Identity, a small term but conveys a lot. The scope odf the tem is wide. The world in which we reside is a very big place. This big place is divided in Continents then in countries. There are many countries in the world and each one is having their own competencies which help them to have a competitive edge. In the same line, our country, India is having a unique identity because of the rich and one of the oldest heritage cultures. Thousands of heritagesites and heritage places have helped India to always stand ahead of all countries in the world. Each state has their own specialty to define Indian heritage in different senses. This paper is all about the problems related with the management of these heritage places of India and the recommended solutions of these problems.
or governments’ narratives over local discourse (Yan 2015:65). Chinese national heritage management is multi-layered: the Ministry of Education is the department responsible for communicating with the UNESCO World Heritage Centre, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development (MHURD) is responsible for the management of natural heritagesites whereas the SACH takes charge of cultural heritage. They are both in charge of Combination Sites and Cultural Landscape management. Wall and Su (2011) note that there is a second layer of governmental management which includes the department of forestry, water resources, environmental protection, religion, ethnic affairs and tourism, all of whom are potentially involved in management, depending on the specific natural, cultural and social characteristics of a heritage site. The third level involves local government, site management officers, visitors, local communities and tourism entrepreneurs. The specific management affairs of heritagesites are implemented by local governments, which are authorised by the MHURD or the SACH. This multi-department and multi-level management structure means that profits and responsibilities overlap, which creates management difficulties for World Heritage application and management. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the extent to which WHL changes the interrelation between Chinese national governments, and in particular the key heritage authorities, the MHURD and the SACH. At a local level, local governments, which have administrative jurisdiction over World Heritagesites, have regarded such sites as new sources of income more than anything else, which may ignore other stakeholder’s interests or values, such as those of local communities (Tao and Luca 2011). Yan (2012, 2015), and Su and Teo (2009) have identified that local governments tend to utilise ‘World Heritage’ as a cultural tool to impose legal hegemony on local communities, in order to ensure site management confirms to government and UNESCO policies. However, little attention has been paid to the process of local governments uses of the World Heritage brand and policies as a tool to construct local narratives during and after the World Heritage listing; and how the government officials and experts formulated the nomination dossier and their purposes in seeking World Heritage listing and their understanding of heritage.
Leh, the capital city of Ladakh, has diverse faiths. During the summer months when the tourist season is at its peak, people from all over the world come for tourism and with it commercial activities increase manifold. Ladakh has many heritagesites, which are mostly in ruins, completely overlooked and due to their isolation, plundered and vandalised. The sad part is that local people are not aware of their significant heritage and its tangible and intangible value to world heritage. The various stupas show such poor restoration and many seem to be losing out on precious heritage by predators who know the value of the art and artefacts. In some instances greed and ignorance is causing major irretrievable losses.
Contemporary archaeologists and heritage managers are considered to have a responsibility towards their various publics and stakeholders. They are, more than ever, expected to strive for social inclusion, to take a variety of heritage values into account, to engage with the public, to consider heritage as a driver for development, to respect cultural human rights, etc. Various international conventions and charters, such as the ICOMOS 2008 Charter for the Inter- pretation and Presentation of Cultural HeritageSites, aim to stimulate and assist us in our efforts to achieve these objectives. Moreover, we have numerous handbooks, guidebooks and journals at our disposal that provide us with the latest experiences and the best of practices. But what if the local situation a heritage manager or archaeologist is working in makes it very hard or almost impossible to apply the cardinal principles of one or more of these charters, conventions, codes of conduct, standards etc.? Basically, these doctrines tend to be optimistic and positivist, in a sense that they emanate the engineering of the heritage domain through top-down instruction of archaeologists or heritage managers with (practical) recommendations, but often there is a large gap between theory and practice, between the generally accepted standards and norms we are expected to follow and the situation on the ground. This dilemma will be discussed in relation to the challenges of the Tell Balata Archaeological Park project in Palestine, where it is almost impossible to comply with such professional standards and to follow the 2008 ICOMOS Charter due to the political, social, and economic situation.
Following the last meeting of the Member of title the Scientific and TechnicalAdvisory Body in 2013, one of the new goals of UNESCO is to prepare a report of best practices in the field of underwater archaeology undertaken by the State Parties. This document will include the best projects in the countries which have ratified the 2001 Convention. Through this initiative, UNESCO has two aims: the first is to highlight the benefits of joining the 2001 Convention and to encourage other States to ratify the convention, and the second is to put forward the case that underwater cultural heritagesites are eligible to be subscribed in the World Heritage list (World Heritage/UNESCO website).Following the Convention concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage, World Heritage properties are those immoveable heritagesites, monuments and groups of buildings which are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science (UNESCO Convention, 1972).Having a monument listed is considered a privilege and therefore it can be a motivation to ratify the 2001 Convention (STAB, 2013).
World HeritageSites destination consists of 33 cultural sites, 10 natural sites and 4 mixed sites of mainly mountains destinations (World Heritage Centre, 2014). With the rise of personal incomes and living standards, the outbound tourism market is leaps and bounds. Chinese people are eager to go sightseeing overseas which creates an immense market for some nearby countries. The popular outbound destinations include USA, Russia, France, Australia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Maldives (China National Tourism Administrations, 2014).
practice, TC-bolt can effectively reduce the embedment length and number of bolts compared with T-bolt under the same anchorage force requirement, thus effectively reducing the protective damage caused by anchorage engineering to earthen heritagesites. The peak point dis- placement of TC-anchorage system is about 7–14 times of that of T-anchorage system, that is to say, TC-anchor- age system can provide considerable anchorage force even if there is a large deformation (80–91 mm). Moreo- ver, it should be also noted that the residual load after the peak point of TC-anchorage system still reaches 92–97% of the peak load, and remains stable during the process of accompanying bolt displacement of more than 40 mm, which fully increases the storage of safe deformation of anchorage structure. In the process of small increase of pull-out load, the strain distribution at bolt–slurry inter- face of TC-anchorage system has the phenomenon of alternating transfer from positive skewness to bimodal- ity and then to negative skewness, which reveals that the interfacial force gradually transfers from the front end to the back end of embedment length and gradually reaches a stable state after the back end of embedment length is
A community of practice enables the operation of a “social learning systems” where practitioners connect to solve problems, share ideas, set standards, build tools, and develop relationships with peers and stakeholders (Snyder and Briggs, 2010, p. 10). In the case studies, while the strong sense of place and heritage cultural traditions may have clearer impact than the issue of economic gain (Fusté-‐Forné, 2015a, 2015b; Gu and Ryan, 2008, p. 645), at the same time it is admitted in both case studies that commercial motivation plays a role in getting people involved (James, 2010, p.26; Trinh, Ryan and Cave, 2014, p. 282). For Hoi An, immigrant retailers in previous research admit that the lantern festival has improved the sense of pride and association (Trinh, Ryan and Cave, 2014, p.279). Explicitly, the increasing need for lanterns by tourists and the widespread introduction of the product outside of Hoi An – Hoi An Lantern was branded one of 50 famous Vietnamese brand in 2013 – has promoted the product services. In fact, the government’s promotion of a themed topic for the lantern design each year, catalysed by the creativity of lantern manufacturers have accelerated continuous diversification and betterment of the products. Historically, lanterns were not initially made in Hoi An or surrounding areas. However, the products started to be produced locally when both skills were developed and materials (bamboo and silk) were made available (UNESCO, 2008, p. 58). Similarly, related practices are also observed in the fire festival of summer solstice, where communities are engaged in different traditional activities, including games, local delicacies and dancing and musical street shows. The festival also benefits widely local producers and service providers who increase their benefits thanks to the increasing amounts of visitors. This is not surprising because attitudes toward economic impacts do play a significant role towards further tourism development (Gu and Ryan, 2008, p. 645).
The major sector of Prehispanic fields in the area, where located in the high terrace zone and were associated to a particular type of agricultural technology known as bordos. Gravity irrigation canals were employed to inundate fields, this is a feature common to many Northwest Argentine Late Prehispanic (AD 850-1532) sites (Albeck, 1995; Korstanje, 1997; Quesada, 2006; Tarragó, 2000) and indeed across the Andes (Denevan, 2001). Nevertheless, a notable difference was the use of the local sandy soil from the fluvial terraces rather than stone as the main construction material. These sandy soil channels were used for spreading water and additionally for delimiting plots of land. By these means, people in the past built a regular grid of different plots of land demarcated by elevated areas or humps of soil ca. 0.2m high and 0.6m wide known as bordos (Olivera & Tchilinguirian, 2000).
Heritage tourism has been considered an important and prosperous segment of the tour- ism industry since 1980s (Yang, Lin, & Han, 2010; Jimura, 2011; Altunel & Erkut, 2015; Santa-Cruz & Lopez-Guzman, 2017). While this phenomenon is associated mostly with de- veloped countries (Yang et al., 2010; Altunel & Erkut, 2015), emerging economies are also aware of the importance of promoting their respective heritage (Yang & Lin, 2014; Nicholas & Thapa, 2010). A range of studies consider the WHS designation as a catalyst for increasing the (international) tourist inflow toward the respective destination by drawing the world’s attention to its significance (Reyes, 2014; Li, Wu, & Cai, 2008; Yang et al., 2010). WHS-related tourism can be viewed as a market niche of heritage tourism (Adie & Hall, 2017; Nguyen & Cheung, 2014) and WHS designations are more and more desired by the emerging economies for the expected increased tourist inflow and related tourism bene- fits (Nicholas & Thapa, 2010). Consequently, the presence of WHSs in rural areas can en- hance the development of rural tourism, accompanied by potential economic and social benefits (Iorio & Corsale, 2010; Kastenholz & Sparrer, 2009). This situation is particularly important to the emerging economies with prominent rural regions and significant rural population. Romania is one of these countries, with 46.4% rural population inhabiting about 12 500 villages as of December 2016 (National Institute of Statistics via Tempo- online, 2018) and with a plethora of economic and social problems related to rural areas. Romanian rural tourism was identified as a major growth area by the Romanian Ministry of Tourism in 1995 (Hall, 2000). It is only natural to inquire if the presence of WHS within rural areas has enhanced the development of the local rural tourism.
Based on these studies, the following conclusions can be drawn. The sites investigated show instability processes that are peculiar to rock masses overlying soft-substratum sys- tems. The geomorphological differences are mainly related to the rock plate thickness and structural setting, giving rise to different instability mechanisms for the two sites inves- tigated. The maximum probable scenario at Citadel is re- lated to the detachment of rock wedges along pre-existing joints, which, due to the sub-vertical cliff, are able to reach long run-out distances by bouncing and rolling along the hill- slopes. The process is ongoing, since once a block has been detached, the relaxation of pressure on the newly exposed cliff face results in the gradual development of a new joint system (Scerri, 2003).
Many archaeological site belong to Iron Age has been found. Among these sites in North West of Iran, Site of Hassanlu (fig.1) has been situated in North West of Iran in the south of Uremia Lake. This site which is situated on the central hills of the region is 25 meter above the plain 3 .
One of the best known conventions on cultural heritage is UNESCO Convention 1972 15 which defines Cultural Heritage as: “Monuments: architectural works, works of monumental sculpture and painting, elements or structures of an archaeological nature, inscriptions, cave dwellings and combinations of features, which are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science; Groups of buildings: groups of separate or connected buildings which, because of their architecture, their homogeneity or their place in the landscape, are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science; Sites: works of man or the combined works of nature and man, and areas including archaeological sites which are of outstanding universal value from the historical, aesthetic, ethnological or anthropological point of view.” Although, the general definition of UNESCO Convention 1972 is an umbrella which encompasses all the past valuable manmade remains, in addition to this convention there are other conventions on historic objects, sites, towns and so forth. These conventions provide more detailed guidelines for defining, protection and conservation of different aspects and branches of cultural heritage.
culture due to advance iron technology. Naturally under more sedentary lifestyle, there would be the demand for more settlement area and new means of subsistence strategies. It was this time and under such compulsions that the people first colonized lower Bengal. Consequently a large number of early historic sites large or small came into being in this area along the river banks having facilities of passage to the sea in response to the growing demand of new strategy. In fact, the northern part of the region under study is criss-crossed by innumerable rivers and channels which formed the network of communication for both trade, commerce and transport. The lower reaches of the Bhagirathi, named Hoogly by the British, and enters the region of Kolkata. The Bhairab and the Jalangi were mighty waterways on account of changes in the land level due to seismic factors and the deposition of heavy quantities of salt the Bhagirathi. Bidyadhari and Piyali are the two rivers running to the south of Bhagirathi. The other main channels in tidal basin are the Manganga or Baratola, the Saptamukhi, the Thakuran, the Malta, the Gaushaba and the Raimangal which skirts the boundary between West Bengal and Bangladesh in the extreme south. Taking advantage of this kind of situation, the early historic people colonized the area around 3rd century B.C to promote maritime activities. Basically the Ganga delta was the only outlet to outside world in the entire northern India and eastern India. Chandraketugarh, Harinarayanpur, Deulpota, Atghara, Tilpi, Dhosha, Boral, Joynagar Majilpur, Amritberia, Panna, etc. are some of the early historic sites of the region.