The methods used in the present paper involve reconstructing the smooth muscle tissue from serial sections, thus providing a direct correspondence between the reconstruction and the histological sections. One major challenge encountered with this method of reconstruction is the registration of subsequent slides. One method of avoiding this issue is to perform stain- ing and image capture while the tissue is embedded in paraffin . This technique involves the manual application of stains, image capture, and removal of each layer of tissue, which is time consuming, and would be impractical for large tissue samples. Manual registration of serial sections has previously been performed extensively . Again, this is time-consuming and not practical for large tissue samples. Automated registration of tissue based on the Fourier trans- form of the images does not rely on specific features of the tissue and hence enables registra- tion of any tissue with sufficient heterogeneity [9, 10]. Alternatively, where unique features are present in multiple slide images, these features can be aligned to register these images . These feature-based techniques are advantageous for tissue-specific registration methods because they can utilise structures which are characteristic of the given tissue. Of particular interest in the present paper are registration methods based on the cell nuclei. Can et al.  used such a technique to register slides by aligning nuclear images extracted from the histolog- ical slides. Another example of such a technique developed by Weiss et al.  uses nuclear density as a feature for registration.
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In this paper, in micro-CT based model of rat pulmonary vein wall, and in sheep atria models based on high resolution serial histological sections, we demonstrate effects of heart geometry and anisotropy on cardiac re-entry anatomy induced drift, and pinning to sharp fluctuations of thickness in the tissue layer. The data sets of sheep atria and rat pulmonary vein wall are incorporated into the BeatBox High Performance Computing simulation environment for anatomically realistic computer simulations. Cardiac re-entry is initiated at prescribed locations in the spatially homogeneous mono-domain micro-CT and serial histological sections based models of cardiac tissue. Excitation is described by simplified FitzHugh-Nagumo kinetics. In the in-silico models, isotropic and anisotropic conduction show specific anatomy effects and the interplay between anatomy and anisotropy of the heart. The main objectives are to demonstrate the functional role of the species hearts geometry and anisotropy in the anatomy induced drift of cardiac re-entry. In case of the particular region of the rat pulmonary vein wall with ∼ 90 ◦ transmural fiber rotation, it is shown that the joint effect of the PV wall geometry and anisotropy
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A major application of spatial pattern analysis has been to the study of the spatial distribution of cellular inclusions and protein deposits in neurodegenerative disease . In diseases such as AD and CJD, randomly distributed lesions are rare and, within a particular disorder, usually comprise less than 6% of tissue sections analysed. A randomly distributed pattern is most likely to be found when the density of a lesion is low and individuals are widely scattered . Regularly distributed lesions are also uncommon in brain tissue and occur either when the density of objects is low and lesions are widely spaced or when the density of a lesion is high. Pathological lesions are rarely regularly distributed but neuronal cell bodies within normal control brain are often distributed evenly parallel to the pia mater. In the neurodegenerative diseases studied to date, including AD, CJD and the various forms of FTD, the most common spatial pattern observed is clustering . Clusters that are randomly distributed are rare, although the degree of vacuolation (“spongiform change”) in patients with sporadic CJD may show this pattern in some cortical areas . In the majority of tissues examined, clustering takes two forms. First, the most common type of distribution is of clusters that are regularly distributed parallel to the tissue boundary. In some circumstances, smaller aggregations of lesions are clustered together to form larger aggregations and clustering may therefore occur at two or more scales in the tissue. Hence, such methods as the V/M method applied to grids or transects will be essential to reveal these patterns in brain tissue. Second, lesions occur in large clusters, usually greater than 6400 µm in diameter, and a single cluster may occupy a considerable portion of the sampled area. Within such large clusters, individual lesions may be randomly or uniformly distributed.
The fact that the NLO microscopy can be performed on unstained thick specimens, is the main driving force for its use in the study of both ex vivo and in vivo biological process. However, we have recently demonstrated that NLO microscopy is also an important tool for routinely stained biopsy samples . One very important reason is that long time-scale processes in the range of years can be followed using an already built library of H&E stained slides of cancer samples. If a new microscopy technique can see new features on those stored ma- terials then, it would be possible to make a retrospective study of long time-scale biological processes. The cali- bration of a new technique against the gold standard is also an excellent reason to use fixed samples, especially when the chance of uncover extra information not apparent in the H&E sections is available. In addition, the NLO microscopy could allow the automatization of the analysis in clinical pathology, enhancing the productivi- ty in this field.
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Both MRI and histological evaluation identified large areas of cartilage loss, with histological evaluation identi- fying slightly larger areas compared with MRI. The indi- vidual scores for each patient obtained by the two modalities are represented in Fig. 3. Histological evalu- ation identified substantially larger areas with full loss of cartilage than MRI (Fig. 4). Retrospective direct com- parison of SPGR images and histological sections showed that the difference between MRI and histological evaluation in scoring any cartilage loss could in most cases be attributed to a thin layer of high signal intensity on the bony surface, which was scored as cartilage on MRI, but was not identified as cartilage on histological evaluation (Fig. 5).
Evaluation of the size of the cardiomyocytes, the volume density of glycogen, the interstitial tissue and the myoﬁ bril volume fraction Histological sections of the heart left ventricles of each ani- mal were stained with Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and observed with the light microscope at an objective magniﬁ cation of x. The diameter of cardiomyocytes was measured by using Zeiss Axioscope software. For glycogen cytochemistry, the sections were stained with periodic acid-Schiﬀ (PAS) pro- cedure. Sirius red staining was used for the visualization of connective tissue. Stereological analysis  was performed using Weibel’s test system. Th e volume density of glycogen storage (PAS-positive granules in cytoplasm), the interstitial tissue (Sirius red staining) and the myofibril volume frac- tion (HE method) were estimated as described previously [, , ]. Volume density of glycogen and of interstitial tis- sue was estimated by counting points of grid system, which hit glycogen granules/interstitial tissue and reference space (hits on glycogen/interstitial tissue and myocytes) at an ob- jective magniﬁ cation of x. Volume density of interstitial tissue  is the quotient between hits falling on interstitial tissue and hits falling on reference space. Myoﬁ bril volume fraction was estimated by counting points of grid system, which hit myoﬁ brils in myocytes and reference space (hits on myocytes with and without myofibrils) at an objective magniﬁ cation x. Myoﬁ bril volume fraction is the quotient between hits falling on myoﬁ brils and hits falling on refer- ence space. Volume density of glycogen, interstitial tissue and myoﬁ bril volume fraction were expressed in mm /mm .
Fig. 6 Photomicrograph of histological sections of the testes of the experimental rats at week 4. H & E × 400. Plate 1; Control subgroup (1a). Sectioned area showing Interstitial cells of Leydig in the interstitial space (LC); Seminiferous tubule epithelium containing cells of the spermatogenic series including spermatogonia (SZ); spermatocyte (SC); Round spermatids (RS); elongated spermatids (ES) and sertoli cells and the lumen containing spermatozoa (LU). Plate 2: Treated subgroup (2a) with 250 mg/kg body weight of aqueous root extract of Chrysophyllum albidum . Sectioned area shows spermatogenic cells in normal sequential maturation. Plate 3: Treated subgroup (3a) with 500 mg/kg body weight of aqueous root extract of Chrysophyllum albidum . Sectioned area shows focal spermatogenic arrest at the stage of conversion from spermatocyte to spermatids (A). Spermatogenic cells in view include
Abstract: The organophosphate, Dichlorvos (2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) is among the most utilized pesticide globally with a potential to cause harm to non-target organisms. This study assessed the sublethal effect of Dichlorvos concentrations on gills histology and biochemical parameters in Clarias gariepinus. In the acute studies, fish were distributed into five groups in triplicates and exposed to 0.40, 0.45, 0.50, 0.55 and 0.60 mg/L of Dichlorvos for 96 hours. Acute toxicity data of Dichlorvos to fish was observed to be 0.49mg/L. In chronic exposure, fishes were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of 0.049 mg/L and 0.0049 mg/L of Dichlorvos and a control group devoid of the test chemical for 30 days. Liver and gills were harvested and evaluated for antioxidant activities and histopathology respectively. In the exposed animals, the activities of the enzyme GSH, SOD, CAT and GST were biphasic throughout the duration of study. There was a significant induction (P > 0.05) in the activity of GSH, SOD, CAT and GST on day 14 in fish when compared to day 0. While on day 30, there was a significant inhibition (P > 0.05) in the activity of GSH, SOD, CAT and GST respectively. The level of lipid peroxidation in exposed fish was significant induced (P > 0.05) throughout the study period. Histological sections of the gills revealed a decreasing incidence of necrosis induced lesion, disorganization of the whole length of the cartilaginous support of the primary lamellae, hypotrophy of the secondary lamellae, lamellae fusion and blood clot with increasing duration of the study. The reduced incidence of histopathological defects with increasing exposure suggest that the gills of C. gariepinus may be equipped with adaptive to counter prolonged exposure to environmental contaminants. The biphasic activity of antioxidant defense enzymes such as GSH, SOD, CAT and GST in fish suggest that short duration chronic studies may not be sufficient to give an overview of the overall health of an aquatic system.
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Background: Excessive consumption of High Fat Diet (HFD) harmfully impacts body tissues and organs. Interestingly, there is a high concern towards the use of medicinal plants to ameliorate those harmful effects. Objectives: This study is aimed at investigating the effective possibility of Nigella Sativa (NS) seeds powder on liver and small intestine of the rats fed on HFD using biochemical, histological and morphometric techniques. Material and Methods: Eighteen adult male albino rats were randomly divided into three equal groups. Group I (control) was fed on standard rat pellets chow, Group II (HFD) was fed on standard diet mixed butter (20% fat of diet) and Group III (HFD + NS) was fed on HFD and concomitantly administrated Nigella sativa (300 mg/Kg daily orally) for 8 weeks. The biochemical study included lipid profile assessment and the histological study included paraffin sections of small intestine and liver stained by Hematoxylin and Eosin, Masson-trichrome for liver collagen and PAS for intestinal Goblet cells to evaluate the histological alteration. Quantitative statistical analysis of area percent of liver collagen content and goblet cells was done using Digital pro-image analysis. Results: HFD was associated with increased serum lipid profile. The histological analysis of hepatic sections revealed abundant fat deposition, inflammatory cell infiltrate, degeneration of hepatocytes with significant increase of collagen fibers as shown by image analysis. Inflammatory changes with significant reduction in the mean area percent of Goblet cells were observed in intestine of HFD group. NS intake significantly lowered serum level of total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL, in concomitant with reversed HFD-induced histological alteration by decreasing hepatic collagen deposition and increasing intestinal goblet cells. Conclusion: Biochemical, histological and morphometric results provided further evidence that crude NS seeds powder can ameliorate high fat diet–induced alteration in liver and small intestine suggesting its beneficial use in preventive medicine .
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Renal fibrosis caused by excessive accumulation of collagen in the kidney is considered the principal process involved in the progression of chronic kidney diseases (Pradère et al., 2008). The presence of kidney fibrosis seemed mostly to be viewed as an endpoint or marker of tissue or organ failure and loss of function (Cohen, 1995). In addition, Khubchandani et al (2010) reported that the normal glomerular basement membrane composed of type IV collagen which has an important function in the process of filtration, therefore, increased collagen production plays a key role in the development and progression of glomerular sclerosis. Moreover, Yang et al (2010) stated that the development of interstitial fibrosis was a secondary process that resulted from defective epithelial repair and could be regarded as a default mechanism of inadequate regeneration. Here, kidney sections of DEN/CCl 4 -induced rats showed a massive accumulation of
Immunoelectron microscopy. Samples of peritoneal exudate containing tachyzoites were obtained from mice infected 2 days previously with the mouse- virulent T. gondii BK. In addition, samples of mouse brains containing tissue cysts were obtained from mice infected 3 months previously with cysts of the RRA strain. The samples were fixed overnight in 2% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, dehydrated rapidly, and embedded in LR white resin. For immunostaining, a three-stage protocol was used. Thin sections containing tachyzoites or tissue cysts were placed on nickel grids. The grids were floated initially on 1% BSA in Tris buffer to block nonspecific staining followed by rat MAb CC2 (diluted 1:2). Sections were washed and floated on rabbit anti-rat Ig (1:50). The final stage was either goat anti-rabbit Ig conjugated to 10-nm colloid gold or protein A conjugated to 5-nm gold. Controls included omission of the primary antibody or use of an irrelevant antibody (anti-amyloid). Sections were stained with uranyl acetate prior to examination in a JEOL 1200 EX electron microscope.
there is any effect/damage to the liver due to any drug treatment, then there will be elevation in serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin. The hepatic enzyme activities and other biochemical parameters assessed in Solanum erianthum treated group showed no elevations from normal values. The kidney sections in all the groups showed intact glomerular architecture and basement membrane, the histological structures in the treated group were comparable to normal control group indicating the safety of the extract to the kidney, which was supported by the serum biochemical parameters.
Background: Methotrexate (MTX) was one of the first drugs synthesized for a specific chemotherapeutic purpose used to inhibit folic acid (FA) for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children. Its history is closely related to the discovery and characterization of folic acid. It is used clinically in medicine to treat a range of cancerous and noncancerous conditions. MTX is currently used in gynecology to treat disorders arising from trophoblastic tissue, namely, ectopic pregnancy. MTX, the most frequently used disease- modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD), suppresses disease activity and reduces joint damage. The aim of study: It is designed to demonstrate the effect of MTX (7.5 mg/wk.) on the histogenesis of gonad (testis) of newborn Albino rat. Material & Methods: Twenty pregnant female rats taken, classified equally to 10 control and 10 treated with MTX intramuscularly (first dose at day 15 of gestation and second dose at two day after birth). After normal vaginal delivery, newborns harvested at day seven. For histological study the newborn gonad (testis) were fixed in Bouin’s fixative, paraffin infiltration, and then embedded sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin, the specimens independently read. The result: The histological investigation showing atrophy of seminiferous tubules, increase interstitial space with reduce interstitial connective tissue and leydig cell, destruction of basement membrane, complete detachment of spermatogenic cell from basement membrane, atrophy of spermatogenic cell, swelling spermatogenic cell, degeneration sertoli and leydig cell, cell death, congested blood vessels and hemorrhage. The statistical analysis at day seven shown significant decrease (P<0.05) in newborn weight compared with control group. Highly significant increase (P<0.001) in diameter of testes. Significant decrease (P<0.01) in diameter of seminiferous
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A&B) Control: large sized ducts are surrounded by a thick layer of dense fibrous (arrow) and small number of lobular acini (head arrow).C-F) T1: increased number of lobules. Lobules show many alveoli (head arrows) and few ducts (arrow), many of the nuclei in the alveolar cells were small and densely stained (arrow). This characteristic is one of the typical histological features of apoptotic cells. G-I) T2: a huge proportion of the stroma is occupied by well-developed lobules with many acini per lobule (head arrow). The acinar cells exhibit prominent vacuoles (v). Note the marked increase in the- size of lobules. Elongation and burfication of duct (arrow), a well-developed lobule containing main acini (arrows) they are lined by cubical epithelium with pale basophilic finely vacuolated cytoplasm, a duct (arrow) and many acini (arrow heads). The acini show more abundant vacuolated cytoplasm.
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The biochemical findings in this work were in agreement with those obtained by El-Hoseany  and Rashid et al.  who reported that 5-FU ad- ministration led to impairment in kidney function as shown by increase in creatinine and urea and a significant reduction in total serum proteins and albu- min. Nephrotoxicity induced by 5-FU was confirmed by histological changes including glomerular and tubular degeneration. Homogenous eosinophilic casts were seen in some tubules. Dilated and congested glomerular capillary loops were frequently observed. Obtained results are similar to those recorded previ- ously by Ali and Al Moundhri  and Rashid et al. . They confirmed that 5-FU and cisplatin severely impaired renal function.
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In this study, sigmoid colon was selected to examine the histological changes in the colon using light microscope, where its main objective is to store feces un- til enters the rectum and expelled through the anus, and it is the site of wide range of complications. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s (inflammatory bowel dis- eases) may occur here. Also, the diverticulitis is more common in the sigmoid than any other part of the bowel, as well as cancers that prefer the sigmoid colon. The mucus layer functions as a dynamic protective barrier and interacts with the commensal microbiota to keep a steady maintenance and balance. This ho- meostasis between mucus and the microbiota is damaged in a variety of intestin- al disorders, including IBD, where as in these patients, mucosal inflammation was shown to be associated with a reduction in the diversity of the microbiota. More specifically, a loss of anaerobic bacteria such as Bacteroides, Eubacterium, and Lactobacillus species was reported  . Our examined histological sec- tions of sigmoid colon indicated no observable significant effect on tissues structure, except the mucus thickness which was increased in the treated rats by camel products compared to control group (P < 0.05).
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In the final clinical study, by Smith et al 2013 (15), was a prospective, randomised, controlled clinical trial involving 12 horses with end-stage tendinitis. Further, the histological evaluations of the tendon samples were blinded. Although the horses in the study were not exercised above trotting speeds, there were substantial improvements in ultrasonographic, histological and biomechanical characteristics of healing tissue six months after Intralesional BMMSC treatment. From an experimental design perspective, this study provides the most compelling results supporting stem cell use for flexor tendinitis in horses and should be classified as B2.
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In this experiment, the morphological grading of the esophagus and histological grading H&E stained esopha- geal sections showed that esophageal damage and in- flammation were markedly decreased in the n-3 PUFA group ( P < 0.05), while the proportion of grade III dam- age in n-6 PUFAs group was significantly higher than other RE model groups (7/8, 87.5 %), which suggested that n-3 PUFA reduced inflammation and reflux-related damage, while n-6 PUFA increased inflammation. Al- though the exact time of acute RE could not be esti- mated, the acute inflammation in esophageal mucosa during GERD is persistent and is the initial step before development of chronicity . Consequently, n-3 PUFA may be a potential treatment option to prevent and con- trol GERD.
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The immunohistochemistry (IHC) for staining of tissue sections for different proteins is a standard method for diagnostic and research purposes. Staining for platelet endothelial cell (EC) adhesion molecule (PECAM-1 / CD31) with tagged antibodies is an effective method for identifying and localising the ECs that line blood vessels, as CD31 is expressed consti- tutively on the surface of adult, embryonic and tumour ECs. In oncology, the expression of CD31 by endothelial cells in angiogenic vessels has gained considerable attention as the tumour vasculature is emerging as an important therapeutic target for cancer. Despite the popularity of the use of IHC to stain for different proteins and the growth and power of com- puter and image analysis algorithms, manual procedures are still the most common method for assessing the presence, absence, distribution or intensity of staining[1, 2].
None of the four predictors (gender, age, extra courses taken and Microscopical identification) were statistically (p > 0.05) associated to diagnosing and reporting histological/ histopathological sections among faculties. Our findings disclaimed the opinion of consultants and doctors who assumed that the diagnosis should be performed biomedical scientist only under the condition that they acquired a medical degree .
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