The internet’s initial mandate is still one of the best: to allow communication between researchers around the world to exchange information and enhance collaboration. The surfeit of primary data currently threatens an information overload in the developed world, while the most basic information can be lacking in the developing world. University programs such as the Institute of Earth, Oceans, and Space at the University of New Hampshire are working to ferret out useful global hydrological data, while encouraging greater collection and dissemination capabilities where they are lacking. Data availability not only allows for greater understanding of the physical world but, by adding parameters from the socio-political realm, indicators showing regions at risk in the future can be identified. Such projects are taking place for humansecurity at the University of Victoria, and for indicators of water dispute at Oregon State University. Finally, universities are slowly recognizing that water is, by its nature, an exceptionally interdisciplinary resource and that the attendant disputes can only be resolved through active dialog among fields as diverse as science, law, economics, religion, and ethics. It is difficult enough to find university programs at the graduate level which adequately train students in water from a truly interdisciplinary perspective, allowing for exposure to both the science and policy of water resources (there are maybe four such programs in the entire United States) but there is no program which explicitly adds the international component.
The concept has become increasingly widely used since the mid 1990s (Gasper 2010). While initially used primarily with reference to state policies and the search for new international security and development agendas after the end of the Cold War, it is increasingly being used in policy advocacy by civil society groups on a broader range of contemporary issues from civil war to migration to climate change 3 (O’Brien and others 2010; Gasper 2010). Academic institutions have developed research programs and degree programs in humansecurity 4 . Yet humansecurity is a contested concept. There are multiple formulations of its definition and divergent efforts to evolve associated global agendas. Efforts to promote humansecurity for foreign policy of states and institutionalize it at the UN have generated controversies. A large literature has emerged challenging, defending, or explaining the meaning and the added value of the concept. Many practitioners in international affairs, in both security and development fields, remain skeptical of its practical usefulness and political relevance. Often criticized as ambiguous, and subject to as many interpretations, questions remain as to exactly what function it is serving. Is it a full scale conceptual paradigm, a doctrine for a new global security policy, a norm, or just a term – or as Paris (2001) asks in his article ‘HumanSecurity: Paradigm Shift or Hot Air?’ A rich literature aiming to answer these questions has emerged as later sections of this paper will review. In this paper we review the concept, its use in policy debates and the academic literature on the concept as an idea in international relations. We argue that in spite of
11- Commission on HumanSecurity (CHS), ―HumanSecurity Now‖, New York: Commission on HumanSecurity, 2003, p. 4. Alternate phrasings of this definition include: (i) The objective of humansecurity is to protect the vital core of all human lives. (instead of protect: shield, guarantee, defend, maintain, uphold, preserve, secure, safeguard, ensure that...are shielded); (ii) The objective of humansecurity is to protect the vital core of all human lives from critical pervasive threats in a way that is consistent with long-term human fulfilment. (initial definition was this); (iii) The objective of humansecurity is to guarantee a set of vital rights and freedoms to all people, without unduly compromising their ability to pursue other goals; (iv) The objective of humansecurity is to create political, economic, social, cultural, and environmental conditions in which people live knowing that their vital rights and freedoms are secure; and (v) The objective of humansecurity is to keep critical pervasive threats from invading the vital core of human lives. Sabina Alkire, ―Conceptual Framework for HumanSecurity‖, 16 February 2002, available at http:// www.humansecurity-
term humansecurity (Amouyel, 2006; Liotta & Owen, 2006; McCormack, 2008; Tadjbakhsh, 2009). The narrow conception of humansecurity is focusing on ‘freedom from fear’ and factors that perpetuate violence (Owen, 2004). This definition is also called the ‘Canadian Approach’ and adopted by both Canada and Norway (Ferreira & Henk, 2009; Liotta & Owen, 2006). In this approach, humansecurity is defined as ‘freedom from pervasive threats to people’s rights, their safety, or even their lives’, and the key strategies for strengthening humansecurity are identified as ‘strengthening legal norms and building the capacity to enforce them’ (DFAIT, 1999, p. 4). The broad definition of humansecurity is based on three ideas of ‘freedom from want’, ‘freedom from fear’ and ‘freedom from indignity’. This approach is adopted by the governments of Japan, South Africa, and various United Nations affiliated organizations. Trust Fund for HumanSecurity (2004, p. 185) noted that ‘the concept of “humansecurity”…means in addition to providing national protection, focusing on each and every person, eliminating threats to people through cooperation by various countries, international organizations, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society, and striving to strengthen the capacity of people and society so as to enable people to lead self-sufficient lives’. Within the wider conceptualization, the Commission on HumanSecurity (2003, p. 4) also defines humansecurity comprehensively and it ‘means protecting fundamental freedoms – freedoms that are the essence of life. It means protecting people from critical (severe) and pervasive (widespread) threats and situations. It means using processes that build on people’s strengths and aspirations. It means creating political, social, environmental, economic, military and cultural systems that together give people the building blocks of survival, livelihood and dignity’. For the sake of this paper, I adopted the definition of humansecurity from two angles: the freedom from fear and freedom from want.
In 1999, the Government of Japan and the UN launched the United Nations Trust Fund for HumanSecurity (UNTFHS), taking a concrete step towards operationalizing the concept. The UNTFHS has been primarily funded by the government of Japan with the governments of Slovenia and Thailand joining the Fund since 2007. The UNTFHS funds projects relating to key thematic humansecurity areas, such as, post-conflict peacebulding, persistent and chronic poverty, disaster risk reduction, human trafficking and food security. Projects are selected with a view to further “translate the concept of humansecurity into operational activities that provide concrete and sustainable benefits to peoples and communities threatened in their survival, livelihood and dignity.”
enough to cover the root causes of human trafficking. They should vigorously focus on root causes, particularly on corruption and find proper ways to deal with them. iii) Trafficking is a gendered phenomenon. It is likely that people who are vulnerable are powerless, and many vulnerable women become victims of trafficking. In order to uphold a humansecurity approach, emphasis must be given to gendered aspects of trafficking in future research. Gender empowerment would help to reduce both men and women’s vulnerability to trafficking. iv) Education is a must to fight both corruption and trafficking. Secondary female education, for instance, which are 26.6, 30.8 and 17.9 respectively in these three countries, indicate a lower literacy rate of women than men (UNDP, 2011). Education can be a powerful weapon to fight against corruption. Long term secondary education is an important prerequisite in this regard. v) Trafficking is a demand-driven phenomenon that involves corruption. Reducing demand can help to reduce trafficking. More research is necessary on the demand side of trafficking. vi) There are enough anti-trafficking laws in these countries but they are seldom implemented. Implementation of these laws is essential to
This brings us to the second question that our findings pose. It is clear from our interview material that the concept of humansecurity means different things for differently positioned people in Cambodia today. Factors such as age, background, and access to social capital shape the “wants” that people express. It is hardly surprising that a middle-aged rural farmer, who has memories of war, views political rivalry in the distant capital with dread and simply wishes for stability in order that (s)he can get on with the business of making a living. In our rural focus group, for instance, a conciliatory attitude was preferred to a confrontational one: “We need the two major political parties to work together here to solve the problems; having a peaceful country leads to development. We need tolerance, then people will be happy.” However, for today’s swelling group of young students in the capital, who are internet savvy and cognizant of the structural hindrances to their own advancement, securing the future may mean challenging the status quo through protests and demands for a regime change. If both of these positions are to be respected then Cambodia’s leaders are going to need to find a way to respond to challenges and enact change without resorting to violence, threat, and coercion.
Both systematic and systemic change is needed to address the challenge of international adoption promoting practices that could be considered trafficking. In response, the US State Department can start requiring adoption participants to take an online Adoption Law, International Development, and HumanSecurity course. The course can be a requirement of the immigration application (I-600a). The fee for the course, which could be similar to the $400.00 for the required pre-adoption course, could be allotted for United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and designated to the country from where the adoption is happening. This contribution would be designated to help address specific systemic initiatives to prevent the need for adoption in the sending country. This change would provide two solutions, one systematic and one systemic, to the challenge with international adoption promoting practices that could be considered trafficking.
Capacity to store data in comparatively small space as there is need to be right memory space to store. Also, if insist access like passwords such as individual name, mobile number, date of birth etc which is predictable. Complex and negligence of data may lead to leakage ofdata or piracy. Loss of evidence leads to cybercrime and humansecurity issues.
who are “disproportionately represented;” while in terms of gender, girls go to Phnom Penh to work in the garment industry; men to “frontier provinces” for land and agriculture. They concluded that “employment creation in the non-farm sector appears to be the most promising solution.” 69 Cambodia’s is “push” migration rather than “pull” to areas of labour shortage. Some 30 per cent of Cambodia’s internal migrants were young (15-24 years), and 13 per cent in the range 25-29 years (= 8 per cent of the population). 70 Child labour is not uncommon and children may be passed to other families to pay “bondage” debts or cover loans; young daughters previously “sheltered and groomed” to be future wives are often sent to work outside the village, as servants or agricultural labourers, to towns and even as far as Thailand. 71 Other forms of child labour are widespread in Phnom Penh and include begging, street hawking (shoe shine, garlands, flowers, books and newspapers) and foraging (bottles and cans, plastic, food scraps) as well as domestic labour and portering. 72 There may of course be positives associated with migration for work where moneys are remitted to support village households which might otherwise be in dire straits. However, as regards the garment industry, only 13 per cent of migrant workers remit to their families, but this may not necessarily be to the poorest households. 73 Migration can also lead to the development of new skills and their application. It can also lead to lives of destitution in urban slums and deprive children of education and any hope of achieving a better life. There is little evidence that efforts are being made by the central government and provincial authorities to reduce the circumstances which produce push migration and to create better access to employment and basic services which are critical to national and human development, and hence to humansecurity.
There are multiple reasons why the concept of humansecurity as a basis for analysing data is appropriate for this research. First, as has been shown from the results of the online survey, it seems that cyber threats are not taken seriously enough among people, especially in regards to their own security. The author sees the need to analyse how cyber threats can be disrupting to one’s humansecurity. Secondly, cyber threats have not been researched in regards to humansecurity concept before, thus it is time to bring the humansecurity concept up to date with the digital era. Lastly, the humansecurity concept gives a personalised view on security and threats in order to analyse the data from an individual’s perspective, as the study has done so far. The data analysis through the humansecurity concept will use the previous chapter’s results together with relevant literature. The online questionnaire was created with the humansecurity concept in mind. The concept was deliberately omitted from the questionnaire in order not to confuse people. The questions were formulated in a way that they could be used for humansecurity analysis later on. This part of analysis will explore how people’s cyber awareness and their experiences with cybercrime are related to humansecurity. The following analysis is going to be divided into two major parts: humansecurity disruptions through cybercrime and the importance of cyber awareness to humansecurity, in order to have a conclusive narrative and to answer the central research question.
Female refugee and host population participants were selected using a two-stage household cluster design. The first stage included a random selection of 40 clusters (villages) weighted by refugee and host population esti- mates from the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) registration lists of January 2010 and from Djohong District government officials, respectively. The latter figures were 2010 estimates of the Cameroonian population using 2006 census figures adjusted for annual population growth. Since the humansecurity dataset came from a study designed to also characterize gender- based violence (GBV) in the region, the estimated preva- lence of GBV was used to determine sample size. Based on an estimated prevalence of 20-30% from previous GBV studies in Africa , a desired precision of 0.05, and a design effect of 2.0, we estimated a sample size be- tween 500 and 650, assuming a non-response rate of 5%. Since observations within a cluster may be more alike than observations across clusters, particularly with shared perceptions of humansecurity, we took this intra-cluster correlation into account in the sample size calculation. This design effect, defined as the ratio of the variance taking into account the cluster sample design and variance of a simple random sample design with the same number of observations, was conservatively esti- mated at 2.0 based both on previous sexual violence studies [19,20]. To minimize the possibility of increased intra-cluster correlation and homogeneity on the out- come of sexual violence prevalence and to limit design effect, we sampled more clusters in the first stage and fewer households in the second stage ; the second stage included 15 randomly selected women per cluster for a final sample size of 600 respondents.
economically destabilising factor if erosion continues unabated to shorten the lifespan of the dam’s production. The Ethiopian government is currently devising a basin-wide approach to watershed management that has the potential to address erosion concerns. The dam could also reduce humansecurity in the area of human health via a potential rise in malaria. At present, malaria is a seasonal problem in the basin, and people live in scattered settlements, which inhibits the spread of disease. Resettlement plans will concentrate people together in new settlements and water will be present year-round, creating a double risk of an increase in malaria regardless of the Ethiopian government’s supplying of free nets and medicine and its plans to establish a five-kilometre buffer around the reservoir.
exploit and oppress the proletariat or working class. With the advent of Marxism and rise of trade unions demanding more share and equal distributions of resources, some states including USA initiated social security policies not means to protect humansecurity but as tactful strategy of containment of communism(Marshal Plan, Truman doctrine). Thus even in 19 th century and first part of 20 th century, the dominant concept of security was state centric privileging the instruments and agents of the state carrying forward the principles of state sovereignty as first articulated in the Treaty of Westphalia. After Marx, the Neo-Marxists extended his theory to the third world by arguing that the global capitalist economy controlled by wealthy capitalist states is used to impoverish the world‟s poor countries. The intellectuals from Chile, Argentina, Brazil and Peru brought together by the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA, today known as Economic Commission for Latin America and Caribbean ECLAC). The main theoretical tenet of ECLA‟s approach was that former colonies and non- industrialized nations were structurally different from industrialized countries as colonization restructured former colonies so that they specialized in producing in raw materials, cash crops and food stuff for export at low prices to the colonizers home countries. These theorists argued that free trade and international market relations occur in framework of uneven relations between developed and underdeveloped countries and work to reinforce and reproduce these relations. However, Neoliberals believe that it mainly internal factors that lead to underdevelopment not exploitation. They argue that it is corruption within governments‟ i.e. poor governance that is mainly
Even if these two measures could accurately represent comparable indicators of aggregate economic conditions across different societies, they are nonetheless highly problematic for making judgements about the economic dimension of humansecurity. This is because they draw upon datasets developed for a different purpose: they assess national economic performance rather than individual economic security. GNP per capita represents the average annual earnings per person as the average total value of all goods and services produced by a country in one year divided by the size of its population. The unemployment rate, meanwhile, shows the percentage of unemployed workers in a country as share of its total labour force. 27 The two key indicators utilised to provide an assessment of the state of ‘economic’ humansecurity therefore lack an intuitive relationship to the core requirement of an assured basic income. Moreover, it remains unclear how national economic performance metrics correspond with a people-centric understanding of individual economic security, even for the datasets used. Another fundamental problem, with far-reaching political implications, is the ambiguity of the scale of measurement; that is, the failure to clearly identify the threshold between economic security and economic insecurity. 28
These assessments are not necessarily inaccurate. IWT can indeed impact upon humansecurity in these ways. The hunting of wildlife through organised commercial poaching operations can remove an important resource for local communities: wildlife may be part of community-based conservation schemes that generate important local revenues, in turn enhancing food and other forms of income and non-income security in marginalised areas. A range of attempts has been made to illustrate the ramifications of this process. The iWorry campaign by the David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust is a good example. The campaign notes that in Kenya, wildlife tourism generates 12 per cent of GDP, 300,000 jobs, and raised $47 million in national-park entrance fees in 2012 alone. 13 It then seeks to compare the value of a living versus a dead elephant, arguing that alive a single elephant can contribute up to $22,966 annually to the tourism industry around $1.6 million over its lifetime, compared to an average one-off total of $21,000 for its tusks (in end markets). 14
These seven core areas of security have been merged into two categories of freedom: freedom from fear and freedom from want. Food, health, pollution, free atmosphere are the wants of humanity. Violence against individuals and groups from different forces, disparity and organized crime and violence are the fears from which namely needs to be liberated. In an ideal world, each of the UNDP‟s seven categories of threats need adequate global attention and resources. Yet attempts to implement this humansecurity agenda have led to the emergence of two major schools of thought on how to best practice humansecurity- “Freedom from Fear” and “Freedom from Want”. The UNDP 1994 report has originally argued that humansecurity requires attention to both freedoms from fear and freedom from want. Recently, divisions have gradually emerged over the proper scope of that protection. The differences are mainly over what threats from which individuals should be protected, and over which are the appropriate mechanisms for responding to these threats. Besides securing the territorial integrity of the state, security of the people is today‟s need.
It is pertinent to briefly explain some of the concepts we shall encounter in this paper to circumvent ambiguity and enhance its comprehension. These are Humansecurity and sustainable development . Humansecurity cannot be said to be a novel idea because right from when humans became conscious of their consciousness, attempts have been to avoid harm through a deterrent strategy. By the late twentieth century, the concept gained monumental prominence. This was ostensibly because of the ever-increasing global population, and the state of insecurity instigated by man’s inhumanity to man. It was the widespread and cross-cutting threats to humanity that necessitated the process of humansecurity. Humansecurity became a response to the dynamic, complex and interrelated threats adversely affecting the global arena. As the United Nations Commission on HumanSecurity (UNCHS) noted, It is to protect the vital core of all human lives in ways that enhances human freedoms and human fulfillment. Humansecurity means protecting the fundamental freedoms that are the essence of life. It means protecting people form critical (severe) and private (widespread) threats and situation. It means using processes that build on people’s strengths and inspirations. It means creating political, social, environmental, military and cultural systems that together give people the building blocks of survival, livelihood and dignity (UNCHS, 2003:4).
Minister’s Office 2011: 46). 5 From a humansecurity point of view, one should note the emphasis placed on the promotion of gender equality and awareness in training programmes; the sustainability of troop numbers; the depoliticization of the armed forces to ensure they serve the needs of the people rather than those of the state; and the introduction of mechanisms to enable armed personnel to readjust to civilian life and to prepare civilians for support roles within the armed forces (Barbé and Mestres 2007: 52; Serra 2010: Chs 5–6). Moreover, since 2003, debates on the use of the armed forces have included two types of missions: multilateral missions (namely of a peace-support and humanitarian nature) and missions to support Spain’s governmental authorities in ensuring the security and well-being of Spanish citizens (Ministry of Defence 2003: 58– 62). 6 The latter category of missions includes the evacuation of Spanish nationals resident abroad in situations where internal turmoil in the country where they reside endangers their lives and interests. It also covers civil emergency situations caused by natural disasters or human action, such as flood relief interventions, soil decontamination, border controls and the protection of communication lines within the national territory from terrorist attacks. Other possible tasks are the use of the armed forces to enforce environmental laws against ships carrying hazardous or contaminating materials, to deploy on firefighting missions within the national territory or to provide security when major international events are taking place on Spanish soil, such as the meetings of the European Council in Barcelona and Seville (March and June 2002 respectively).
Applicants for admission in the “HumanSecurity and Environment” program have to be well versed in the field of Engineering, Science, Social Science, or the Humanities. In addition, it is demanded that the applicants have a possibility to demonstrate a leadership in the field of HumanSecurity in the future.