In the literature there are many studies about human body interaction of PIFA. In numerical simulations of human head interaction with PIFA  it is observed that input impedance, VSWR and radiation patterns are slightly changed. When comparing the SAR value of PIFA with several types of antennas commonly used in handhelddevices like monopole, helical and patch, PIFA shows the lowest SAR values . In the presence of hand only, the radiation efficiency of helical antenna is greater than that of PIFA, while in the presence of hand and head, radiation efficiency of PIFA is greater . The SAR in the user’s head induced by a PIFA is about half of that induces by a helical antenna. High SAR value means more energy is absorbed by human body hence decreases radiation efficiency. So low value of SAR not only reduces the health hazards but also increases the antenna efficiency and battery life of the device.
Patients with severe physical disabilities might experience communication difficulties. Some injuries hinder their ability to speak, write and type even though their brain is unaffected. Thus, an alternative means of communication is required to relay the intention of the patient. A ‘nurse call button’ has been widely used by patients at health care centers to alert a nurse or a doctor whenever they need help. However, the key limitation of such system is that it simply produces a beep sound at the specific station and the responder has to visit the patient’s room to identify their intention. Thus, in this project, an alternative communication aid is proposed utilizing widely available handhelddevices such as smart phones, tablets and notes. As a result, complex sentences or instructions can be delivered to the intended respondent via several combination of “ON-OFF” signal based on Morse code. In addition, the device can also be reprogrammed according to the user preference. It is hoped that the device would be able to help the patient to communicate to other people in order to fulfill their daily needs.
A compact inverted F antenna which is dedicated to the Digital Video Broadcasting-Handheld (DVB-H) standard has been presented in this paper. The antenna dimensions are very small (λ0/32 x λ0/14 at 470 MHz) and it is suitable to be integrated in all handhelddevices. The characterization of the varactor diode has been done in a first time in order to predict more precisely the measurements. Finally, by changing the voltage of the hyperabrupt varactor diode, the antenna covers by a continuous shift (with a return loss lower than -6dB) the entire DVB-H band going from 470 MHz to 862 MHz. Moreover, its maximum realized gain meets the DVB-H specifications. Thus for all its efficient gain and its small size, this antenna is a very good candidate for the DVB-H application.
A user of the handheld urban simulation will move be- tween sections as they navigate around the world. When (or preferably before) the user changes section, the newly re- quired building models are downloaded to the mobile device. It is desirable to minimise the run-time network traffic on low-bandwidth, handhelddevices. This would involve hav- ing geographically large sections, containing a large num- ber of buildings. The viewer could explore large areas of the world without changing sections and downloading new models. From this point of view, the ideal section covers the whole virtual city, and after a large download at start-up no further bandwidth would be required. However the handhelddevices are also constrained by memory limitations. They cannot store the entire world in memory at one time. From this perspective, geographically small sections — contain- ing only the few buildings visible from the current location — are desirable. Also, as sections are increased in size, re- dundancy appears — buildings visible from some but not all points in the section, which will be drawn irrespective of where the viewer is in that section. From this point of view, the ideal section is a single point.
The components of the digital receipt project -- such as the Bluetooth technology, data warehouse, web applications, and handhelddevices -- were technologies introduced in the past decade. However, none of these technologies were used together in introducing a digital receipt concept. The uniqueness of this project comes from the creativity of combining such technologies to ease the life of the consumer and benefit retail business owners. This section explains the advantages of using such technology and briefly compares the digital receipt system and the other technologies that have cropped up in the market.
Abstract—The ground plane of wireless handhelddevices plays a significant role in the electromagnetic behavior determining bandwidth, efficiency, and radiation patterns. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the frequency region where the ground plane can be better excited, especially for low frequencies where the performance of the radiating system is critical due to size limitations with respect to the operating wavelength. A fast method based on the radar cross section (RCS) is presented for computing the frequency at which the ground plane is better excited. The proposal is applied to three typical wireless platforms: a handset phone, a smartphone, and a clamshell phone. The method is compared with characteristic mode analysis and the results demonstrate a very good agreement in the resonant frequency prediction. In addition, complex platforms using metallic strips and slots in the ground plane are analyzed using RCS which gives physical insight into the electromagnetic performance.
with 1,024 bits key pairs achieved 4,906 transfers while the non-encrypted version achieved almost 80,000. The SSL operations are as expected more time consuming and require a greater amount of CPU time to execute. However, the investigated scenario was trying to capture the demands of cryptographically expensive applications, like multiparty conferencing. In most common less CPU demanding applications the impact on execution time is naturally lower. We must note at this point that the energy experiments we conducted are only indicative since several factors that have an impact on battery life, such as ambient temperature and humidity, were not taken into account. The overhead that is introduced by using SSL as the method of providing transport-layer security for network transactions on handhelddevices is considerable. However, at just over 1 second for a handshake with 1,024 bits key pairs, it will not inhibit mobile transactions.
ABSTRACT In this work, an integrated antenna system with Defected Ground Structure (DGS) is presented for Fourth Generation (4G) and millimeter (mm)-wave Fifth Generation (5G) wireless applications and handhelddevices. The proposed design with overall dimensions of 110 mm × 75 mm is modeled on 0.508 mm thick Rogers RT/Duroid 5880 substrate. Radiating structure consists of antenna arrays excited by the T-shape 1 × 2 power divider/combiner. Dual bands for 4G centered at 3.8 GHz and 5.5 GHz are attained, whereas the 10-dB impedance bandwidth of 24.4 - 29.3 GHz is achieved for the 5G antenna array. In addition, a peak gain of 5.41 dBi is demonstrated across the operating bandwidth of the 4G antenna array. Similarly, for the 5G mm-wave configuration the attained peak gain is 10.29 dBi. Moreover, significant isolation is obtained between the two antenna modules ensuring efficient dual-frequency band operation using a single integrated solution. To endorse the concept, antenna prototype is fabricated and far-field measurements are procured. Simulated and measured results exhibit coherence. Also the proposed design is investigated for the beam steering capability of the mm-wave 5G antenna array using CST r MWS r . The demonstrated structure offers various advantages including compactness, wide bandwidth, high gain, and planar configuration. Hence, the attained radiation characteristics prove the suitability of the proposed design for the current and future wireless handhelddevices.
App developers are continuously producing new applications and updating the existing apps. It was concluded that the handhelddevices’ sleek and contemporary design should not be the sole contributing factor to a desire to explore the educational applications for it. There are other reasons which should be considered. For instance, due to their special features such as portability, software (app) cost effectiveness and easy access, smart handhelddevices such as iPad and iPhone offer a great deal to learning and teaching in general.
Abstract:- In mobile phones and several other wireless communication devices, antenna is an important element which decides the quality & performance of the device over various communication standards. In this paper, a compact internal Planar Inverted-F Antenna (PIFA) with a ground plane having two open ended slots is proposed which is very thin compared to conventional PIFA structure. By using the ground plane as a radiator element along with top plate of PIFA structure, the height of PIFA can be reduced to a great extent, which further results in reducing thickness of mobile phones. In this paper the proposed antenna has volume as 25 x 15 x 3.8 mm 3 and it is simulated & analyzed using HFSS software. The antenna is designed to operate at GPS, GLONASS, DCS (1800 MHz), PCS (1900 MHz), UMTS (2100 MHz), Bluetooth (2400 MHz), 4G LTE (2300 MHz & 2600 MHz), WLAN (5.2 GHz) standards. The simulation results show that the performance parameters of the antenna are satisfying the requirements of advance wireless communication devices.
Remote laboratory allows users to access the laboratory instruments including the programmable devices remotely to perform their laboratory experiments. The existing remote laboratories on Digital Signal Processor hardware uses either the server machine to control the test instruments using GPIB interface or control is established through the DAQ cards . This makes architecture more specific and cannot be reused for other laboratory implementations. This implementation avails laboratory facility for complete twenty four hours a day and will increase the productivity of the laboratory setups and measuring instruments. Remote instrumentation laboratory for DSP training uses client server methodology and connects multiple clients to the server using Virtual Instrument application . Thin Client Server manages input and outputs between client and servers. Remote access tool  used for this type of laboratory implementation is selected based on real time access parameters like data speed, security protocol and ability to establish multiple user environment etc.
In this table, the mobile phone market share in the second quarter of 2012 and 2013, Samsung were ranked 1st place and Nokia followed however Nokia marked -27.0% growth in year-over-year and long-running difficulties of selling smart phone accelerated their regular markets badly. According to the IDC report (2013), major users were the young generation (between 15-30 years old) more prefer digital devices such as smart phones whereas the older generation (between 50-60 years old) still worry about learning new devices therefore the IDC estimated Samsung, who produced smart phones and 2G (second generation phone) phones; both have more regular consumers than Apple, who only manufactures smart phones. In conclusion, major Korean mobile phone manufacturers, particularly Samsung and LG have given huge impact to the global markets especially Samsung who were first place in smart phones and mobile phone market shares in 2012 and 2013 and LG also recorded 108.6% growth in smart phone market share in 2013. According to these results, shows the appropriateness of selecting the Korean mobile phone industry research also illustrates how the Korean mobile phone industry impacts world mobile phone markets.
These layers are to be integrated in a common, flexible, and seamless IP core network, supporting global roaming and a single access number per user. This requires both hor- izontal (intrasystem) and vertical (intersystem) handover, as indicated by the arrows. For each of these layers there exists a multitude of, often regional, standards. Some handheld de- vices may have to support multiple standards per layer, for example, in a world phone.
FPGAs used in low power application such as mobile and handhelddevices face the challenge of dissipated leakage energy during idle periods . Moreover, there are various embedded system used for event driven applications where lowering the power consumption is critical. This challenge has been addressed by proposing dynamically controlled power gating to controllable logic blocks, power gating in switch blocks  and power gating in supply voltage. Power gating with transistors faces challenges like leakage of the power gates and delay due to the voltage drop for the ON resistance of the gates . Moreover, in  it has been presented that MEMS relay provides energy reduction benefits over MOSFET power gates with even large size and high actuation voltage The ideal power gating technology exhibits infinite OFF resistance and zero ON resistance such as in MEMS switches. Fig. 19 shows a modified MEMS switch based on the cross-bar geometry for power gating. Power gated sub-circuit block and the toggle switch connection with transistors for assisting the toggling action to control power to sub-circuit is presented in Figure 20.
On the other hand, a number of interactive public displays have been proposed that support communication with a user through active use of handhelddevices such as PDAs or phones, or to a closed set of known users with pre-defined interests and requirements [3, 7]. Such systems assume prior knowledge about the target audience, and require either that a single user has exclusive access to the display, or that users carry specific tracking devices [4, 10] so that their presence can be identified. These approaches fail to work in public spaces, where no prior knowledge exists regarding users who may view the display, and where such displays need to react to the presence of several users simultaneously.
with mouse-clicks in mind. The interface has also not tested on other handhelddevices other than the iPhone, and hence technical disparities with the screen resolution and interface designs may differ when viewed with other mobile devices. Further development is underway to improve its search interface for use in other types of mobile devices (e.g. android phones) so that it can reach a wider target audience of healthcare professionals. Nevertheless, OncoRx-MI is still useful since it is able to identify a substantial number of interactions with single-agent and combination regimens used in clinical practice in its current stage.
This mobile learning application project will teach and guide them on how to learn personal hygiene care properly especially washing hands as shown in handhelddevices like smartphone or tablet.This learning application can be installed on the smartphone or tablet.This way will enable children with autism to learn and attract their attention longer than usual.In this application, they will be taught steps for washing hands based on the simple animations and instructions to guide them. Then, they need to solve game activities that will be given as their assessment.Motivation rewards will be given after they have finished the activity correctly. These special children should be given the opportunity to learn using latest gadget that are more interesting to increase their performance of brain development.
Telemedicine – and more specifically mHealth – can help to provide timely burn diagnosis support at point- of-care [9–11]. A prior study showed that image-based burn severity assessment by experts is accurate when the images are viewed on a computer screen . Similar re- sults have been reported for specialities like dermatology [13, 14], radiology [15, 16] and ophthalmology . Nowadays however, with the wide availability and own- ership of handhelddevices like smartphones and tablets, physicians are more inclined to use their private smart- phones rather than their computers for work-related communications, not least when it comes to seeking and providing image-based advice [18, 19]. Informal commu- nication using mobile phones, for example through WhatsApp, is increasingly used for remote diagnosis [19, 20], and is becoming common practice for acute burns consultation in South Africa [21, 22]. Studies are lacking however as to how accurate assessments made this way are. As handhelddevices offer more flexibility than computers, allowing experts to review cases on their own handheld device would be time- saving, which is an important asset in the emergency care environment. In terms of image quality (disre- garding the diagnostic accuracy), there is evidence that images of various kinds viewed by medical staff on handhelddevices are perceived as being of com- parable quality as when viewed on computer screens [23, 24]. Also, in fields like radiology and echocardiog- raphy it has been reported that experts can accurately diagnose images on tablets [25, 26] and smartphones [27, 28]. Assessments of minor burns (0.1 – 5% total body surface area - TBSA) were made with similar accuracy as live assessments using an early generation of smartphones . Such evidence is lacking when it comes to a wider range of burns severity, and also when including both smartphones and tablets. This study was embarked upon to address this knowledge gap. The following research questions were addressed: How accurate is the image-based remote diagnosis of