42 represents actual happiness, they state. It is more likely the student is nervous and adds the smiley to the request to come across as friendly. The emoticon is placed to ‘modulate an already identifiable act’. Another example Dresner and Herring provide is of a woman on a forum for fellow sufferers of a disease, on which she has written a litany of complaints with a :) at the end of it. The message is clear about the emotional state of the writer, since she explicitly states that she has been crying, moping and feeling down. In this case, the authors say, ‘the smiley functions to mitigate what otherwise could be read as a self-pitying list of complaints.’ Or, in a final example, a complaint can be altered from a ‘rude, selfish gripe’ to a ‘mild, humorous complaint’ by adding an emoticon. This speaks to intention, Dresner and Herring hold, not to emotion. There are two problems with their reasoning, in my view. The first is their uptake of what illocutionaryforce entails. Illocutionaryforce is identical with the speaker’s intention. Utterances are used with a certain kind of illocutionaryforce; therefore, by means of the utterance, an illocutionary act with that illocutionaryforce is performed. Usually, the speaker’s intention and the illocutionaryforce will overlap, since the intention of the speaker determines the illocutionaryforce. However, this does not make the illocutionaryforce the result of the intention; it is the result of the utterance. Secondly, while I agree that emoticons can be used as typographic additions in order to clarify speaker meaning, emoji’s can also be used stand alone. Responding with a singular emoji to a status update message on Facebook is specifically designed to convey an emotion about the message. If John uploads some photos of his party and his Facebook friends like the photos, or press the heart (great) button, or the laughing emoji, it is quite clear that they convey their emotions about the photos in question: they like them, or they think they are great, or funny. Now, it could of course be the case that someone hits the ‘like’ button without sincerely liking the content; maybe
His informant pool consisted of 30 British native speakers of English and 30 Saudi EFL learners and the tool he used was the same Discourse Completion Test as in his 2016 study. The ten situations outlined in this test included a bor- rowed car that got damaged, a borrowed magazine that got torn, a student that was failed by mistake, a borrowed book that was not returned on time, to name only these. The analysis revealed among other things that downgrading strate- gies were the most frequent strategies used by British native speakers of English. This was followed by IllocutionaryForce Indicating Device, taking on responsi- bility, upgrader, offer of repair and lastly verbal redress. On the contrary, Illocu- tionary Force Indicating Device turned out to be the dominant strategy among Saudi teachers, followed in turn by downgrading responsibility, upgrader, offer of repair, taking on responsibility and finally, verbal redress.
Languages have their own system established by certain linguistic conventions, pragmatic rules and sociocultural norms. Motivated by these sociocultural norms, “speakers of a language unconsciously develop a sense of communicative competence which enables them interpret and produce comprehensible and appropriate utterances in their communication process” (Al- Ghamdi et al., 2019: 227). In the online communication environment, emoticons serve as an exemplification of illocutionary forces of virtual utterances that convey users’ feelings and motives. Despite the conventional usage and purposes, emoticons also help indicate the illocutionaryforce of the texts and serve as part of various communication styles and attitudes. There is a huge acceptance of emoticons among Malaysian users. With 58,563 occurrences (60 different types) of emoticons employed by the participants on Facebook, it is learned that emoticons play a significant role in people’s online communication strategies. The advantages of emoticons are that the interpretations are self-contained, simple and widely understood. Suffice to say that Malaysian online users are not just familiar with this feature, but also able to use their imagination and creativity in utilizing virtual symbols as part of speech act realization strategies.
Utterances of RDSs are not assertions and I therefore proposed that declarative sentence type is instead associated with the speech act of presentation. From this, standard assertion is derived via a set of defaults. The first default assigns a truth commitment to φ to the principal, the second requires that the animator have ade- quate evidence for φ , the third identifies the principal and animator. The latter two are overridden by the semantics of the CQ reportative. A key insight captured by this approach is that at-issue propositions are not necessarily asserted. This is not only true for reported propositions, but also the prejacents of propositional attitudes and other epistemic hedges. The assertive defaults may be overridden in a variety of ways, resulting in a range of illocutionary forces being associated with declaratives, from pure presentation to full assertion. Approaches that hard-wire the association between declarative sentence type and the speech act of assertion instead have to in- troduce mechanisms to weaken the assertive force to account for non-assertive uses. AnderBois (2014) achieves this for RDSs by introducing a pragmatic perspective shift, but this will not work for non-reportative hedges. Murray’s (2014) account works for all types of hedges, but is problematic for the reasons discussed in Sec- tion 3.3. More research is needed to decide which of these two ways of approaching the association of illocutionaryforce with sentence type is ultimately to be preferred.
It is worth noticing that, in both examples 5.1 and 5.2, each participant’s available moves have been constrained by the other participants’ moves, in a way that entitles them to certain acceptable speech acts in the exchange, and also obliges them to certain others –as is the case of retracting a defeated claim (example 5.1), and of working out a revision of one’s initial standpoint that takes into account the rebutting reasons adduced (example 5.2). Moreover, the illocutionaryforce initially assigned to an utterance can result in a new speech act with a different force, depending on the recognition afforded to it by the other participants. In example 5.1, an intended verdictive can become an unhappy one (if defeated by reasons), thus changing the commitments of its speaker and the legitimate expectations of the other participants. Also in this example, a verdictive put forward as a proposal can give rise to an exercitive, provided that the participants agree on it. In example 5.2, an initial proposal, qua verdictive, motivates a revision that ends up in a new proposal (another verdictive). Still, this revised proposal, in its turn, gives rise to a new speech act of recommendation (an exercitive) that also entails a commitment from the participants. This suggests that other possible moves by the participants would introduce new obligations and entitlements, thus instituting other possible speech acts.
'greens' and erme 'today'. Likewise, the predicate gaol 'burn' has the following core and peripheral arguments. The core actor argument is indicated by the suffix -mun '1PL' while the core undergoer argument is koboglo 'stone'. The peripheral nominal argument taginma 'tomorrow' is associated only with the junct which includes it. In peripheral junctures, each predicate can also independently select its general status marker; however, the illocutionaryforce suffix which occurs on the independent verb modifies both juncts.
The global characteristics for our two corpora development (dev) and test is described in Table 2, and the distribution of the different illocutionary forces, manually annotated, found in these two corpora is summarised in Table 3. This provides us with a picture of the frequency of each type of illocutionaryforce. The chart shows the prominence of standard assertions (noted as A) over the other types: 124 questions (pure, rhetorical or assertive) have been identi- fied as opposed to about 300 assertions, which is relatively well balanced. Assertions are differentiated regarding the strength of the proposition (A+ or A-) and the strength of the speaker’s position (+A and -A). Cn and PCn respec- tively stand for concession and popular concession. Dis- course regulators (DR), meant to manage the overall dis- cussion, occur on average every 15 assertion or question discourse units, which shows the vitality of the discussions and the diversity of the sub-topics addressed. These fig- ures are also useful to manage priority identification in the implementation.
Abstract. The paper deals with the phraseological intensifiers considered as means of categorization of language intensity which is defined as the amount of illocutionaryforce that the utterance has, degree of strength of verbal expression of the speakers’ intentionality. The paper reveals the pragmatic peculiarities of the phraseological intensifiers in conversation in which they serve as an instrument used by individuals in order to attain certain communicative goals, to convey the speaker pragmatic meaning. In argumentation, which is believed to be a macro speech act, having the illocutionary point to convince a reasonable critic of the acceptability of the standpoint and to resolve differences of opinion, the phraseological intensifier is used to increase the illocutionaryforce of the argument for and against the expressed standpoint.
This study takes a sociolinguistic approach to analyze The Forest of a Thousand Daemons, a translation of the Yoruba text, Ogboju Ode Ninu Igbo Irunmale (1938) which was authored by Daniel Olorunfemi Fagunwa, the greatest Yoruba novelist and translated by Wole Soyinka, a literary icon cum Nobel laureate. The work is premised on the fact that many literary and linguistic attempts at Fagunwa’s work have failed to benchmark the text with the speech act theory and the VARIES model simultaneously as we have done in this study. Fifteen excerpts from the text served as our data. Each datum is subjected to content and quantitative analyses based on relevant sociolinguistic variables of vocation (occupation), sex, age, religion, geography (ethnicity), age, education and socio-economic status. The data were further dissected according to the speech act theory by Austin (1962) in a bid to ascertain the validity of their illocutionaryforce(s). The study indicates that social institutions affect language (choice and use) a great deal and language, in turn, performs different illocutionary acts among various heterogeneous social groups in a speech community like the Yoruba, which is replicated in the text.
A speaker can use different locution acts to achieve the same illocutionaryforce or use one locution for many different purposes. For instance, when you ask someone, “Can you pass the salt?” the literal meaning concerns the hearer’s ability to pass the salt whereas its illocution is to request the hearer to pass the salt to the speaker. If illocutions cause listeners to do something, they are perlocutions; in this case, the hearer’s passing the salt to the speaker. In brief, the locution causes illocutionaryforce which the speaker wants the utterance to have on listeners. One can perform his/her intention indirectly by using illocutions and then cause perlocutionary acts. The illocutionary acts in Austin’s (1962) original framework are what subsequent researchers called speech acts, illocutionaryforce, or pragmatic force (Thomas, 1995). Today most attention has focused on illocutionary acts, the speakers’ actual intention of the utterance.
Similar to how red deer stags grow large antlers to defend harems of females, male stag beetles bear heavy and long mandibles to fight for mating opportunities (Emlen et al., 2005; Inoue and Hasegawa, 2013; Kawano, 2006; Kruuk et al., 2002; Shiokawa and Iwahashi, 2000; Tatsuta et al., 2001). The longer the mandibles, the higher the chances of winning (Emlen et al., 2005; Tatsuta et al., 2001). The same was observed for male dung beetles, who try to probe and dislodge intruder males with their horns in narrow burrows (Emlen, 2008). It is likely that both stag beetles and dung beetles take advantage of longer mandibles or horns by extending their reach towards opponents. However, this mandibular elongation could come at a cost if high bite forces are required, because of a disadvantageously long output lever. Because our study species, C. metallifer, belongs to one of the genera with the relatively longest male mandibles (Gotoh et al., 2012; Kawano, 2006), it is most prone to a reduced force output. Therefore, we expect distinct adaptations if high bite forces are generated.
There are several limitations that need to be ac ged. Firstly, the knee was modeled as a hinge joint which did not require muscles to balance the adduction- abduction and internal-external rotation torques in the model. Secondly, the influence of ligaments, cartilage, fluid, and other soft tissues was not included in this model. However, the passive force contributions by the ligaments, etc. have been shown to be small  and would have likely had little influence on our results. Also, the muscle physiological cross-sectional areas and mo- ment arms were scaled from cadaveric data based on each subject’s mass and height since these values are difficult to measure in vivo. Predicted muscle forces have been shown to be sensitive to these parameters . We also chose to distribute the muscle forces based on mini- mizing the sum of cubed muscle activations. Predictions of muscle force have also been shown to be sensitive to the optimality principle being applied . The percent- age of total muscle fibers activated (muscle activation) is related to muscle fatigue, and experimental evidence has shown this relationship to be approximately cubic . Thus, while imperfect, we believe minimizing the sum of cubed muscle activation is a reasonable choice for the
As in any empirical analysis, we first discuss availability and quality of relevant data. We use the original source reporting the estimates of labor force participation rate in the U.S. - the BLS (2008). As clear from Figure 1, the original growth rate is characterized by a high volatility induced by relatively low accuracy of corresponding measurements. Therefore, we use MA(5) in our comparisons of observed and predicted time series. One also has to bear in mind that the difference between the LFP measured according to the Census Bureau's definition and some true LFP, which represents the variable for a valid quantitative analysis. Due to numerous revisions to the CB's definition over time this difference is also time dependent and introduces significant noise in the analysis.
Comparison with models of pennate muscle architecture Our model of segmented musculature is similar to the most widely used model for relating muscle fiber strain and fiber force to tendon excursion and muscle force in pennate musculature (Benninghoff and Rollhäuser, 1952; Gans and Bock, 1965; Alexander, 1968). More sophisticated pennate muscle models have also been developed, in which curved muscle fibers and deformation of the aponeuroses have been modeled (Woittiez et al., 1984; Huijing and Woittiez, 1984; Zuurbier and Huijing, 1992; Van Leeuwen and Spoor, 1993). The basic pennate model assumes that the distance between the tendon sheets, usually drawn as the width of the muscle, does not change during muscle contraction (Otten, 1988). With this assumption, the pennate model is mathematically identical to our y =1 model of segmented musculature, rotated 90° such
Thus, in this study we attempted, first, to determine whether flight behaviour of freely flying Drosophila is consistent with minimizing retinal slip during optomotor stimulation; second, to evaluate the significance of a rotation- and translation-sensitive motion detector network for flight control; and third, to tackle the question of how total aerodynamic force is distributed on the three force components: thrust, upward force and lateral force in the manoeuvring fly. For this purpose, we flew single animals in a flight arena that rotates a large-field panorama at six distinct angular velocities. While the animal responded to the moving panorama, we simultaneously measured the panorama’s angular position and the fly’s three- dimensional body position including the orientation of the longitudinal body axis. From these measurements we subsequently derived the animal’s (i) horizontal and (ii) vertical velocity, (iii) side-slip movement, (iv) turning motion around the vertical body axis, (v) visual gaze and (vi) retinal slip by modelling the output of the ‘Hassenstein–Reichardt’ elementary motion detector (EMD) of both compound eyes. A numerical model for force balance eventually demonstrated a solution that permits the prediction of the minimum flight path radius of a flight trajectory from the animal’s flight velocities and locomotor capacity.
relatively upright posture of the limbs should increase normal force and decrease shear force because body mass is being accelerated in a horizontal direction (or more force is redirected through the limbs in a horizontal direction). Thus, this posture (and decrease in speed) should also decrease shear force when the cows move on relatively slippery surfaces. By contrast, Kapatkin et al. found no differences in peak forces or impulses (vertical and craniocaudal components of the SRF) generated by dogs trotting on linoleum versus carpet-surfaced trackways (Kapatkin et al., 2007). Therefore, dogs make no change in shear force, at least when running on carpet versus linoleum. Finally, Tokay geckos may increase shear force (up to twice the adhesive force, depending on the direction of shear force relative to the setae) within arrays of thousands of setae to cause powerful friction and adhesion forces that can prevent a gecko from slipping from smooth, dry glass (Autumn et al., 2006). My comparison among these three groups is simplistic, mainly because the data collected and the taxa are so varied. Nevertheless, it demonstrates astonishing diversity among tetrapods in how they cope with traveling on relatively smooth surfaces.
Added mass impulse and drag impulse are consider- ably larger than those by buoyancy and surface tension impulses. Among the two impulses, while drag impulse is larger than added mass impulse for short rod lengths, magnitudes of the two impulses reversed for long rod lengths. However, buoyancy impulse and surface tension impulse gradually increased according to the increase of the rod length. The maximum momentary forces did not significantly decrease according to the increase of a rod; the duration time of the force, on the other hand, increased considerably. The increased duration time of the force is a key factor to increase the impulse for the larger rod. A high impulse contributes to increased jump- ing height of a jumping object.
These disadvantages require the system to be used in a slightly different configuration. The forces will thereby only be transferred to the racks but the engagement is still done from two sides, and is hence possible by using two jacks from the jacking systems which are not in use during transit. A sketch is given in Figure 19. The red beams are the activators which could be driven by the yokes. The forces from the opposite racks are driven through the blue wedges to the red beams. The problem here is the displacement of the red beams, acting like a cantilever with 5MN of force. When these are taken as HE1000M beams displacement would still be at least 6 70 mm, which would be the largest beam which can be applied in the available space. The solution would be to hinge the long beams to create just axial forces. The problem here would be the change of direction of the movements at the non-yoke-driven racks. A solution can be found in the use of a two side wedge system as drawn in Figure 20. One rack is clamped directly by the wedge. The other racks are fixated through a hinged connection as outlined in Figure 21. The maximum pulling force of 5MN can be applied through a cable or bar. Problem of this option would be the large amount of metal and moving parts involved, and hence the large weight of the system and reduced reliability.
The functional significance of the tip-reversal upstroke has been debated for nearly a century. Early flow-visualization evidence suggested that the tip-reversal upstroke is aerodynamically inactive, meaning that it does not produce lift for weight support or thrust (Spedding et al., 1984; Spedding, 1986). However, this is unlikely given dramatic differences in wing kinematics (Brown, 1953; Tobalske and Dial, 1996) between upstroke styles, and observed increases in body acceleration during the upstroke (Brown, 1963; Aldridge, 1987). These early measures of body acceleration do not account for wing inertia in calculating center of mass acceleration, and thus may not accurately reflect performance. Recent evidence for an active upstroke is found in feather loading during the upstroke, indicating a net force directed anteriorly to the bird (Corning and Biewener, 1998), and significant differential pressure on the surfaces of the wing during upstroke through take-off and landing