Other agents with antioxidant properties have been used for treatment of glaucoma. Ginkgo biloba, similar to saffron, has antiapoptotic and antioxidant capacities [25,26] and has demonstrated desirable effects on steroid- induced ocular hypertension. In a rabbit model, Jia et al  demonstrated that topical Ginkgo biloba extract 4 times daily could suppress dexamethasone induced IOP elevation after 14 days of treatment. In another in vitro study, use of vitamin E as an antioxidant agent was shown to reduce the production of reactive oxygen species and inhibit cell death in TM cell cultures derived from glau- comatous patients . Oxidative stress, in vitro, has been shown to result in mitochondrial and cellular dysfunction in the TM resulting in trabecular cell apoptosis [27,28]. Therefore antioxidants seems to exert both a short term effect in terms of rehabilitating damaged but still func- tional TM, and a long term benefit by reducing apoptosis. The ocular hypotensive effect of saffron extract in our study could be due to the short term effect.
The amount of intraocular pressure reduction ( office hours) achieved in our study by this fixed combination was lower compared to that reported in other studies. Katz et al (15) reported intraocular pressure reduction of 24.1 to 34.9 %.Whitson et al (93) reported IOP reduction of 20.0 to 30.7 %, Stefano et al reported intraocular pressure reduction of 28.6 to 37.6 % .(92). To find out the possible reason of thelesser ocular hypotensive effect in our patients, we looked at the data of individual patients and found 4 patients had intraocular pressure reduction of < 2 mm Hg post treatment (which could most likely to be non-compliance rather than non- response since non- response to both components of the fixed combination is unlikely) . Even after excluding these patients the IOP reduction in the remaining 21 patients was 19.70% (range 9.98 – 36.58 %) , which is still less compared to other studies. It is noteworthy tht all the other studies were on Caucasians. Hence it is possible that the poorer
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Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) became available in June 2010. When patients who were concomitantly using prostaglandin ana- logs and β -blockers switched to travoprost 0.004%/timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination eye drops, there were expec- tations of lessening of administration frequency, increase in protocol adherence, and decreases in IOP. Some studies have reported a hypotensive effect when therapy is changed from prostaglandin analogs and β -blockers to travoprost 0.004%/ timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination eye drops. 2–5 These
The intravenous administration of hydro-methanolic ex- tract of Gentiana floribunda caused a dose-dependent fall in the arterial BP of rats, which is in line with its medicinal use in hypertension. It is customary to use isolated vascu- lar tissue preparations to investigate the possible mode of hypotensive action, as response interference from intact reflex is obliterated . To see effect on vascular resist- ance, Gf.Cr was studied in rat thoracic aorta, which is a prototype tissue routinely used for evaluating underlying pharmacodynamic of BP-lowering effect . Rat aorta was selected to: a) evaluate effect of the extract on K + and PE-induced contractions and thus to distinguish between activity at voltage-operated and receptor-operated calcium channels, b) distinguish between inhibitory effects of test drug on membrane bound Ca ++ channels and those inside the cells and c) determine if the vasodilator effect of Gf.Cr is endothelium-independent or-dependent. Gf.Cr inhib- ited the PE and high K + -induced contractions in endothelium-denuded rings at a similar concentration range, indicating that it was acting equipotently through blockade of voltage- and receptor-operated Ca ++ channels [27,28]. The results were similar to those obtained with verapamil, a standard Ca ++ antagonist . The CCB activity of the extract was confirmed when it shifted the Ca ++ -CRCs, constructed in Ca ++ -free medium to the right. Verapamil also caused similar rightward of Ca ++ -curves in concentration-dependent manner. Smooth muscle contraction is brought about by activation of the 1) membrane bound Ca ++ channels which are: voltage- dependent and receptor-operated Ca ++ channels , but this is not the only mechanism for contractility. Ca ++ in- flux into the cell can also be guided through 2) Ca ++ re- lease from internal stores, like IP 3 -sensitive sarcoplasmic
The technique used to induce model of glaucoma was a modification of that described by Sears and Sears . Rabbits, anaesthetized with ketamine (50 mg/kg i.v.) were used for this experiment. A cannula, attached to a reservoir, was inserted into the anterior chamber with the help of 30 gauge needle, to provide a hydrostat- ic pressure of 25 mmHg during injection of alpha- chymotrypsin. Then a second cannula appropriately shaped 30 gauge, was introduced near the limbus and directed into the posterior chamber through the pupil. Freshly prepared 150 Units of alpha-chymotrypsin (Sigma, USA) prepared in 0.1 mL of sterile saline, was irrigated through the cannula into the posterior chamber. Care was taken to prevent the contact of alpha- chymotrypsin with corneal stroma. Both the cannula was carefully removed without significant loss of aqueous humor. After two days the intraocular pressure was measured using Schiotz indentation tonometer ap- plying7.5and10gweight.Bydrawingagraphofday’s against IOP the maximum period required to achieve stable rise in IOP was determined. In our experiments it was found that 15 days were sufficient to achieve stable rise in IOP. Hence, the drug effects on IOP were meas- ured after 15 days for 3 consecutive days every morn- ing, to assure stable IOP. Those rabbits which showed IOP less than 30.0 mmHg were rejected from the study. Fig 1. Effect of benazepril on normotensive rabbit eye. * p < 0.01,
endogenous opiate activation in the hypotensive action of taurine, a sulfur amino acid, in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. Supplementation of taurine could prevent the development of DOCA-salt hypertension in rats, but failed to change blood pressure in vehicle-treated control rats. Cardiac NE turnover, which was determined from the rate of decline of tissue NE concentration after the administration of alpha-methyl-p- tyrosine, was markedly accelerated in DOCA-salt rats, but 1% taurine supplement restored it to normal. Moreover, naloxone (2 mg/kg), the specific opiate antagonist, increased blood pressure in taurine-treated DOCA-salt rats, restoring it to levels similar to those in the
Given the cross-over nature of this study, the first and sec- ond study periods are separated by a washout period of between 15 and 30 days. This must be of sufficient time for the effect of the drug taken during the first period to disappear and not interfere with the results of the effects of the drug taken in the second period. In this case, the same active ingredient is taken, but at different times of day. During the washout period, all the study patients will be asked to take ASA during the day as they did before the start of the trial. The duration of 15 to 30 days could seem to be excessively long as the half-life of ASA ranges from 2 to 20 h  and, indeed, even 1 week should be suf- ficient time for the drug to be cleared from the body and for any effects of bedtime administration to wear off. Nevertheless, for organisational reasons and so that ABPM measurements are further apart and interfere less with the patients’ daily life, we have opted for a variable washout period.
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There was no significant difference in the mean IOP value between the two groups at baseline. The mean value was 26.83 mmHg for the TTFC group and 26.63 for the Trav + Geltim group (P = 0.626). Both groups showed significant hypotensive effect from baseline at all time points at 1 and 3 months (Table 2). The mean IOP reduction from baseline was also significantly reduced (Table 3, Figure 1). The mean IOP was calculated as the mean value of the measurements taken at the designated four time points.
Physiologically, reduction in blood pressure has been reported to be associated with either decrease in peripheral resistance directly or maintained through central nervous system  . On the basis of above presented results it is difficult to pin point exact site for hypotensive effect of C. rotundus. However, it is hypothesized that this drug might be acting peripherally  by relaxing (smooch muscles) arteriolar wall, thus, reducing the peripheral resistance  . However, its action through CNS cannot be ruled out which may be investigated by involving receptor identification and probable effects of C. rotundus on medullary cardiac centers  .
Hedychium spicatum Buch. Ham. (Zingiberaceae), commonly known as spiked ginger lily, is found in the entire Himalayan region 1,2 . Traditionally, the rhizomes are used in the treatment of respiratory disorders, fevers, tranquilizer, hypotensive, antispasmodic, CNS depressant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antifungal, pediculicidal and cytotoxic activities 3,4,5,6 . The aim of the present paper is to give a detailed literature review on Pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities reported till date. PLAT PROFILE:
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Guyron B et al 1996 21 Desmopressin (1 – deamino-8-D- argininevasopressin, DDAVP) is a synthetic analog of the antidiuretic hormone L – argininevasopressin. DDVAP has been shown to increase the plasma concentration of endothelial factor VIII, thus increasing coagulant activity. There is evidence from controlled clinical trials indicating that DDVAP can reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements for individuals with normal coagulation profiles undergoing various surgical procedures. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the DDVAP in reduction of blood loss during orthognathic surgery. 20 patients, 15 females and 5 males, undergoing bimaxillary osteotomy were randomized into two groups of ten. Perioperatively, group 1 patients received 20 micrograms of DDVAP infused over one-half hour. Group II patients did not receive DDVAP. Hypotensive anaesthesia (mean arterial pressure < 60 mmHg) was routinely employed for both groups. On average, the blood loss in group 1 patients was 144 ml less per patient than group II patients (p < 0.50). Only 2 of 10 patients in group 1 lost in excess of 750 ml (p < 0.20). The average postoperative haematocrit for
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Abstract: Ocular surface disease (OSD) is common among glaucoma patients. Clinical assessment of OSD can be challenging. This review focuses on some of the limitations relating to both subjective and objective measures of OSD, including dry eye. A survey of the literature was conducted to identify the caveats associated with different methods of assessing OSD. The effect of preservatives on the ocular surface, with respect to glaucoma patients in particular, was also reviewed. Objective methods for assessing ocular surface health and disease include the Schirmer test, tear break-up time, fluorescein turnover, corneal and conjunctival staining, tear osmolarity, and vital dyes. These measures all have limitations in terms of their ability to grade the severity of OSD. Previous studies using the OSD Index showed a mild-to-moderate correlation to dry eye disease severity. Other scoring systems for dry eye have shown a relationship to patient symptom scores or quality of life. Due to the challenges clinicians face concerning both subjective and objective ocular surface health assessments, discerning clinical improvement in ocular surface disease can be a challenge. Further research is needed in order to optimize existing clinical methods and/or identify alternative techniques for assessing OSD in the glaucoma population.
Alternative explanations for a stable plasma proANP in response to hypotensive central hypovolemia should be considered. We speculate that a marked reduction in CBV could imply that the walls of the atrium meet and release ANP or that ANP is released by deformation of the atrial wall. An evaluation of the atrium by, eg, MRI could reveal the deformation of the atrial walls during hypoten- sive central hypovolemia. In both patients with congestive heart failure and healthy humans, plasma ANP correlates to MRI-determined right atrial volume (r=0.91, p<0.001) but the association has not been examined during hypo- tensive hypovolemia. 6
The recent past has seen an enormous surge in Endoscopic Surgery of the Paranasal Sinuses. The nasal mucosa is rich in blood supply, hence impaired visibility ensues owing to excessive bleeding, leading to a prolonged surgical time. To avoid such complications, Endoscopic Sinus Surgery can be performed either with local anesthesia 23 , with vasoconstrictors (e.g. Epinephrine, Cocaine and Phenylephrine 7,17,23 ), or under general anesthesia supplemented with controlled hypotension 12 . Several reports have been recorded regarding various techniques for diminishing intraoperative bleeding 27,6,14 . Many ENT surgeons prefer general anesthesia to local anesthesia 15,5,9 . They are comfortable with hypotensive anaesthesia since the duration of surgery is reduced considerably with an excellent view of the surgical field.
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The expression of excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in SIH rats was significantly increased compared with control group (p<0.05), while the expression of inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA was not changed. Melatonin injection into RVLM significantly decreased glutamic acid expression and increased GABA expression, both of which were concentrate-dependent (p<0.05), while artificial cerebrospinal fluid injection had no significant effect on glutamate and GABA expression in SIH rats (Figure 5-6). The c-fos expression in RVLM of SIH rats was significantly higher than that in the control group (p<0.05). Consistent with the effect of melatonin injection by RVLM on glutamic acid expression in SIH rats, all test concentrations of melatonin significantly reduced the expression of c-fos in SIH rats, which also showed a concentration gradient dependence (Figure 7).
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The safety of Salacia chinensis is well documented and has been confirmed in in vitro genotoxicity studies. Govindaraj et al. (2009) have evaluated S. chinensis usage safety with a series of genotoxicity studies by AMES test and chromosomal aberration studies. Mangiferin from S. chinensis shows a significant protective effect against mutagenicity induced by mutagen in S. typhimuriumTA98 and TA100 strain. Similarly, in vitro chromosomal aberration assay did not reveal any significant alterations up to 5 mg/culture as compared to the negative control both in the presence and absence of the metabolic activation. S. chinensis extract (SCE) feeding on Sprague– Dawley rats has no effects on the reproductive outcome even at a remarkably high dosage level, 2000 mg/kg/day. In all SCE treatment groups, no toxic signs were noted and no significant changes in food consumption, body weight gain, gross pathological or histological findings at this high dose were observed (Jihong et al., 2011).
Another of the central hypotensive mechanisms of benzodiazepine is the involvement of hypothalamus. Local administration of GABA antagonists in close proximity of to the hypothalamus increase blood pressure, thus agonist such as diazepam would have reverse effect . Moreover, Marty et al. identified that administration of diazepam and midazolam resulted in a significant decrease in plasma norepinephrine concentration. Plasma norepinephrine concentration is a reliable marker of adrenergic system and because of short half-life, it responds rapidly to changing stimuli. Moreover, he showed that plasma epinephrine concentration decreased significantly only in patients who received midazolam and diazepam administration had no effect on epinephrine concentration. He concluded that systolic blood pressure was decreased significantly in patients who received diazepam or midazolam, whereas diastolic blood pressure decreased only in subjects who received midazolam. Also, he indicated that decrease of sympathetic activity was more marked in patients with a high adrenergic activity such as hypertensive patients . He could not explain the absence effect diazepam on epinephrine concentration. Like the different effect of midazolam and diazepam on concentration of
Results: Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 35.6% of patients. Diabetics had elevated serum levels of triglycerides (P 0.001), homocysteine (P 0.01), folates (P 0.01) and vitamin B12 (P 0.001). A strong association was found between type 2 diabetes and hyperhomocysteinemia (P 0.001). Diabetics with associated treatment had elevated homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate levels when compared to diabetes-free controls. For diabetics with macrovascular complications, we found significant differences in homocysteine (P = 0.010) and folate (P = 0.014) between those taking associated drugs and those who did not. For diabetics with microvascular complications, a significant difference was found in folate only (P = 0.012). Conclusion: Drugs used for hypertension and hyperlipidemia may have an effect on homocysteine levels, for this reason the interaction between drug action and homocysteine levels should be taken into consideration.
Administration of isoprenaline (0.3 µg/kg, 1 µg/kg and 3 µg/kg, i.v.) produced a dose dependent increase in heart rate (tachycardia) and decrease in the MAP. Intravenous administration of PP-28 (0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg, i.v.), propranolol (3 mg/kg) and atenolol (1 mg/kg) alone produced hypotension and reduction in heart rate. Propranolol caused a temporary increase in MAP followed by decrease in blood pressure. The bradycardia effects of these compounds could be placed in the following order PP-28 ≥ atenolol > propranolol as shown in figure 2.Administration of isoprenaline (0.3 µg/kg, 1 µg/kg and 3 µg/kg, i.v.) in the presence of PP-28 (0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg, i.v.), propranolol (3 mg/kg, i.v.) and atenolol (1 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly reduced isoprenaline induced tachycardia and hypotension.Inhibition of cardioaccelerator and hypotensive responses to isoprenaline by PP-28 revealed β adrenoreceptor blocking activity. A.
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Even though this investigation had a strong design to study the postexercise hypotensive effect, because many methodological recommendations were followed, such as having a control condition, realizing pre exercise blood pressure measurements, conducting both experimental conditions the same day of the week and starting the ambulatory blood pressure recording at the same hour of the day , no significant difference was found for the hypotensor effect of RT based on the menstrual cycle phase in which the participants were tested (late follicular phase or menstruation).