The results show that the most lethal rate is related to the treatment 0.07ppm which created 93.56 percent of the losses, in this regard, "Leena" and her colleagues evaluated the effect of the 0.25mm dose of Chlorpyrifos on the kitchen garden's aphis in the year 2001. The spray of one hundred percent death was created on the same day. And yet our highest dose in the laboratory conditions was 0.07ppm, in the first 24 hours to be 22 percent, in 48 hours 44.9 percent and in 72 hours 74.5 percent death was observed. And in greenhouseconditions on the same day, in the first 24 hours 12 percent, in 48 hours 28.6 percent and in 72 hours 46.9 percent death was observed. Considering this issue, in Peshawar, Pakistan, the 5 milliliter per liter Chlorpyrifos on the aphis of canola was observed to be 96.1 percent of death in the first 24 hours, in 48 hours 95 percent death and in 72 hours 92.3 percent death was seen . In another research, the effect of two insecticides Thiacloprid and Fenvalerate on the aphis fabae was evaluated. The results of this evaluation shows that after 24 hours, respectively 89.21 and 81.14 death has been observed . The conditions of exposure, dose and duration of exposure, age and species of the living creature and so many other factors can be considered as the reasons for variation in results .
Results in Table 3 revealed that all treatments increased the activity of peroxidase than in control treatment. The highest activity of peroxidase was induced by P. poly- myxa (262.3), followed by T. viride and B. subtilis re- cording 194.3 and 180.7, respectively. Meanwhile, Topas-100 was the least effective one. On the other side, the highest level of polyphenol oxidase was recorded after treatments by T. album, P. polymyxa, and T. viride recording 131.3, 123.7, and 114.0, respectively. While T. harzianum was the least effective one in respect of the effect of different bio-agents on total phenols content, the highest total phenols content was recorded in plants treated with T. viride (75.9), followed by Topas-100 (61.6) and T. harzianm (54.6), while T. hamatum showed the least effect on total phenols content. Sprayed plants recorded best results for most growth characters, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and total phenols en- zymes activity compared with untreated one )Hegazi and El-Kot 2010). Many investigators supported this idea since they stated that there are positive relationships be- tween peroxidase enzyme and resistance developed in plants (Nawar and Kuti 2003; Emeran et al. 2006). Table 2 Effect of spraying bio-agent to control powdery mildew disease on squash plants under greenhouseconditions
Intercropping has been seen as an advantageous strategy in sustainable agriculture. Plants how- ever interact with one another both above and below ground with members of the same species (intraspecific) or members of a different species (interspecific) for nutrients, water and light. It is therefore essential to understand these interactions when intercropped. The objective was to examine the above and below ground interactions between onion and lettuce in monocrop and intercrop systems. We examined the various possible interactions (no competition, above ground, below ground, or full) using a full factorial randomized design under greenhouseconditions. Onion yield was highest in intraspecific above ground competition and lowest in below ground and full interspecific competition with lettuce. Dry weight of onions in above ground competition with lettuce was significantly greater than that of the control group. Fresh weight of lettuce leaves were highest in below ground and full interspecific competition treatments. The hectare model and yield results suggest that there is strong below ground competitive effect between onion and lettuce in intercrop. Asymetric interspecific facilitation was found: facilitation by onion led to in- creased lettuce yield but a negative effect of lettuce on onion yield was observed. Knowledge of competitive interactions between component crops can have several applications in sustainable agricultural as it helps to match the most efficient species under specific conditions.
fects on nutrient elements. Affected by salt stress, most of the cultivated plants do not fully express their growth potential, which lowers their economic value. Crambe (Crambe abyssinica) is an oil plant of the cruciferous family and it is believed that crambe has great potential to figure as raw material for biofuel; however, literature is not abundant about the effects of salinity in crambe production. This work was carried out in order to evaluate the effects on the development and productivity of crambe irrigated with saline waters under greenhouseconditions. Treatments re- sulted from the combination of two factors: salinity of irrigation water (ECw) in five levels (1.03- control, 2.5, 4.0, 5.5, and 7.0 dS∙m −1 ) and two types of salts (NaCl and NaCl + CaCl 2 ) with three rep-
which exhibit similar effects on plant growth and yield as inorganic fertilizers when applied to soil . Vermi- compost also contains a high proportion of humic substances (humic acids, fulvic acids and humin) which pro- vide numerous sites for chemical reaction; microbial components known to enhance plant growth and disease suppression through the activities of bacteria (Bacillus), yeast (Sporobolomyces and Cryptococcus) and fungi (Trichoderma), as well as chemical antagonists such as phenols and amino acids . The significant increase in soil enzyme activities such as urease, phosphomonoesterase, phosphodiesterase and arylsulphatase was reported by  with vermicompost application. Several studies also report vermicompost application suppresses infec- tion by insect pests, repel crop pests and induce biological resistance in plants against pests and diseases due to the presence of antibiotics and actinomycetes . Use of vermicompost in horticulture at large scale can solve the management and disposal problem associated with macrophytes and also resolves the deficiency of organic matter in such soils in addition to nutrient depletion . The objective of the study was to optimize yield and nutrients content in tomato plant under greenhouseconditions through vermicompost application.
2.6 Greenhouse evaluation by Spore suspension spray method Plantlet, which were maintained on tissue culture medium were transferred to greenhouseconditions. After establishing the plants in green house condition now the spore suspension with 105 conidial/ml of A. alternata isolate, were sprayed on seedling leaves. After spraying, seedlings were incubated for 24 h in plastic cover at 25 ᴏ C, 12 h photoperiod. Observations would appear to be from six to ten, depending on the sensitivity or resistance levels. After this time, observations were recorded from the sixth to the twentieth day, once every two days. Resistance levels were evaluated on the basis of Pryor & Michalides (2002) (Figure 4).
Different studies have suggested that the use of vermicompost as part of the plant growth media can provide nutrients and retain moisture while promoting the development of crops. To corroborate this assumption we tested the effects of vermicompost supplementation to tomato (saladette type) under greenhouseconditions. The evaluated treatments included four mixtures (T1, T2, T3, and T4) of vermicompost and river sand, with volume ratios 0:1, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3, respectively. Physical and chemical tests were performed in each mixture to determine nutritional elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, organic matter, pH, texture, cation- exchange capacity, electric conductivity, and apparent density) and water holding capacity. Treatment with 0:1 volume ratio (T1) was used as control, and it was fertilized with a nutrient solution [KNO 3 , Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ,
This study aimed (1) to evaluate the efficacy of certain biocontrol agents (bacillus subtilis, bacillus pumilus, and effective microorganisms), zinc oxide nanoparticles, castor and clove oils, beside the recom- mended fungicide (famoxadone + cymoxanil), against Pseudoperonospora cubensis, the causative fungus of downy mildew in cucumber under greenhouseconditions in two growing seasons, (2) to identify the bioactive chemical components of plant origin oils (castor and clove) by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and (3) to investigate the effect of these treatments on some biochemical (chloro- phyll content, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase) and growth and yield characters (plant height, fruit number/plant, and fruit yield) of cucumber plants.
The savannah soil is characterized by a lower fertility level. Thus, the study aimed to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma spp. inoculated in soil fertilized with natural phosphate in the growth of rice under greenhouseconditions. Twelve Trichoderma spp. isolates from savannah soil and one standard strain (T. harzianum) were used. The isolates were mixed to the soil fertilized with insoluble natural phosphate at a concentration of 2 x 10 8 conidia per gram of colonized rice, at a dosage of 100 mg kg -1 of soil, using pots with a capacity of 2.0 kg. Rice plants were evaluated for biomass production and phosphorus content. Then, UFT 25 and UFT 37 isolates were more efficient in rice growth and development, and showed higher phosphorus utilization efficiency. Most of the isolates showed to be directly involved in promoting the growth of this crop when compared to the uninoculated control, evidencing the potential of Trichoderma isolates as growth promoters of rice plants.
specimens that grow in it can avoid hypoxia. Also, it has been established that both C and VC can satisfy the nutrient demand of several crops, developed in greenhouseconditions, during the first two months post-transplantation (Márquez- Hernández et al., 2006). However, after this time the crops expressed nutrient deficiencies, especially of N (Rodríguez-Dimas et al., 2007); this may be due to the low rate of N mineralization of both C and VC. Thus, it has been suggested that in production systems under protected conditions, nutritional stress of the culture can be avoided by adding other sources of nutrition, including the vermicompost tea (VCT).
Abstract—This study was carried out in a nursery to evaluate the impact of mycorrhizal fungi on the cutting’s root growth, and root colonization of a Moroccan olive variety ‘Picholine Marocaine’ under greenhouseconditions during 2 years of cultivation. The results revealed that the inoculation with a composite inoculum of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) stimulated an early root formation and high development of vegetative shoots in inoculated cuttings respectively, 35 days (50 days in the control plots) and 40 days (60 days in the control plots) after their culture. The progressive establishment of mycorrhizal symbiosis in the roots of the inoculated plants showed that the root and vegetative masses were respectively 24 g and 19.5 g two years after inoculation. The average height and the leave’s number of the inoculated plants relative to the control were respectivelys 42/ 12 cm and 145/12.
Based on the results presented in Figure 2, it was esti- mated that in the first two days, whole and shredded waste lost 15% and 20% of their water content, respect- tively, as leachate. This rapid loss of water during this short period was due to lixiviation by hydrolytic decom- position as a result of partial degradation of the organic matter, since water in horticultural waste can be released as leachate when the wall or membrane cells are de- graded, as reported previously . Next, the heat gener- ated in the pile as a by-product of the microbial break- down of organic material acts as the energy for evapora- tion. As in composting, in biodrying most of the energy released during microbial activity is used to evaporate water from the waste materials. Then, following the hy- drolytic stage, evaporation helped to diminish water con- tent in the horticultural waste; consequently, the weight of the waste had diminished by 82% in the four piles inside the greenhouse on day 16. Nevertheless, the weight reduction observed in the control pile was only 22% over the same period of time, compared with the initial weight.
The total effectiveness of the colchicine treatments was distinctly higher in the first treatment than in the other two treatments. When evaluating treatments done for all replications (i.e., 2/1.0; 2/1.5; 3/0.5; 3/1.0 and 3/1.5 – days/concentration of colchicine solution), 30% of the Black Velvet Scarlet F1 plants (Fig. 6) were tetraploid in the first replication, 5.5% in the second and 7.3% in the third. For Gizela F1 plants, 33.6% were tetraploid in the first replication, 10.0% in the second and 5.5% in the third (Fig. 7). The occurrence of octoploids and mixoploid plants was low (below 5.0%) and similar for all replications. The differences between the first and the other two rep- lications were most probably caused by the diverse microclimate conditions (humidity and solar ra- diation intensity) in the greenhouse on the different treatment dates. If we consider all treatments in the first experiment – from 2 days with 0.1% colchicine solution concentration to 7 days with 2.5% colchicine solution concentration, 17.4% of the total number of tetraploids originated from the cultivar Black Velvet Scarlet F1 and 23.7% from Gizela F1.
Results: In this study, candidate genes were tested for their suitable as reference genes for qPCR analyses in two sug- arcane cultivars with varying drought tolerance. Eight candidate reference genes were evaluated in leaves sampled in plants subjected to water deficit in both field and greenhouseconditions. In addition, five genes were evaluated in shoot roots of plants subjected to water deficit by adding PEG8000 to the nutrient solution. NormFinder and Ref- Finder algorithms were used to identify the most stable gene(s) among genotypes and under different experimental conditions. Both algorithms revealed that in leaf samples, UBQ1 and GAPDH genes were more suitable as reference genes, whereas GAPDH was the best reference one in shoot roots.
Heritabilities and Minimum Number of Genes for Thrips Resistance in Upland × Pima. The analysis of variance showed significant ge- notypic variation at P = 0.10 in thrips responses in the BILs tested in the field (Table 5), but the broad-sense heritability estimation was low (0.18). This indicates that larger experimental errors were encountered when evaluating thrips resistance under the natural field infestation conditions in our study. However, in the greenhouseconditions (Table 4), heritabilities for thrips resistance were estimated to be from 0.68 for Test 2 and 3 to 0.79 for Test 1 in the advanced breeding lines derived from pedigree selections in Acala 1517-99 × Pima Phy 76. These results indicate that thrips resistance in the breeding lines derived from Upland × Pima was moderately high, implying that phenotypic selection for thrips resistance is efficient through replicated tests in the greenhouse. After evaluating hybrids from five G. barbadense genotypes × four Upland cultivars and 90 converted racestocks for tolerance to thrips, Bowman and McCarty (1997) reported that general combining ability was significant for thrips damage
PT can cause accidental herbicidal injury to rice seedlings when surface water remains (Yamamoto and Kikuchi, 2006) through unexpected rain and inadequate drainage after seeding. It is necessary to prevent herbicidal injury without reducing herbicidal efficacy in PT for securing available time of one-shot herbicide application at the re-flooded time after drainage. Therefore, changes in herbicidal efficacy and injury with reduced application rate of PT were evaluated under field and greenhouseconditions in Akita prefecture, northern Japan.
Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a major disease in solanaceous plants. It is one of the most destructive bacterial diseases of tomato and other economically important crops. One hundred isolates of R. solanacearum were obtained from rhizosphere soil of tomato fields in different parts of Karnataka. Forty strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from soil samples. Among 40 LABs, isolate 35showed a maximum zone of inhibition (22–26 mm) against R. solanacearum by agar overlay method and it was identified as Lactobacillus paracasei by 16S rRNA analysis. The bacteriocin from the culture supernatant was found to be proteinaceous in nature. It was 60%stable at temperature range of 30-32 °C for 30 days. It showed maximum antagonistic activity at a pH range of 4-10. Antibacterial activity increased with up to 1% surfactants and decreased at low concentration of metal ions at 0.5mg/l. The antimicrobial substance was sensitive to the proteolytic action of trypsin. Seed germination and seedling vigour enhanced upon treatment with bacteriocin. Under greenhouseconditions, bacteriocin treatment increased the plant growth promotion and reduced wilt by 57.48% and 54.77% by seed treatment and soil drench methods respectively. In the present study, it is the first report that bacteriocin exhibits antagonistic activity and increases the plant growth promotion against R. solanacearum in vitro and invivo. These important results recommend that soil may be a common source for the isolation of bacteriocin producing lactic acid bacteria and can be used as biocontrol agent.
The objective of this study was to apply a biological control program on cucumber crop under greenhouseconditions, using biological control agents compared with insecticides to control the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover. The treatments were conducted at Dokki, Giza, Egypt, through two cucumber summer plantations in 2015 and 2016. Inspection was made once a week to determine the population density of A. gossypii, one of the major pests on cucumber. Aphid infestation occurred from week 6 to week 12 in 2015 and from week 4 to week 11 in 2016. Adults of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius colemani Viereck and larvae of the predatory coccinellid, Coccinella septempunctata L., were released in the biological greenhouse in weeks 8, 9, and 10 in season 2015 and 7, 8, and 9 in season 2016. In the insecticide greenhouse, the recommended insecticide program was used. The cost of control in the biological control greenhouses was more than that in the insecticide one, but the yield was much higher, recording 63.88% increase in 2015 and 64.91% in 2016.