The research entitled in “The Use of Thematic Progression in Writing HortatoryExposition Text” is aimed at finding out the students’ activities in learning hortatoryexposition text by using thematic progression patterns and finding out the level of students’ writing skill by using thematic progression patterns in learning hortatoryexposition text. This research is expected to give contribution and some informations about the implementation of thematic progression patterns in writing field, especially in hortatoryexposition text. Thematic progression is a way to make a good text in term of good cohesion and coherent of text. It means that thematic progression will influence a content of text and it can be organized into a good organization of essay. There are three patterns of thematic progression used namely constant theme, linear theme, and split rheme. The result of this research shows that the use of thematic progression patterns in writing hortatoryexposition text was effective. It can be shown by comparing result of pretest and posttest of exeperimental class. The average of pretest was 49,09 while the average of posttest was 76,16. It means that the students’ writing ability in posttest was improved than the pretest. Based on the students’ documents in post-test of the experimental class, it can be summarized that most of students got the medium and high level. The medium level was the most achieved level with 84%, while the high level was 10%, and low level was 6%. In addition, most of students could pass the KKM (Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal). Since The KKM for English in Senior High School is 75.
Keywords: Achievement, Writing, HortatoryExposition Text, Dictogloss Technique
INTRODUCTION Background of the Study
Communication is an activity of expressing or sharing thoughts, ideas, feelings, and information to other people. There are two ways of communication, namely written and oral. When something is communicated or conveyed in a written form, it is called writing. Writing skills are specific abilities which help students put their thoughts into words in a meaningful form and to mentally interact with the message. (http://www.sil.org).
Keywords: RAFT strategy, hortatoryexposition text, writing
Abstrak: penelitian ini merupakan penelitian mengenai penemuan seberapa baik strategi
RAFT meningkatkan keterampilan menulis text hortatory siswa dalam hubungan kebenaran menulis tenses simple present dan teks organisasi yang lengkap dari teks hortatory eksposisi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk meningkatkan kemampuan siswa dalam menulis teks hortatory eksposisi. Metode yang digunakan adalah penelitian tindakan kelas. Subjek dari penelitian ini adalah 32 orang siswa kelas XI IPA semester 2 dari SMAN 7 Pontianak tahun akademik 2013/2014. Berdasarkan data analisis, hasilnya menunjukkan peningkatan. Hal tersebut dibuktikan dari nilai rata-rata siswa dalam menulis teks hortatory eksposisi yang meningkat dari 69.63(sedang) di lingkaran pertama menjadi 79.90 (baik) dilingkaran kedua. Berdasarkan hasil data analisis, penulis mengambil kesimpulan bahwa strategi RAFT bekerja dengan baik dalam meningkatkan kemampuan menulis siswa dalam teks hortatory eksposisi.
This research represents the descriptive research to describe students’ ability of eleventh grade students at SMAN 14 Pekanbaru in writing hortatoryexposition text. The total number of eleventh grade students at SMAN 14 Pekanbaru in academic year 2015/2016 was 210 students that consisted of 7 classes. In this research, the researcher used ‘cluster random sampling technique” to choose the sample, and the total sample of this research amount to 30 students. The data was collected through writing test, where the students were asked to write a hortatoryexposition text based on the topics that were provided by researcher of this research. The test was done around 90 minutes for every time of the test. The students’ entire test was scored by two persons as scorers of this research. Those two scores gave scores to the students’ test based on the criteria in the instrumentation of this research. The result showed that the student’ ability in writing hortatoryexposition text was categorized “average to good”. It can be proven by the average of students’ writing test score that was 61.65 that cannot achieve the passing grade yet.
Keywords: Teaching, reading comprehension, Mind Mapping
Abstrak: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menginvestigasi keefektifan Mind Mapping dalam mengajar pemahaman membaca teks hortatoryexposition di MAS Darul Hidayah pada Tahun Akademik 2013/2014. Penelitian ini adalah merupakan studi pre-eksperimen. Para siswa tahun 11 dari MAS Darul Hidayah menjadi populasi dan sampel pada penelitian ini. Mereka berjumlah 28 siswa. Berdasarkan perhitungan dan analisis data, keefektifan teknik Mind Mapping yang diajarkan kepada para siswa tahun 11 MAS Darul Hidayah Tahun Academik 2013/2014 adalah medium. Para siswa mengalami kemajuan dalam pemahaman membaca walaupun jumlah siswa yang mencapai target skor tidak banyak. Peningkaatan pemahaman membaca ini adalah efek dari aplikasi Mind Mapping.
Regarding to the findings, the researcher found that the previous studies written by Rinansyah (2012) used clustering as the technique in teaching writing. Writing among students takes less attention to the process of its activities.They tend to be desperation, taking a long process and unorganized result. Clustering technique was designed to overcome student s’ difficulties in writing. Based on the two studies above, the researcher might conclude that clustering technique was not only used to teach the students’ in writing, but also applied to solve the students’ problem in making hortatoryexposition text. DePorter&Hemackiin Hermansyah (2012:2) assert “Clustering is the way to classify the ideas and share into a piece of paper by making the connection with the core of the idea. ” Refering to the statement, it could be said that clustering is powerful tool in free writing to generate the ideas from mind. It is a good way to develop idea before starting the writing activity.
Abstract: Most of students’ problems in writing are that they do not know how to generate and develop the idea for their writing and how to express their opinion of an idea. To help the students to overcome their problems, the writer used emphasizing guidance technique in prewriting stage by giving the students 5WH questions provided by the writer to help the students to generate the idea for their writing. To help them to use their own opinion of an idea in their writing, the writer chose hortatoryexposition text.This research was conducted in a pre-experimental one group pretest-posttest design and purposed to investigate whether the emphasis of guidance by using 5WH questions can improve students’ skill in writing hortatoryexposition text to eleventh grade students of SMA Negeri 6 Pontianak in academic year 2012/2013. The class which was taken by the writer was science class A which consists of 27 students. The technique of data collecting was measurement and the tool of data collecting was written test.It was found that emphasizing guidance by using 5WH in prewriting stage is effective in improving students’ skill in writing hortatoryexposition text. The result of data analysis showed significant improvement of 21.85 with mean score of pretest 55.19 which is qualified as average and mean score of posttest 77.05 which is qualified as good. The effect size of the treatment (1.91) is more than 0.8 and categorized as high. The effect size of treatment shows that emphasizing guidance by using 5WH questions in prewriting stage is highly effective in improving students’ skill in writing hortatoryexposition text.
seperlunya terhadap mahasiswi A.n Lismawati yang berjudul :“Improving
Students Achievement In Writing HortatoryExposition Texts Through Dictogloss Technique At The Eleventh Grade Of Mas Al-WashliyahPasarV Pinang Baris” Maka kami berpendapat bahwa skripsi ini sudah dapat diterima dan dimunaqosahkan pada sidang munaqosah Fakultas Tarbiyah UIN – SU
The main core of buzz group technique is the way it forces students to have critical thinking unintentionally. Students will stimulate to think by having a small discussion with their buzz group in limited time, then in the bigger discussion they will encourage their braveness to show their arguments in front of the class and they will get some feedbacks from the member of other groups. And the greatest one is when it is applied in the writing process of their individual work they do not need to think more or even to open dictionary for translating the difficult words, but they just need to develop what they got in the discussion from their friends arguments and adapt with the components of hortatoryexposition text, such as: language features and generic structure.
HortatoryExposition in which they just state their ideas without any further explanation and strong argument.
The improvement also could be seen from the grammar aspect. Unlike their first writing of HortatoryExposition text, the ability of students in writing with correct grammatical structures was better. Focusing on the use of present tense and modal verbs, the students were able to write in correct structures. For instance, before the treatment was given to the experimental group, the students wrote ³6RFLDO PHGLD KDYH PDQ\ DGYDQWDJHV IRU OHDUQLQJ´ After the treatment was given to the experimental group, the students could write use correct pattern of present tense, for example ³6RFLDO PHGLD LV XVHG E\ PDQ\ WHHQDJHUV and it has
This study which entitles the analysis of students’ critical thinking in writing hortatoryexposition text focuses on elaborating the critical thinking of the second social graders students in SMAN 1 Tarik. This study also aims to find out the factors influencing the students’ critical thinking. This study employs descriptive qualitative as the research design. The data which is used to be analyzed is from the students’ writing hortatoryexposition text. The result of this study showed that 43% of students are categorized to the developing level. While 33% students are categorized to beginning level and 23% students are in unacceptable level. The limited critical thinking standard showed in the students’ writing such as clarity, relevancy, and logic. The factors of critical thinking also can be found in this study. The interview results show that the students which have better level of critical thinking, they have reading habit and update the recent information. Other finding of this study is external closures can influence the critical thinking but in this case, the researcher didn’t find any students which participate in any seminars or public discourse which can develop the way of students thinking. In short, having much knowledge about recent issue helps the students to be more critical. Therefore students need to develop their critical thinking through some factors that influence the critical thinking.
A hortatoryexposition text is a type of spoken or written text that is intended to explain the listeners or readers that something should or should not happen or be done (Priyana, 2008:161). In other words, this kind of text can be called as argumentation. Hortatoryexposition text can be found in scientific books, journals, magazines, newspaper articles, academic speech or lecturers, and research report (Anderson, 1997:124). Hortatory expositions are popular among science, academic community and educated people. The generic structure of hortatoryexposition has three components: (1) Thesis, it is a statement or announcement of issue concern. (2) Arguments, they show reasons for concern that will lead to recommendation. (3) Recommendation, it includes the statement of what should or should not happen or be done based on the given arguments (Priyana, 2008:165). Hortatoryexposition text also has the language features. There are (1) Focuses on generic human and non human participants, (2) It uses mental processes. Mental processes is used to state what the writer or speaker thinks or feels about something. For example: realize, feel etc, (3) It often needs material processes. It is used to state what happens, (4) It usually uses simple past tense and passive voice, (5) Enumeration is sometimes necessary to show the list of given arguments: firstly, secondly, and finally. Based on the researcher‟s pre-research, it was found that most of the eleventh grade students of SMAN 10 Pontianak in Academic Year 2016/2017 had the problem in writing hortatoryexposition text. Most of the students were difficult to write a hortatoryexposition text because they should be able to see the topic of the text from two sides: pro and contra. They should also be able to write the arguments for each side. This thing arised the problem because the students tended to respond a certain issue emotively before knowing the facts and evidences. As a result, the students might feel difficult in writing the arguments from the side with which they might not agree.
Fourth meeting, after bestowing pretest and treatment, they got the postest from the researcher. It was to know whether they understand or not and whether the technique can improve their writing skill.
Based on the explanation above, both of classes applied the different technique in learning process like Numbered Heads Together technique to experimental class and Talking Stick to control class. Those techniques were to know students’ comprehension where the researcher had prepared some questions of hortatoryexposition based on text that had given to students. So, they have to understand about the material and the content of the text. The difference between control and experimental class is how to answer the question. In control class used talking stick technique where each of students was ready with the question. Each of them must search the answer. Whereas experimental class, they got the answer based on the result of discussion with their group. So, they can share their idea to produce the good answer.
Marriage and Divorce in Islam: A Brief Exposition The Islamic position on marriage generally is based upon the fact that Allah created men and women so that they can provide company to one another, love one another, procreate and live in peace and tranquillity to the commandments of Allah and the injunctions of His Messenger (s.a.w). We thus read in the Qur’an:
In the 1890's the United States had progressed in many great feats, one of them was being able to hold the marvelous and enlightening World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois in 1893. This particular Exposition, which is one of many, celebrated the 400th anniversary landing of Christopher Columbus to America 1 . The World Fair