The gravity law has been documented in many socioeconomic networks, which states that the ﬂow between two nodes positively correlates with the strengths of the nodes and negatively correlates with the distance between the two nodes. However, such research on highway freight transportation networks (HFTNs) is rare. We construct the directed and undirected highway freight transportation networks between 338 Chinese cities using about 15.06 million truck transportation records in ﬁve months and test the traditional and modiﬁed gravity laws using GDP, population, and per capita GDP as the node strength. It is found that the gravity law holds over about two orders of magnitude for the whole sample, as well as the daily samples, except for the days around the Spring Festival during which the daily sample sizes are signiﬁcantly small. Accordingly, the daily exponents of the gravity law are stable except during the Spring Festival period. The results also show that the gravity law has higher explanatory power for the undirected HFTNs than for the directed HFTNs. However, the traditional and modiﬁed gravity laws have comparable explanatory power.
Since the early 1990s, Texans have continued to pay 38.4 cents per gallon in state and federal motor fuel taxes while the state’s population has grown by more than 8 million, and vehicle miles traveled have increased by more than 40 percent. Population growth is projected to continue, and although more Texans should mean more money in transportation coffers, there are some factors to keep in mind. Fuel efficiency. By 2025, Texans could be driving passenger cars and trucks with an average fuel efficiency of about 54 miles per gallon. That affects hybrid and SUV drivers the same: fewer fuel tax dollars to build roads and bridges. Inflation. One of the most significant challenges we face is the declining purchasing power of the State Highway Fund. In Texas, construction inflation has increased 62 percent since 2002. Motor fuel tax revenue buys far less these days than it did when the state rate was set in 1991. Federal funding issues. Because of several factors, including the expiration of the federal-aid highway program after 2014 and the need to infuse general funds into the Federal Highway Trust Fund, federal funding is increasingly unpredictable. By any measure of rate of return, Texas ranks at the bottom relative to what other states contribute to the fund and receive back from Washington, D.C. These circumstances make it difficult to plan for future transportation projects.
Interagency collaboration is another type of partnership sought under the new paradigm. Policies established to pro- tect the natural and built environment during the interstate highway era empowered government regulatory agencies with review and approval authority over proposed transportation projects. State DOTs have found that treating transporta- tion issues as mutual concerns, not only between the DOT and stakeholders but also between the DOT and these counterpart agencies, results in forming peer relationships between the agencies involved, with a push toward collaborative leadership. Compared to an adversarial approach, peer relationships build a sense of trust and common ground from which all parties can begin a conversation and “speak the same language,” because the ultimate goal serves the same public. Information flows both ways, and strategies can be aligned in a way that allows programs and projects to be implemented and constructed more expeditiously. “Accountability is mutual; transparency is valued.” (5) Because work flows under the new paradigm are no longer linear in nature, multipronged approaches can be employed to solve today’s complex transportation chal- lenges. Collaborative leadership begins with the premise of a shared vision and confronts both the issues and their solu- tions by sharing responsibility, authority, accountability, and the successes that result when synergies occur. Everybody in the organization, at all levels, is fully engaged in achieving the common goal. (6)
Note – Report Graphics: Detailed, public-friendly graphics should be incorporated throughout the entire Highway Traffic Noise Report, especially to illustrate CNE boundaries, monitored/modeled highway traffic noise locations, noise levels, and evaluated/proposed noise barrier locations. Each graphic needs to adequately identify and label names of highways/roadways, locations of structures (bridges, culverts, etc.), communities’ names, special interest areas, residential/commercial/industrial sites, municipal/county/state boundaries, monitored/modeled sites, right-of-way acquisitions, and areas where vehicle access to an existing roadway is to be removed as well as any other information discussed in the text that can be graphically depicted. Additional labeling may be necessary depending on the specifics of the transportation improvement project. Graphics are only as good as the text associated with them; therefore, an adequate description of the project area and explanation of the activities being proposed are also necessary.
oilseed crop in the United States, averaging an oil yield of 1,141 L ha -1 (122 gal ac -1 ) (Kurki et al., 2006), has performed successfully in field trials throughout North Carolina (George et. al, 2008). Additionally, canola has been found to produce the second highest oil yield in North Carolina compared with all experimental sites in the southeastern U.S. (Van Dyne and Raymer, 1992), and efforts equivalent to those for maintaining of one-half of the current winter wheat production in North Carolina hold the potential to produce in excess of 30 million gallons of oil annually (NCCP, 2007). These findings suggest that the climatic conditions and soil properties in North Carolina generally are highly compatible with canola production requirements and could support a sustainable biodiesel production program with canola targeted as the main feedstock. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of maintaining a sustainable canola crop production system on the highly eroded, highly compacted, low nutrient soils of the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) highway rights-of-way for utilization as a source of feedstock for producing biodiesel fuel that can supplement their motor vehicle fleet.
tion has declined in absolute numbers every year, and in 2012 total national fuel consumption stood at 123,635 million gal- lons (Sivak 2014). The average fuel economy (window-sticker value) of new vehicles sold in the United States in July 2014 was 25.6 mpg—up 0.1 mpg from the value in June and up 5.5 mpg since October 2007 (University of Michigan Trans- portation Research Institute website). New and demand- ing Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards will require achieving a new car fleet average of 54.5 mpg by 2025 in order to reduce dependency on imported energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and urban air pollution. Although consumers may be pleased that the fuel economy of vehicles is improving at a dramatic rate, this does cause difficulty rais- ing tax revenue for surface transportation programs. Electric vehicles, which use no petroleum-based motor fuels, are as yet a small portion of the vehicle fleet, but the promise of electric and hydrogen-powered autos suggests that at a future date liquid fuel consumption could drop precipitously. The biparti- san Simpson–Bowles deficit reduction commission called for increasing the federal fuel tax by 15 cents per gallon, nearly doubling the federal tax in order to stabilize the Highway Trust Fund and allow for programmatic growth (National Commis- sion on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform 2010). Congress has not taken action on this recommendation, and while some bills have recently been introduced that would raise the federal motor fuel tax, none has been enacted by either house.
Access to Good Data The Oklahoma DOT, the State Historical Preservation Office (SHPO), and the Oklahoma State Archeologist had taken (inventories of natural, cultural, and historic resources through ODOT’s Cultural Resources Program in the Arkansas River area, which helps identify potential cultural and historic sites that may require special attention as part of highway projects. When the I-40 Bridge accident occurred, these agencies were able to immediately identify potential natural and historic issues, eliminating the need for additional investigation and studies to identify and understand any potential environmental problems for the reconstruction project. Cited as effective practice in “Meeting Environmental Requirements After a Bridge Collapse,” a study on project management and environmental review (John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center 2008). Incorporating Long-Term
The Missouri Department of Transportation (MoDot) and the Missouri State Highway Patrol (MSHP) Medical Plan encourages members to receive preventive care items and services. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires specific preventive services and drugs to be covered at 100 percent when they are received through participating providers. Members who use our network providers will receive certain preventive care services and specific drugs paid at 100 percent. There will be no coverage for these services when an out- of-network provider is used.
In this research, a predictive accident model is proposed for highwaytransportation system using BNs. This model would be useful to either prevent the occurrence of an accident and/or reduce the severity level of an accident. In this study, traditional regression models are also reviewed which have been commonly used in highway safety studies. The limitations of a pre-defined relationship among variables are discussed. It is observed that most regression models are based on assumptions which are not reasonable for practical applications. The method of BNs is introduced to resolve these issues. Unlike other regression approaches, the advantages of BNs model are that it is less dependent on the theoretical distribution of data and it has representative graphical structure to deal with variables and their relationships readily. The BNs makes the predictive accident model more suitable for real applications. The risk factors considered in this study are well-defined variables and the characteristics of each variable cover all the possible states which would appear during the highway accident.
The transportation network of the United States Postal Service (USPS) is extremely large and complex, and accordingly the transportation planning process is an important and challenging component of USPS Logistics. The Highway Corridor Analytic Program (HCAP) has recently been developed to assist in the transportation planning process. HCAP is an analytical model intended to aid transportation analysts in identifying cost savings opportunities within the USPS surface transportation network. The HCAP model is designed to solve the Vehicle Routing Problem with Pickups and Deliveries (VRP/PD), utilizing mixed integer programming as the underlying opti- mization engine. The HCAP model also incorporates a graphical user interface to facilitate the modeling process at USPS. HCAP was designed to use existing data sources so the HCAP model can be used for near-term identification of savings opportunities. The HCAP model has been fully developed and tested, and has been deployed to USPS transportation analysts in USPS Head- quarters and in the regional Area offices. Many of the recommendations that have been developed from HCAP model results have been implemented, resulting in annual transportation savings of over $5 million already being realized at USPS during the early stages of HCAP deployment, with additional savings identified and currently under review.
A Transparent Process: While schedule was important, emphasis was also placed on obtaining the best value for the project. The construction work was awarded through a public Tender, as opposed to being directly awarded to Alberta Transportation’s maintenance contractor on an emergency basis, which is how more critical repairs - such as on the Trans-Canada Highway - were handled. While the public Tender process did add significant time to the overall schedule, it ensured that the work was performed at market value. Impact to the schedule was mitigated by ensuring that key staff members were available at the initial site investigation to make immediate design decisions. Construction supervision staff was encouraged to work with the Contractor to adjust repair strategies, as needed, to meet project deadlines.
In recent years, the transportation capacity of highway general cargo is greater than the demand, so the increasing market competition and the price in the long-term doldrums lead to numerous conflicts that affect the healthy and stable development of the cargo market. There is not yet a systematic sampling program for the provincial and municipal transportation prices which bring lots of difficulties for the information collection and monitoring. Based on objective circumstances such as the cargo market dispersion, the regional differences and the poor cooperation, this paper proposed a sample survey method by the double stratified sampling method. It is suitable, scientific and feasible for our cargo market validated by the pilot areas. The study of the sampling methods of highway general cargo transportation prices is of the important practical significance. It can strengthen the market supervision for the highway general cargo transportation, establish the information collection and release system of cargo price, and promote the linkage between prices and costs, and finally form the reasonable cargo prices guide.
Administrative is responsible for the administrative functions of Right of Way such as maintaining and establishing a permanent record system, processing payments including those chargeable to highway projects; as well as title examination and preparation of legal documents relating to the transfer of property. Administrative is also responsible for delivery of state warrants; closing real estate transactions; document recording; preparation, reporting and distribution of 1099s for all real estate transactions; collection and payment of real estate taxes for whole takings and preparation of annual reports on productivity and expenditures associated with tracts appraised and acquired.
A pandemic can be described as a global disease outbreak. Depending on the character- istics of the disease, it may spread easily, there is little or no immunity to the disease, no vaccine is available, and there is a high rate of people getting sick and/or dying. Pandem- ics cause significant absenteeism, change patterns of commerce, have limited immediate medical solutions, and interrupt supply chains. Addressing decision-making challenges in pandemic response in the transportation context is a multi-dimensional task, involving not only transportation/transit organizations, but health organizations, emergency man- agement agencies, and communications outlets as well. This guide is designed to outline broad guidance on dealing with pandemic preparedness planning, not detailed procedures. It provides information, tools, tips, and guidance on where to find up-to-date recommen- dations from federal agencies and other resources, prior to and during a pandemic.
Researchers have been attempting for years to create straightforward, universal methods to both collect and analyze racial profiling data. Oftentimes, however, these methods become either far too simplistic or increasingly complex. This results in collection and analysis processes that are either widely inaccurate, or are too specific to be applied to multiple police departments in various jurisdictions. A major inadequacy in recent years has been in the ability to create concise and accurate methods of estimating the driving population by which police stop data can be compared, or benchmarked. Researchers have proven that basic census data are inaccurate and many of the other methods that have been developed require a great deal of time and resources. In this research, the author attempts to identify a technique to accurately estimate the transient travel population, or driving population. This will be done by utilizing Census survey data that is readily available for all jurisdictions in the United States. Finally, the estimation method will be tested against traffic stop data from the North Carolina State Highway Patrol (NCSHP), in an attempt to both assess the validity of the method as well as analyze the current state of racial profiling by the NCSHP.
organizations should encourage people to use sea transportation, ●In schools, students must be educated about transportation in traffic lessons. We hope that one day Istanbul citizens will not waste time in traffic. Although it is not so easy in practice, everybody in charge must do their best to overcome this problem as soon as possible.