Dukor (2010) explains the ambiguity among scholars who have either written on humanism but it also extends to thought and the belief of many others who had faith in humanism without being conscious of the word humanism to designate their belief. The influence from ancient Greek philosophy to contemporary view point created room for discordant voices. Man is unique in religion, revelation and in humanism. Man is the centre point and ends in man. The reference point is not God but the material. Dukor (2010) explains that “humanists have consistently used scientific advances to justify their claims because scientific discoveries explain more and more about the natural world. So living less and less for supernatural explana- tions to get away with (p. 68). This man-centered philosophy has been queried for not recognizing God as transcending the universe, God’s immanence, created order and nearness to man than life itself. It is a philosophical fact that God expresses Himself in values that are discoverable by man in experience. In a globalizedworld, with different philosophies of life, ide- ologies and systems, God is at least personal and at least con- scious mind and he is both beyond the universe and immanent in it. The inability to accept this reality explains the rigidity of the humanists especially of scientific class to other forms of humanism such as Christian humanism and African humanism. Humanism according to Umezinwa (2009) recognizes and venerates the existence and powers of humans. It’s extreme form goes without a consideration for the supernatural. As a consequence, the idea of a creator God and the spirit of man are not considered real. On the other hand, if God exists, He is too weak to make impact on man and society in a globalizedworld.
Foreign language skills as the ultimate 21st century global competency: Empowerment in a globalizedworld The second challenge -- creating and sustaining motivation -- is closely related to the first. Motivation can be considered as extrinsic, or based on outside forces and rewards, or intrinsic, or coming from within, and intrinsic motivation has been associated with the best foreign language learning outcomes. Foreign language advocacy plays an important role in effectively addressing both these challenges. Often serving on the front line of language learning and advocacy initiatives, these advocates can, and should, serve as both content experts and sources of motivation when learner motivation may begin to decline. However, motivation needs to be sustained, even though those periods when progress in learning a language can seem to be slow, or to reach a plateau. This is the time when foreign language advocates inside and outside the classroom need to work together in partnership to sustain motivation so that learners stay the course and can reach advanced levels, proficiency, and fluency. Special attention must also be given to local language communities and to programs for heritage language speakers, as heritage language speakers often reflect the local community and may be able to achieve the strongest learning outcomes. This is a time when stakeholder partnerships matter.
This is a genuine Christian approach and fundamental to the understanding of the church. Joining hands with fellow Christians all over the world within the Conciliar movement and also with other religions (a challenge to the mono- cultures). This is truly ecumenical. The community- forming nature of the church is critical to the individualistic, secularized and estranged world under the influence of Western society. In its community- forming nature it is especially called to stand in an advocacy way in solidarity with the poor and the marginalized in order to protect, to defend, to empower and to wrought justice for the poor. The church with the true “common good” in mind, is called to act in partnership with other role players in society for the sake of humanity’s “salvation” or wellness. The church will rationally and purposefully join other role-players and stakeholders in society in order to improve the quality of life in society. In this process the church retains its prophetic voice but does not neglect its diaconic role (John 13: 4-12). Of course it will always remain a question of how the church engages the public sphere with all these modern challenges? What mode of church do we need for today’s challenges and especially for its witness and ministry in the public sphere? It should be remembered that in Development ministry there are Churches on each side of the divide: Rich and poor, North and South. The question of our involvement is about attitude and policies. Important is the value of human dignity before God, and therefore the following issues are of crucial importance;
To understand this, it is good to focus on the world cities. For the first time in history, most of the human populations inhabit urban areas (Rapley, 2008, p. 158). European and world's national governments maintain immigration policies which limit the flow of populations from Third World to First World cities (Rapley, 2008, p. 158). The migrations has caused not few problems. Many migrants coming from the Middle East are pernicious. Because of the similarity to the political structures emerged in much of the Western Europe after the fall of Rome, these types of structural criminal groups have been called as neo-medieval (Rapley, 2008, p. 158). The so-called neo-medievalism has been so far confined to the first world but this does not mean that it will not spread. If we dare to make a comparison with antiquity, when the Rome began to break, the nobility started to make allegiance with the war lords of the East. This has happened even today. We have different European political leaders that aligned themselves with the "eternal sultans" of the third world, compromising their reputation. The most visible allegiance was between former French president Nicolas Sarkozy and Libyan dictator Ghadafi. The Libyan regime supported the presidential electoral campaign of Sarkozy with an amount of 50 million Euros (Faligot et al. (2012, p. 644).
Gupta (2000) contends that global environmentalism is part of a qualitative transformation of the world economy whose ramifications go beyond mere intensification of existing trends. It foreshadows the creation of a set of institutions and practices that make up, in Foucauldian terms, a new technology of government. He also says that to talk about these changes entirely in terms of geographical expansion of capitalism is to thus underspecify what is distinctive about the world order. Efforts to push a binding treaty that would mandate conservation failed, owing to strenuous opposition from Brazil, India, and Malaysia. If signed, it would result in international pressure on the Indian government to limit access to firewood, which would raise the price of cooking fuel, and would raise prices for oil based chemical fertilizers. In 1937, George Orwell observed that bourgeois socialists were prepared to demand the death of capitalism and the destruction of the British Empire only because they knew that these things were unlikely to happen. The economic formula has not changed much in the last seven decades. The inhabitants of the first world owe their prosperity, comparative comfort and high physical quality of life indicators and their GDP to the inordinate power that their governments wield, the inordinate wealth that flows from that power. Accepting the need for global democracy would mean accepting the loss of this power to ensure that the world is not run for the benefit of the rich. The commonality among the approaches of domination and exploitation whether it was extermination in the Americas, colonization of India, ‘development’ by the World Bank and the present day mantra of globalization, all these start with depriving the poorest of the world, of their basic security in food and medicine and their livelihood.
A more critical and deeper definition of cosmopolitanism is part of a challenge to the apparently irresistible and totalizing force of globalization; such challenges draw attention to the local concreteness of ‘world problems’ which are grounded in the specifics of a location in the here and now (Beck, 1996), to the two-way interchanges which occur at the margins of global and local (Tsing, 1994; Marston et al., 2005), and to the organized resistance of those who are excluded or subordinated in the global market (Santos, 2006). Concreteness, local-global interchange, and resistance are reflected in vernacular cosmopolitanism, one “that is aware of the limitations of any one culture or any one identity and that is radically aware of its insufficiency in governing a wider society, but which nevertheless is not prepared to rescind its claims to the traces of difference, which makes its life important” (Hall, 2002, p. 30). It is reflected in resistant subaltern and ‘abject’ cosmopolitanisms which set out to disrupt the idea of cosmopolitanism as a global ‘god’s eye view’ (Gunew, 2013, p. 145), resistance described as insurgent cosmopolitanism (Santos, 2006, p. 397).
The world is approaching towards a global culture, void of the cultural diversity, and the spreading of the standards across the cultures of various nations through trade, travel, and communication are shaping the way people think and act. Hence, a significant number of the Earth’s inhabitants are expected to hold similar (if not identical) set of values, norms, and expectations that guide their lives. David Jacobson (2012) indicates that "global culture is the next frontier. We are witnessing the beginnings of what will be a lengthy struggle to shape global values. The violent protests and debates over free speech that recently convulsed many countries will turn out to be but one episode..... as globalization has knitted the world into a singular space, including media, the Internet and the flow of markets, so we are shifting to a global context in the debate over cultural values. Increasingly, different parties will be seeking to determine the foundations of global norms". It is, foremost, an imperative task to specify the very definition of 'global culture' and delineate what the term 'social values' indicates. Ken Browne (2005, p.36) defines Global culture as "the way cultures in different countries of the world have become more alike, sharing increasingly similar consumer products and ways of life". He indicates that globalization has impaired the national and local cultures and contributed to rising of a culture on a global scale. The term 'Social values' is far more complex to define as it integrates a lot of social facets into it. These are the values that are considered important to the society as it affects the decision- making process (Whitty & Littlejohns, 2015). Simply, 'social values' are the goals or ends that any society sets for its mem-bers to aim for. These are the stable preferences for certain patterns of outcome distributions to oneself and others in situations of social interdependence (Beggan & Allison, 1994).
The modern madrasa system originated in Eastern Iran in the tenth century and spread to major urban centers throughout the Middle East by the late eleventh century. The architect of the madrasa as a state-sponsored institution of higher education was Nizam al-Mulk (died 1092 C.E.), the prime minister of the Seljuk empire. These residential colleges were designed by the ruling elite both as a training ground for state bureaucrats and as a Sunni Islam response to the propaganda of Ismaili Shiʿism w at al-Azhar, the theological learning center founded by the Fatimid dynasty in Cairo in 969 C.E. As part of a Sunni Muslim religio- political agenda, the madrasa spread throughout the Islamic world. The madrasa system augmented already extant mosque-centered training sites for the study of religion and law. Unlike these centers, the madrasa forged links between the ulama, the religious scholars who directed Islamic education, and the ruling government authorities whose financial support made their control of the madrasa possible.
'embodiments of culture' which has the capacity to come of age with the onset of transformation. India has got many interesting, and stimulating stories and legends related to the life of women and their world. Such narratives of the feminine world may be used for the teaching of English and the Social Sciences and this teaching, thus, will serve the following purposes:
The assumptions that a particular national economy functions in at least partial isolation from the rest of the world and the national government is fully sovereign in many important economic policy areas affected a large number of theoretical models and practical policy recommendations related, for example, to monetary and fiscal policies, demand management, counter-cyclical fine tuning, domestic income redistribution, external balances, etc. This assumption was not always explicitly articulated or even realized fully by individual authors but just implicitly accepted or taken as given. One of the best examples relates to the implicit assumption that a national monetary authority has a full and effective monopoly in issuing money and is able to prevent economic agents from currency substitution, an assumption which has become increasingly irrelevant in the era of globalization (see Dabrowski, 2001; 2004).
legitimate aspirations. However, they do little to equip girls and women to question the world around them, and the subordinate status assigned to them. Nothing will change radically through education unless it provides them with the analytical capacity and courage to question unjust practices. (2002: 58)
Listening is defined as the process of identifying and understanding the speech of the speakers. It involves; understanding speaker‟s accent or pronunciation, speaker‟s grammar and vocabulary, and comprehension of meaning. The listener should be capable of doing these four things at the same time. Therefore, listening is very important in the process of second language education. Listening is considered as a principal language skill. Through listening, people can acquire a large portion of their education, their information, their ideas, and their understanding of the world. As an input skill, listening plays a vital role in student‟s language development.
populations. In the globalizedworld, knowledge of certain languages can be viewed not only as a reflection of ethnic and cultural identity, but also as a commodity, a marketable asset that can enhance professional and economic opportunities (Heller 474). This factor favours languages that are associated with business opportunities, such as Chinese and Spanish (Carreira and Kagan 48, 51, 52), but disfavours languages associated with smaller global markets, especially in periods of economic downturn and high unemployment rates, when many students take a more pragmatic view of their studies and choose their courses with an eye to opportunities for career enhancement. According to a survey recently conducted by the Modern Language Association, after a period of rising enrollments in the early years of the twenty-first century, we are currently in a period of decline in the less commonly taught languages, taken as a whole (“Language Enrollment Database”; “Enrollments in Languages”). Combined with increased administrative pressures to maintain enrollment figures, as well as elimination of federal funding that was provided during the years of the Cold War, and new alternatives to past requirements that graduate students in Slavic departments take a second Slavic language, many language programs are under threat of closure. This makes it a particularly important time to cultivate ties with heritage communities and to collaborate with them in their efforts to promote language maintenance. Anecdotally, some programs have noted an increased percentage of heritage language students in recent years, 2 a trend that may continue as more children from the post-1989 wave
Abstract: We live in a world with an abundant array of diversity. Diversity is evident in people, the environment, and all forms of life. Advancements in technology have made the world seem smaller and increased the interaction between people from different cultures. The rapid globalisation has a significant impact on the work, employees, and organizations bringing them frequently with clients, suppliers and peer that they never work before. In an era of globalisation, organization faces unique challenges in coordinating among clients, developers, designers’ workers from different countries. The major challenges are to develop practices, which balance global competitiveness, multinational flexibility and the building of a worldwide learning capability. This balance will require organisations to develop the cultural sensitivity and ability to manage and leverage learning to build future capabilities. While offering opportunities, globalisation also poses significant challenges to employees especially when different cultures are involved as a team. Multicultural teams have their culture as a set of shared values and beliefs. Beliefs are people’s perceptions’ of how things are done in their countries. They are reported as “practices” in a particular culture. Values are people’s perceptions about the way things should be done. They are their preferred practices and people’s beliefs. In a global context the management and development of people inevitably leads to considerations of diversity and related challenges. Attitudes towards working have changed dramatically in recent years and there is currently much more emphasis on multi-cultural working. Many organisations have found that multicultural team integration can be problematic and at times performance is not always at the level required or expected. With an ongoing increase of multicultural teams, leaders in multinational organisations must be aware of cultural diversity issues in order to function effectively and achieve high levels of team performance. This paper will focus on issues like Virtual team, communication in globalizedworld, resolving conflict and some effective tips for managing cross cultural diversity in the globalizedworld. Data has been collected from secondary sources.
According to the National Intelligence Council , the key trends in the development of the globalizedworld by 2035 will be the weak economic growth and thus, the main economies will face a reduction in labour force and a decrease in productivity growth; accelerating technological progress that will create new opportunities, but will lead to increased discrepancies between leaders and outsiders; the further spread of automation and artificial intelligence, which threaten to swiftly change the industry, potentially pushing workers with traditional skills and limiting the usual development path for poor countries; climate change, environmental and health problems that will require more attention and collective action, even if cooperation becomes more difficult; the change in the nature of conflicts, the number of which will increase because of divergent interests among the great powers, the expansion of terrorist threats.
mobility crisis, since asylum demands reached their highest level in this 21th century. The scientific contribution of the analysis holds on several aspects, first it is a macroeconomic model which attempts to legitimate scientifically the asylum seekers paradigm in migration theory in introducing it in growth theory literature. The Second contribution of the analysis, is the proof of the mutation occur in migration paradigm from standard labor mobility to the refugee crisis study, thus shows that the brain drain theory tends to its end since the first decade of the 21th century or may be before and growth models with migration ought to focus on asylum seekers now. Third, the analysis provides an empirical explanation to Borjas (2016) finding of high incentives to leave to Western countries, a phenomenon viewed through refugee mobility crisis in OECD countries. Finally, the analysis attempts to contribute to the International discussion on migration policy specifically to provide some insights on long run impact on growth and development around the world if the refugee convention is not reviewed in order to re-open the debate on how to face the crisis on refugee entry, thus on asylum seekers increase in developed world for population mobility to reach a stable equilibrium?. In the concern of this aspect, the model shows an efficient cooperation policy existence, (a*, b*) specifying that integration of foreigners may be successfully done, where a* and b* highlight the respective skilled and unskilled labors full integration both in the labor market and in the society because of cultural endowments differences.