins that have gastro- protective properties) responsible for their desired anti-inflammatory activity [4]. Traditional
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LACK OF AWARENESS OF SELF MEDICATION LEADING TO GASTROINTESTINAL ULCER IN MANSEHRA CITY

LACK OF AWARENESS OF SELF MEDICATION LEADING TO GASTROINTESTINAL ULCER IN MANSEHRA CITY

The review of literature available on gastric ulceration due to self-medication reveals that more than half of the patients found in hospital gastroenterology department have developed gastric ulceration due to self-medication of NSAIDs particularly aspirin due to its high availability, efficacy and also its cost effectiveness (J. Hallas, 2009).

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Evaluation of Moringa oleifera Leaf Potential in the Prevention of Peptic Ulcer in Wistar Rats

Evaluation of Moringa oleifera Leaf Potential in the Prevention of Peptic Ulcer in Wistar Rats

This study is aimed at investigating the potential of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera leaf in the prevention of indomethacin-induced ulcer. To achieve this, thirty adult male rats of body weight between 150 and 200g were divided into six groups of five rats each. Group I was treated with 0.8mg/ml of Omeprazole for seven days. Group II was treated with a solution of 0.8 g/ml Moringa oleifera leaf for seven days, while group III received distilled water for seven days. This group served as the control group. Groups IV, V and VI were treated similarly as groups I, II and III respectively but were treated for fourteen days. Gastric ulceration was induced in the rats by the administration of 50 mg/kg indomethacin after pre-treatment with distilled water, omeprazole and Moringa oleifera leaf for 7 and 14 days respectively. Significant ulcer inhibition was produced in the groups treated with M. oleifera and Omeprazole when compared with control groups at p<0.05, but omeprazole-treated group showed greater ulcer inhibition (72.60 % and 74.29 %) when compared with the Moringa oleifera leaf-treated groups (53.43% and 57.58%) after 7 and 14 days respectively. This study showed that M. oleifera leaf possesses anti-ulcerogenic properties and can be used as herbal remedy for the prevention of peptic ulcers.
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Anti ulcer and gastro protective effects of fenugreek, ginger and peppermint oils in experimentally induced gastric ulcer in rats

Anti ulcer and gastro protective effects of fenugreek, ginger and peppermint oils in experimentally induced gastric ulcer in rats

Fenugreek oil is a waxy liquid pressed or distilled from the seeds of Trigonella feonum graecum. It was used for centuries across Asia and the Mediterranean area. This essential oil is rich in phytic acid, saponins and trigonelline as indicated in our results and identified compunds. These nutrients along with antioxidants endow fenugreek oil the power to fight viruses, cancers and free radicals which lead to aging as previously reported by Sauvare et al.(2000). The incidence of gastric ulceration, mean ulcer score and ulcer index were significantly decreased in group treated with fenugreek oil in dose 0.1 mg/100 gm and these results were more effective than group treated with a dose of 0.2ml/100gm and there was a significant increase of the preventive index. These results were similar to Atta et al.(2005) who investigated the effect of fenugreek oil, seeds and powder in experimentally induced ulcer in rats and found a significant improvement in the volume of gastric juice, total acidity of gastric juice and lesion score and this may be attributed due to its chemical constituents as reported in table. 8 and fig.8.
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A study of antimicrobial activity, acute toxicity and cytoprotective effect of a polyherbal extract in a rat ethanol HCl gastric ulcer model

A study of antimicrobial activity, acute toxicity and cytoprotective effect of a polyherbal extract in a rat ethanol HCl gastric ulcer model

Conclusion: The combined extract of the five plants exhibited a dose-dependent protective activity in the rat ethanol-HCl gastric ulcer model. The extracts also exhibited weak antibacterial activity against four Gram negative bacteria and low acute toxicity in mice and brine shrimps. Although the results support claims by traditional healers who use a decoction of the five plants for treatment of peptic ulcers, more models of gastric ulceration and proper animal toxicity studies are needed to validate possible clinical use of the polyherbal extract. It is also evident that the doses of the crude extracts showing protection of the gastric mucosa are too large for realistic translation to direct clinical application, but further studies using bioassay guided fractionation are important to either identify more practical fractions or active compound/s.
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 GASTROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF DELONIX REGIA FLOWERS IN EXPERIMENTAL INDUCED ULCER IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

 GASTROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF DELONIX REGIA FLOWERS IN EXPERIMENTAL INDUCED ULCER IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

The ethanolic extract of flowers of Delonix regia (leguminosae) was obtained and investigated for its gastro protective activity in experimental induced ulcer model. Pretreatment with 70% ethanolic extract of Delonix regia flowers at the doses (100, 250 and 500mg/kg.p.o) were administered through the oral route. The Antiulcer effect of ethanolic extract of Delonix regia flowers was studied in aspirin, alcohol and pylorus ligation induced gastric ulceration experimental models and the results were compared with that of lansoprazole (8mg/kg, p.o.) as reference standard drug. The various parameters like Ulcer index and percentage protection in all the models and gastric volume, pH of gastric juice, free acidity and total acidity in pylorus ligation induced gastric ulceration model were monitored. From the findings of our study, the ethanolic extract of flowers of Delonix regia showed gastroprotective effect of in a dose dependant manner.
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Gastroprotective Potential of Some Plants from Rutaceae Family: A Review

Gastroprotective Potential of Some Plants from Rutaceae Family: A Review

• The phytochemical analysis of Citrus lemon (CL) fruit bark essential oil indicate presence of limonene (LIM) and β-pinene (PIN). The gastroprotective mechanism activity along with mechanism of action of CL, LIM and PIN in ethanol and indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration was evaluated along with its in vitro anti- Helicobacter pylori activity. In ethanol model, CL and LIM demonstrated 100% of gastroprotection, while PIN did not exert effective gastroprotection. Similar results were found against indomethacin model. During in vitro studies, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were 125 µg/ml, 75 µg/ml and 500 µg/ml for CL, LIM and PIN respectively. The gastroprotective effect of CL and LIM was involved with increasing in mucus secretion, HSP-70 and VIP, but not with GSH, NO or SH compounds. CL gastroprotective mechanism was found to be involved with PGE 2
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D-002 (beeswax alcohols): Concurrent joint health benefits and gastroprotection

D-002 (beeswax alcohols): Concurrent joint health benefits and gastroprotection

The study demonstrated that oral treatment with D-002 (50 and 200 mg/kg), naproxen (10 and 25 mg/kg) and aspirin (150 and 300 mg/kg) lowered significantly and similarly granuloma weights in rats (≅40% as compared to the positive control group). Naproxen and aspirin, but not D-002, induced gastric ulceration in the rats. The combination therapies D-002 50 mg/kg+naproxen 10 mg/kg or D-002 50 mg/kg+aspirin 150 mg/kg did not cause greater antinflammatory effects than each monotherapy, but the ulcerative effects of naproxen 10 mg/kg and aspirin 150 mg/kg were reduced by about 69% when D-002 50 mg/kg was given together with them, which suggests that it reduced NSAIDs gastrotoxicity [66] . Other two studies investigated the
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Synthesis and anti inflammatory activity of novel Ketoprofen and
Ibuprofen derivatives

Synthesis and anti inflammatory activity of novel Ketoprofen and Ibuprofen derivatives

Indomethacin showed profound ulcero-genic effect while Rofecoxib showed mild toxic effect on the gastric mucosa this confirmed the gastric ulceration due to the inhibition ofCOX-1 enzyme [23].Compound3 showed maximal therapeutic anti-inflammatory with less ulcero-genic effect, while compound2 showed least ulcer index, these effects may be due to the presence of specific moieties (heterocyclic ring with 5- methyl or 5- methylthio in addition to carboxamide group that involved in synthesized compounds 1,2,3,4 ).These functional groups may be responsible forCOX-2 inhibition as in Meloxicam [24].
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