Purpose of the paper is to establish the emergence and evolution of a gender problematics from the foundations of classical philosophy, namely, from the phenomenon of will-to-truth as the spontaneous desire of man to under- stand the life. To achieve this purpose, the following tasks are solved: 1) to investigate the way in which philosophy constitutes itself; 2) to establish how the category of "sex" manifests, both in the natural and in the social contexts; 3) to determine the correlation of genderstudies and philosophy. Theoretical basis. If for the methodology of gen- der studies it is inherent to proceed from the contextuality and value foundations of knowledge, then in this paper gender is considered directly from the being-in-world, human presence. Originality. The distinction between will- to-truth and will-to-knowledge, conducted for the first time by Michel Foucault, is used as a method by which the ontological demand of sex (gender) is revealed. Conclusions. As a result of the study, it was found that scientific de- velopments in the field of gender issues in their subject matter are not mainly descended from subject sphere of clas- sical philosophy. Sex (gender) is not substantiated metaphysically, and it is ontical, not ontological attribute of the human kind; its presentation as the determining factor of the cultural history in context of femininity/masculinity dichotomy is biased. This quality is similar to Nietzsche’s will to power, i.e., determination of definite knowledge that is later used in legal, socio-political discourse, corrects language practice, determines scientific researches mak- ing them dependant on axiological component of culture. As the social justice problem is solved, gender as the sub- ject of social study loses its actuality.
What comes to the mind of an average Nigerian for instance, when gender is mentioned is altercations for equality between men and women or women’s wahala. The broad meaning of the concept seems to be a preserve of only those academics who deliberately study it and perhaps a few other learned Nigerians. For this reason, gender issues are greeted with a lot of skepticism domestically, politically, culturally and religiously. Even some women whose issues preponderate in genderstudies/discourses are bereft of the encompassing idea of gender in Africa and therefore misuse it and act absurdly. Sakue-Collins (2017) rightly states that “uncritical subscription to feminism has the potential to limit and derail genuine liberation” (p. 1). This cliché – gender has however brought about some changes in a very low pace. Much is however left to be desired in the journey so far, judging from international best practices and the Platform for Action on gender equality (discussed under terminologies above) by the United Nations. The struggle to achieve gender equality and break down gender stereotyping of women is on-going in Africa. In Nigeria, Chukwuma (1998) claims that the greatest problem to women’s struggles is “the strangle-hold of patriarchy” (p. 152). Religion has also played as much role as patriarchal culture in perpetuating gender disparity.
This lack of knowledge can be remedied by introducing theoretical insights from feminism, queer theory, postcolonial theory and theories of subjectification. This requires new frames for capturing how in organizations power, inequality and social identity are intertwined, become enmeshed and shape each other. Among many potential contributions the issue of hybrid, fluid and multiple identities and the political significance of identifying and linking internal organizational processes with external societal processes (Holvino, 2010) stand out. However, relationships between different social categories including race, sexuality, age, disability or class, and particularly how these intersect with each other and with gender, are rarely explored in MOT (Holvino, 2010; Special Issue of Organization, 2010, 17:1). This is somewhat surprising given that intersectionality is a central frame of analysis in contemporary genderstudies (Valentine, 2007), where earlier presumptions of the homogeneity of women’s experiences are now regarded as naïve and politically dangerous, and the importance of understanding the complexities of intra-categorical subject positions (McCall, 2005) acknowledged.
Rege (2010) has also suggested the significance of intersections of another critical pedagogy (African-American feminist pedagogies) that directly links with political commitment in ‘envisioning education as the practice of freedom and thus to challenge the assumed dichotomies of mind/body, public/private and reason/emotion’. As one views it, learning through such pedagogies should focus on solving the challenges that the structural inequalities pose. In this case, an assimilatory pedagogy needs to be elicited to structure the thinking of young minds so that they meet the challenges head-on and move beyond the structures that limit social progress. An assimilatory pedagogy focusing on praxis of Women’s/ GenderStudies can close the gap between theory and practice. This needs to be tackled by delimiting of spaces within the university ecosystem. Such a praxis also needs to be implemented at school level learning and should not be restricted to Women’s/ GenderStudies departments or WSCs only.
After heartfelt discussions among Faculty Affiliates and administrative supporters, EMU’s Women and GenderStudies Program voted to become a department. The approval process via faculty governance was reminiscent of the political struggle within the university to become a program. We listened to how we were now unneeded since women were already integrated into traditional disciplines. We were pilloried because we had no faculty but told that we could not hire faculty because we were not a department. We were hoisted on our petard of being too successful to warrant a change in the model. Nonetheless, the EMU Women’s and GenderStudies Program became the Department of Women’s and GenderStudies in 2009. We hired a full-time tenure track faculty member into the department in 2010. She is on track for tenure in the department, joining our now-tenured split appointment in Women’s and GenderStudies and Sociology. We incorporated a hybrid structure of faculty affiliates, called Department Members, who provide a required minimum of teaching and service to the department. We are searching for a permanent head tenured in the Department of Women’s and Gender to begin in 2013-14.
In this study, we investigate the research trend and characteristics of genderstudies by country using scientometric indicators. As a result of analysis, research achievements of the United States and some European countries were noticeable in the field of global women’s studies. The United States has played a leading role in terms of productivity, and the achievements of Sweden and the Netherlands, and Germany are remarkable when it comes to collaboration among countries and other disciplines. In particular, the influence and excellence of research publications in Sweden and the Netherlands were also identified by indicators such as EJR and MNCS.
Ruth Butler is Senior Lecturer in Applied Social Research. She teaches modules in research methods to Masters and PhD students from across the faculty, and a module on disability issues to second- and third-year undergraduates. She has research interests in social marginalisation and resistance processes (relative to disability and sexuality), social identities, disability politics and research methods. Adam Calverley is a Lecturer in Criminology and teaches both core undergraduate modules and postgraduate modules, including a specialist module on desistance from crime. His research interests include issues surrounding ‘life after punishment’ and stopping oﬀending; emotions and crime; and ethnicity and criminal justice. Suzanne Clisby is a social anthropologist and Lecturer in GenderStudies. She teaches ‘Poverty, Gender and Development’ and ‘Gender, Power and Politics in the Americas’. She is Director of the MA in Gender and Development and Coordinator of the GEMMA Masters programme (a joint European Masters degree in Women’s and GenderStudies). Research interests include gender issues in development, qualitative/participative methodologies, democratisation, ethnicity and indigenous peoples, with an area focus on Latin America.
This essay traces the evolution of Chinese women and genderstudies in academia since the 1970s through a discussion of a number of prominent Western-language book publications that reveal changing scholarly approaches and attitudes toward this subject. It makes evident that within several generations the ﬁ eld has developed from a study favoured by left-leaning academics to a subject fed by multi-disciplinary approaches and integral to China scholarship. The review demonstrates how researchers sought sources and means to expose the once-buried literary and artistic achievements of imperial era women while modern history and literary experts as well as anthropologists and other social scientists countered long-standing narratives of women ’ s oppression, and pursued alternative scenarios to show how Chinese men and women have transformed their culture and society. There is also attention given to publications about mascu- linity, same-sex cultures, and the one-child policy. The review concludes that more contact between Western and Chinese scho- lars on women and genderstudies will enrich and expand the dimensions of this ﬁ eld.
Postcolonial women writers foreground issues of female identity and its structures. It also brought forth social and political problems through the psychological explorations of the ‘woman’s condition.’ According to Mary John and Janaki Nair the question of modernity is framed on the middle class women. Her morality and her spirituality matters, as she embodies the custodian of the nation’s morality and symbolizes ‘Shakti.’ Thus her sexuality is virtually annihilated because of this pure idealism. Contemporary thinkers regarded gender identity to be fluid and never fixed. Queer writing and Queer theory perceived such concepts of identity as trans-gendering, Transvestitism, drag and camp, and other sexual identities. Homosexuals have been known as ‘Other’ of ‘normal’ heterosexual identities, thus they are reduced to the status of being gays.
Studies women’s experiences and cultural expressions, and the social, political and religious contexts which shape them. Explore a variety of regions and cultures in Africa which will allow us to recognize both the shared concerns and experiences of women across the continent as well as the differences between them attributable to social class, nationality, ethnicity, “race,” age, and sexual orientation.
Other Awards that May Be of Interest to Graduate Students in Women’s and GenderStudies lists awards that, while not directly or exclusively targeted at Women’s and GenderStudies proposals, emphasize themes and issues that are relevant to scholars of Women’s and GenderStudies. For example, the Harry Frank Guggenheim Dissertation Fellowship program would support research on domestic violence or anti-‐gay hate crimes. The Charlotte Newcombe Fellowship program would support research on ethical, religious, or cultural values as they relate to gender. The Villers and Wellstone Fellowships might be suitable for a scholar with interest in how gender relates to the issue of health care access. And so on. These programs accept applications from a wide range of disciplinary backgrounds, with an emphasis on humanities and social science or policy research.
The dominance model, a feminist oriented perspective, stresses that differences between men’s and women’s speech style arise because of the male’s dominance over women which persists in order to keep women subordinated to men. Associated with this paradigm are scholars such as Dale Spender (1981), Deborah Cameron (2003, 2006), and Pamela Fishman (1980, 1983), to name a few. Through the social inequality and patriarchy lenses, the proponents of dominance paradigm voiced their objection to cross-gender model of the difference camp. In a speech delivered at Leeds University entitled ‘Men are from Earth, Women are from Earth’ Deborah Cameron (2003, p. 145) while addressing John Gray’s book Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus (1992) clearly articulated the underlying premise for much of her work. She opines that “any difference in men’s and women’s way of communication is not natural and inevitable but cultural and political”. In her latest article (2010) Cameron argues that in mixed-sex conversations, women try to “disarm potential threats by displaying a submissive or non-provocative attitude while with other women it is rational to try to form protective alliances by displaying solidarity and mutual regard. Men are ‘less polite’ not because they cannot use these strategies, but because in most situations they feel no need to” (p. 185). She criticizes the ‘difference theorists’ for seeing childhood socialization as the most important gender constructing process. She (2006) believes that all versions of the myths regarding men’s/women’s different speech style share some or all of the following premises:
Taking into account the above mentioned differences in the political representation of women in the main state institutions in relation to men, we have to regard for a gender gap factor that is an indicator of how socially accepted and pre-determined roles within a society can act as determinants of main state structures. One of the earliest attempts that researchers used to unveil the reasons behind the gender gaps that were widespread in several spheres in society was by looking through the theory of glass ceiling. The concept of glass ceiling refers to the impossibility of women to progress higher than they already have in a number of professions because invisible obstacles prevent them from doing so even when they are ambitions and strong-willed (Lorber, 1994, n.p).As Martin and Lorber put it glass ceiling is described as “those artificial barriers based on attitudinal or organizational bias that prevent qualified individuals from advancing upward in their organization into management level positions” (1991, p.227). The existence of stereotypes plays an important role in shaping the way people think about what the roles of women and men are, and most of the time placing men as those who are deemed to rule the public, deal with politics, external affairs and leadership, while women are deemed to commit themselves to the other end, the private sphere, the family and the house-related regular duties which seem to be their primary link, leaving them less connected to professions and the public (Zamfirache, n.d, 177).
Gender and Private Security in Global Politics brings together key scholars from the fields of international relations, security studies, and genderstudies to argue that privatization of military security is a deeply gendered process. The chapters employ a variety of feminist perspectives, including critical, postcolonial, poststructuralist, and queer feminist perspectives, as well as a wide range of methodological approaches including ethnography, participant-observation, genealogy, and discourse analysis. This is the first book to develop an extended feminist analysis of private militaries and to draw on feminist concerns regarding power, justice and equality to consider how to reform and regulate private forces.
Abstract. In recent years genderstudies have become connected with language studies, because language reflects, records and transmits social, cultural and gender differences. Idioms in any language transfer underlying ideas, principles and values of this particular society or culture, so they are considered as the main source for genderstudies in linguistics. This paper deals with corpus-based studies of English idioms with gender components. The authors analyze the expression plane of English idioms and give a model representation of English gender-marked idioms. The method of identification of key lexical items has been applied. As a result, the dominant gender lexical items in English gender-marked idioms have been identified and ranked on the basis of their frequency. The authors have also revealed the most/least common gender components and gender oppositions in English idioms.
astonishingly extensive international progression, as Bruno Perreau remarks. 32 Judith Butler’s 1990 book Gender Trouble was translated into French in its entirety only in 2005, and Eve Sedgwick’s Epistemology of the Closet, also originally published in 1990, as late as in 2008. 33 Gender and queer studies are at this moment booming in several locations in France, but queer studies in literature are still quite unusual, queer studies in popular literature even more so, perhaps because literary history still predominates in departments of literature in France, as Michal Kryzkawski and Suzanna Szatanik propose. 34 The ongoing development of gender and queer studies in a number of well-known French universities and other higher education institutions, such as the Université Denis Diderot Paris 7, the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, the Université Saint-Denis Paris 8, the Université la Sorbonne Nouvelle – Paris 3, the Université Louis Lumière Lyon 2, and the Université Toulouse II – Le Mirail, mainly takes place in philosophy, feminist theory, sociology, political sciences, and linguistics. 35 Still, we must not forget that the Centre for Women’s and GenderStudies,
Abstract In this study, primary school fourth-grade students’ success in a social studies course, general academic success, and motivations towards the social studies course have been investigated as to explore whether differences exist from a gender perspective. A correlation survey method has been employed. Participants of the study include 504 girls and 476 boys for a total of 980 students from eleven public and two private schools located in Canakkale Provincial School District. Data has been gathered through the use of the "Social Studies Course Motivation Scale" developed by Tahiroğlu ve Aktepe (2017) and a "Personal Information Form". This study concluded that primary school fourth grade students’ general motivation scores concerning social studies course success and associated sub-factors as "agree/ definitely agree" level. A significant relationship has been determined between primary school fourth grade students’ GPA and social studies success, GPA and general motivation scores towards social studies course, success in social studies and general total scores of motivations towards social studies. While there has been a significant difference in general motivation scores towards of social studies course and GPA in favour of girls, no significant difference has been found in social studies success scores between male and female students.
Results: Twelve thousand five hundred four GDM-related publications were identified and analyzed. The USA (4295 publications) and the UK (1354 publications) dominated the field concerning research activity, overall citations and country-specific Hirsch-Index, which quantified the impact of a country ’ s published research on the scientific community. Semi-qualitative indices such as country-specific citation rates ranked New Zealand and the UK at top positions. Annual collaborative publications increased steeply between the years 1990 and 2012 (71 to 1157 respectively). Subject category analysis pointed to a minor interest of public health issues in GDM research. Gender analysis in terms of publication authorship revealed a clear dominance of the male gender until 2005; then a trend towards gender equity started and the activity of female scientists grew visibly in many countries. The country- specific gender analysis revealed large differences, i.e. female scientists dominated the scientific output in the USA, whereas the majority of research was published by male authors in countries such as Japan.
Results: In total, 4,870 patients (46% females, 54% males) were included in the analysis; age was higher for females (mean ± standard deviation 61.2±18.3 years) than males (56.3±16.6 years). Overall, 264 AEs were reported (59.1% in males). There were no significant gender differences in the percentage of patients with at least one AE: 3.0% for females versus 3.9% for males, χ² test P.0.05. According to the logistic regression model results, no association between gender and AEs occurrence seems to exist. A statistically significant gender difference in the percent- age of drug-related AEs emerged (37.6% in females vs 20.8% in males, χ² P=0.0039). Slightly significantly more AEs in females were addressed with treatment compared with males (78.1% vs 66.7%, χ² P=0.0485). Total serious AEs (SAEs) were 47 (72% in males). The frequency of patients with $1 SAE was 0.6% in females versus 1.2% in males (χ² test P=0.0246).
These varied findings on access to health services may be explained by varying gender roles and relations across societies, and the gender dynamics of decision-making and access to financial resources. Social customs too can affect the treatment-seeking behaviour of women and men and their access to health services. In Tigray, Ethiopia, focus groups revealed that women are reluctant to see male health workers for cultural reasons, and this may contribute to underreporting of malaria cases among women in the study area. (18)