First, in the light of the 2014 GlobalTerrorism Index (GTI, 2014), terrorism has been rising in scope and scale across the globe. Such a rise has been facilitated by negative externalities from the 2011 Arab Spring. Some stylized facts are worth highlighting to substantiate the perspective (Asongu & Nwachukwu, 2016a). Libya has become a failed State in the post-Gaddafi era because there are many rebel groups vying to: (i) determine the law of the land and (ii) take decisions that will steer the country to a new development course. The situation in Yemen has deteriorated owing to a proxy war between Saudi Arabia and Iran who are supporting opposing factions of the war. The Boko Haram of Nigeria has been extending its activities to neighboring countries like Cameroon, Chad and Niger. The war in Syria has led to fragile political situations in neighboring countries like Lebanon and Iraq on the one hand and on the other, the birth of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). The ramifications of ISIL have had far-reaching consequences, notably, the: December 2014 Sydney-Australian hostage crisis; failed Australian attack in February 2015; foiled January 2015 Vervier attacks in Belgium and the 2015 “Charlie Hebdo” attacks in Paris -France.
This research paper is an attempt to investigate the phenomenon of globalterrorism and its threats to the states security. The study clarifies the concept of terrorism and it its definition, then the categories of terrorism. Next, it shows how terrorism became a global phenomenon through the historical overview of international terrorism and the theories explaining it and its current situation. The causes of international terrorism are the economic cause, social cause, religions cause, political cause and other causes. The study investigated the effects of international terrorism and its implications on international peace, states security and what had been done yet internationally in fighting terrorism. The study analyses the causes and the theoretical frameworks that stand behind the phenomenon. The study recommended to face the international terrorism through developing national strategies and strengthening international, regional and bilateral cooperation and coordination with the international counter-terrorism system in the context of the resolutions of the UN and building national intellectual system to confront terrorism and solving the major political conflicts which have direct impact on the terrorism.
tells us that Taxhill, his stepson has been gone for more than six months and is suspected to be somewhere in Somalia (Crossbones, 34). Taxhill represents the growing trend among the Somali youth to join the self-declared religionist movement. In an earlier rumor, the runaway youth is spotted in Kismayo, a Coastal City that is the hands of Shabab and deemed too dangerous to visit (Crossbones, 36). Nuruddin, uses the character of Taxhill to expose the reality of globalterrorism. He raises serious questions in regard to what motivates youths in comfortable zones of life to join terror organizations. Taxhill being a Somali-American is expected to jealously safeguard his new found American heritage. However, his decision to joine Shabab refreshes the narrative of globalterrorism. Nuruddin posits the intrigues that underpins radicalization. He succinctly exposes the paradoxes that describes the allure of radicalization. Taxhill’s emigration to Kismayo which is billed by the United States Security department as the most dangerous part of Somalia by underscores the strong network of Shabab group. Nuruddin, further in the constructions of Taxhill recruitment to Shabab movement mirrors the soft underbelly of security system. The United States of America often boasts of a formidable security structure coupled with stringent cross boarder policies. Nurrudin, scorns the American doctrine of antiterrorism and asserts that America has aided the process of radicalization. Nuruddin, lays bare the weakness of American policy that preach for equality among human races but at the same time perpetuates covert enterprise of racial tensions. The American preaching about human fairness is seen as an overt hypocritical public relation exercise. Beneath the American outward projection
In this study, I examined the entire population of U.S. domestic terrorist incidents identified in the GTD from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 2017. Using the same model and analysis used by LaFree, Dugan, and Korte (2009) to analyze terrorism in Northern Ireland in relation to British government intervention, I used the series hazard model to examine the impact that five U.S. counterterrorism policies have had on domestic terrorism. Berkebile (2017) identified the specific method by which the GTD could be filtered to only include domestic terrorist events. The availability of the GTD, its use by other scholars investigating terrorism, and the transparency with which the database authors communicate their methods were the factors that influenced my decision to use the GTD as the primary data source for this study. The U.S. counterterrorism policies that I selected were a purposive sample of policies that included elements that may impact domestic terrorist activity and those that received media attention. Therefore, applying an established statistical analysis and model for evaluating governmental intervention on terrorist activity to the United States was a logical next step in examining U.S. domestic terrorism.
Baker notes that it is usually accepted that terrorism cannot be fought by military means alone 241 , since military operations can create more enemies than they get rid of. This is particularly true today, where the dar al-Islam is no longer restricted to a specific geographical region. Unlike during Ibn Abd al-Wahhab’s lifetime, differing interpretations of Islam, including Wahhabi Islam, now have more means than ever before to find followers across the globe rather than just in their native geographical areas. Indeed, the importance of the globalisation of communications, especially the internet, means that the dar al-Islam occupies just as important a space in the virtual world than it does in the physical world. This has meant that official ulema are increasingly losing control of Islamic education and knowledge transmission. The dynamic nature of many terrorist networks, which employ these most modern of technologies is especially difficult to tackle. Websites dedicated to spreading the message of terrorist groups are almost impossible to regulate, since when one is removed another can merely take its place. Modern terrorism is therefore much harder to track down and eliminate, since it relies far less on a physical presence in the world, and depends instead on a virtual one. The abundance of radical material on the internet, written by unqualified and often misinformed people, is one of the most worrying issues in the fight against terrorism. One solution may be for mosques to reclaim their traditional place as educational and socialising institutions, particularly in urban areas with large populations of young and disaffected Muslims. Providing a mainstream alternative to an internet-focused Islamic education, and tackling head on the issues on radical websites could help to demonstrate to young people how the majority of these most extreme views have no sanction in Islam. Engaging with the radicals’ debate, rather than shying away from it, should be the first step to refuting their claims and thus loosening their hold on the discourse. Another equally important primary stage of eliminating terrorism is to try and stamp out the initial causes of radicalism. These underlying issues may be social, economic or political in nature. Whereas the terrorist acts carried out in the 1980s and 1990s, by groups such as Egyptian Islamic Jihad and the Armed Islamic Group of Algeria
The economic strains and monetary setbacks do play significant role in igniting the spark of terrorism.“Multiple scholars have found a strong link between poverty and terrorism.” “In view of the 70% adult unemployment rate in Gaza, the GDP of less than $1,000 throughout the Palestinian Territories, the very limited economic opportunities due to the unsettled Israeli– Palestinian conflict, and the cultural prominence of the male wage-earner role, it is easy to allude to the possibility that relative deprivation has helped trigger Palestinian terrorism.” “Another historical case of relative deprivation can be seen in Peru, when the popularity of the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) in the 1960s, where government economic restructurings initially gave hope but then failed.”
On December 7, 1941 the then-president of the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt delivered his ‘Day of Infamy’ speech after the attacks on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese army. There is a striking resemblance with the speech that president Bush Jr. held sixty years later after the attacks on September 11, 2001. Both speeches spoke of an aggressor that deliberately attacked the United States people and soil and consequently the American way of living. President Roosevelt uttered in his speech that: “our people, and our territory and our interests are in grave danger”. Furthermore, he says: “Japan has, therefore, undertaken a surprise offensive extending throughout the Pacific area. The facts of yesterday and today speak for themselves. The people of the United States have already formed their opinions and well understand the implications to the very life and safety of our nation” (Soccodato, 2018, p.6). Roosevelt’s narrative had a clear victim, the United States, and one clear aggressor state, Japan. In Bush’s speech there are clear parallels, one of them appears in the opening statement: “Today, our fellow citizens, our way of life, our very freedom came under attack in a series of deliberate and deadly terrorist attacks”. He continues by saying: “These acts of mass murder were intended to frighten our nation into chaos and retreat. But they have failed; our country is strong.” In regard to constructing the evil other, Bush said: “The search is underway for those who are behind these evil acts. (…) We will make no distinction between the terrorists who committed these acts and those who harbor them”. At the end, he claims: “we stand together to win the war against terrorism” (Soccodato, 2018, p. 5). It is precisely that last sentence that forms the introduction to the central theme of the thesis, as it marked the starting point of the War on Terror. The attacks of September 11, 2001 differed from the attacks on Pearl Harbor, as the construction of the ‘other’ could not be tied down to one state. The War on Terror far extended beyond the actual terrorists and affiliated associations that executed the attacks and evolved into a global conflict. The changed discourse of terror caused the FARC’s image to shift from guerrilla group to terrorist organization, as exemplified in Plan Colombia.
The European Commission's Communication to the European Parliament and the Council of the EU on Enhancing the Fight against Terrorism presents the international dimension of the Union's approach to the phenomenon: "As terrorism is a global phenomenon, the EU cooperates closely with partner countries international organizations on anti-terrorism legislation, law enforcement and judicial cooperation ... This cooperation has mainly resulted in agreements with the United States and Canada on the transfer of Passenger Name Record (PNR) data, which allows for better identifying terrorist threats to security, while ensuring the protection of personal data. 15
This correlation is analysed using a linear model. Moreover there is another notion on the religion-base of terrorism activities. Migration is always an event in response. The generator event can vary. The proliferation of migration depends on the sweep of the generator event. The proportion of population affected by the event, the geographical nearness of neighboring countries, the age of the affected population, the education level of the citizens, the impact level of the incident etc are just a few parameters that decide the extend of exodus. The Diaspora can also be the result of forced displacement rather than voluntary shift. The migration policies of different countries can also be a driving factor. In those countries where poverty is the stimulation behind migration, the former can be the result of corruption, lack of education, epidemic diseases, population, unemployment, debt, poor administration etc. When the causes of migration remain unpredicted it is necessary to scrutinize the recent newspaper reports from Syria. The country has seen its highest migration rates after the Syrian civil war, ie approximately 13.5 million migrants as estimated by the United Nations Organization in 2016.This study is a clear report on migration as a brunt of terrorism. As per the 2016 GlobalTerrorism Index, Iraq is the country with maximum number of terrorism incidents. According to the list of countries with net migration rate, produced by the World Bank, the migration rate of Iraq is 16.65% which is a high index on the list. The confluence of the above mentioned indices show that there is a correlation between terrorism and world-wide migration. The study aims to find this extend of migration.
The outcome variable is the globalterrorism index (GTI) from GTI (2014). This main outcome variable is decomposed into four terrorism externalities, namely: terrorism fatalities, terrorism incidents, terrorism injuries and terrorism-related property damages. Accordingly, the terrorism externalities are the four components of the GTI used as the main outcome variable. Consistent with recent literature on conflicts, crimes, violence and terrorism (Blanco & Grier, 2009; Freytag et al., 2011; GPI, 2016; Asongu & Kodila-Tedika, 2016, 2017; Asongu et al., 2018c; Asongu & Nwachukwu, 2018), the study adopts four non-dummy and two dummy control variables, namely: access to weapons, violent crime, conflict intensity, political instability, low income countries and South Asian nations. The first-four are non- dummy variables while the last-two are dummy variables. From intuition and corresponding literature motivating the choice of the control variables, a positive relationship is expected between non-dummy variables and terrorism because these variables reflect risk factors that fuel terrorism and associated externalities. The dummy variables are used to control for the unobserved heterogeneity.
This narrower approach, as we have argued earlier, may, in keeping with international norms, be borne of a general desire to protect civilians and ‘protected persons’ from all forms of political conflict. Contrary to the purpose-based approach to the definition of terrorism proposed in this article, this represents a moral victim-based approach. If we agree, however, that the essence of terrorism lies in its primary intent to generate a psychological impact beyond the immediate victims then, based on this, terrorism can be carried out against both non-combatant and combatant targets. It is then another question as to which forms of terrorism (based on target differentiation) should be of more concern to policymakers than others. Were not, for example, many of the ‘combatant’ targets of the IRA victims of terrorism, providing the aim was to generate a psychological impact beyond the immediate casualties? Terrorism can be carried out against anyone, providing the victims or object of attack serve sufficiently as ‘message generators’ to a wider group or audience.
DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2018.811041 696 Advances in Applied Sociology a way of underscoring the fact that terrorism is unAfrican and anti-African and its ideals and therefore, should be repudiated by the Africans. There is a great necessity for reinventing veritable cultural values and proper family upbringing in line with the principle that says “train a child in a way that he should go then when he grows up, he will not depart from it”. Though cultural values differ and what family hold in esteem cannot be universalized, there are basic requirement for healthy and human relationship which this paper may not have discussed because of the ambient of the paper as a philosophical discuss. This other as- pects, I hope, could be further explored for the betterment of man and healthy human relationship.
In order not to make an exhaustive historical analysis, we depart from the last decades of the 19th century, when global capitalism entered a new phase marked by liberal principles such as 'unregulated markets' and 'free competition.' One of its main characteristics refers to the colonial expansion, aimed to open up new markets for consumer goods and investments and to obtain raw materials to fuel industrial expansion in the center. “Between 1876 and 1915, about one quarter of the globe‟s land surface was distributed or redistributed as colonies among a half- dozen states.” Britain, France, Belgium, Germany, Italy and the US organized a territorial division of the world “into a set of formal and informal colonies and spheres of influence” (Hobsbawm 1989: 59-61).
PROBABILITY OF SUCCESS: Such a probability depends on the mindset of people, i.e., whether people would continue to call state actors oppressing injustice as heroes and non-state actors doing the same as terrorists. However, Teichman in his book Pacifism and the Just War concludes that the historical evidence on the effectiveness of terrorism is both ambiguous and incomplete. And Baier in an essay named „Violent Demonstrations’ found in the book Ethical Issues suggests that, at the least, “the prospects for the success of a cause do not seem in the past to have been reduced by resort to unauthorized force, by violent demonstrations that cost some innocent lives. Finally Wilkins as found in John Davenport‟s article „Just War Theory, Humanitarian Intervention, and the need for a Democratic Federation’ in the Journal of Ethics is found to believe that some terrorist campaigns have indeed accomplished their goal of national independence and cities Algeria and Kenya as examples.