Some other arguments in favor of the application of regulatory barriers to entry arise from the need to protect the domestic economy and state revenues. Legal barriers as tariffs and monopoly rights can offer precious income for the state (Krugman & Obstfeld, 1994; Church & Ware, 2000). These can be used for the support of the national economy and for the improvement of the citizens’ quality of life in general. In many cases these revenues are transferred in other industrial sectors. Moreover, legal barriers as duties, quotas, taxes, subsidies, loans, procurement policies and price fixing can be used for the support of domestic production. The restriction of competition in an industry can help domestic producers to increase their sales and gain the capital they need in order to survive in the long-term. The capital raised can be used for the achievement of economies of scale as well as for investments in R&D. These policies are mainly used for “infant” industries, meaning those that are still in their initial stage of development and need the support of the state in order to survive (Carlton & Perfloff, 1999). This support is essential especially in cases where the other competitors of the industry are large diversified multinational firms.
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agriculture and industrial sectors have a positive impact on increasing GDP in India (Sahoo & Sethi, 2012). In Pakistan, GDP has increased when the agriculture improved, it means that, the relation between agriculture and GDP are significantly positive (Anwar, Farooq & Qureshi, 2015). Another study supported that the agriculture and industrial sectors have more fundamental impact on Pakistan economy and GDP growth (Nazish, Iqbal & Ramzan, 2013). Even though investments in both sectors are beneficial for countries, the allocation of risk and returns has fundamental role in the business decisions process concerning the level of vertical combination. In the past few decades, agricultural value chains have likely focused on returns in processing and allocation, whereas the risks drop primarily on dominant manufacturing (Vermeulen & Cotula, 2010). Additionally, the distribution of risks and returns are changed because of alternation in agriculture commodity prices, by enhancing the downstream risks to processors and distributors, concerned about the provision securities, and improving returns from production (Noland & Pack, 2005). Advocates of agriculture-led growth (ALG) Article History:
Models in the GPT tradition focus on the importance of general purpose technologies (GPTs) for the growth process. Lipsey, Carlaw and Bekar (2005: 98) define a GPT as “a single generic technology, recognizable as such over its whole lifetime, that initially has much scope for improvement and eventually comes to be widely used, to have multiple uses, and to have many spillover effects”. Thus, a key characteristic of a GPT is its pervasive nature, i.e. that it has the potential to lead to rapid productivity increases in many sectors of the economy for a prolonged period of time. In order to have such a pervasive and long-lasting effect, however, a GPT requires some changes in the set of socio-institutional characteristics that support and facilitate its development (so-called facilitating structure, see Lipsey, Carlaw and Bekar, 2005). When a new GPT (or a set of interrelated GPTs) is well supported and matched by the corresponding facilitating structure, it may lead to periods characterized by prolonged and rapid growth that are sometimes referred to as revolutions. Typical examples are the so-called Fordist age during the post-war decades (characterized by the rise and diffusion of new GPTs based on radical innovations in petrochemical and automotive technologies), or, more recently, the ICT revolution driven by the GPT of programmable computing networks and related technologies (Carlaw, Lipsey and Webb, 2007).
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The Liquid International Capital is Extremely Strong Driving Force of the Economic Globalization Rapid Development. Along with the progress of science and technology, the emergence of the emerging industrial sectors, in order to accelerate the development of its economy, improve the country's international competitiveness, the vast majority of countries in the world have introduced preferential policies to attract foreign capital. At the same time, profit-seeking capital nature also makes capital liquidity. So the international capital expand exponentially. It forms the world's financial system. This international globalization of contemporary capital is the world's economy rapid globalization boosters. This will help to optimize allocation of capital around the world. This promote the development of world economy and trade and accelerate the process of economic globalization.
Fig. 3. Water balance analysis in Long Thanh industrial park. In fact, the water consumption of most industrial sectors was less than effluent discharge, supposes less 10–16 % of effluent discharge. Only the food processing, chemical industry, textiles & leather have the water consumption higher or nearly equal the effluent discharge. The results demonstrate that this industrial park is not currently well designed to take advantages of water consumption. Thus, implementing improvement strategies in the industrial park is essential in order to decrease the system’s water consumption. Strategies focused on minimization and reutilization will suppose a diminution of the water consumption of industrial park or each enterprise; whereas in the case of a substitution of water imported by an industrial park’s own resources (i.e. use of rain and ground water), water consumption will remain constant, but the domestic/imported water relation will increase. Thus, the industrial products and industrial sectors, production processes are the important focus of water consumption and effluence discharge. Practically, however, many factors limit how much of such water can actually be used, reuse and losses in production process. These factors
This study also finds that long term debt in both sectors are low, implying that consumer and industrial firms prefer short term debt (as total debt combines both short term and long term debts, short term debt would be high if long term debt is low). The comparison of estimated adjustment speeds and coefficients of determinants between consumer and industrial sectors show that sectorial differences wield different effects on firms’ capital structure decision. The adjustment speed of leverages, whether it is total or long term debt, is faster in consumer firms than in industrial firms. The shorter period required by consumer firms to adjust to the optimal level of leverage is shorter due to the type of products produced in this industry. Consumer firms produce products that are necessities or for short term consumption as compared to industrial firms which produce products that are durable or for long term consumption. In addition, slower adjustment speed can indicate higher cost of adjustments while faster adjustment speed means lower adjustment cost. Similarly, more profitable and less risky firms have faster adjustment speed as compared to less profitable and riskier firms. Since the bulk of the total debt is short term debt and since long term debt is relatively higher in industrial firms, it can be deduced that it reflects higher cost in industrial firms, thus, lower adjustment speed. In addition, the adjustment coefficient is relatively large, possibly providing evidence to show that the dynamics implied by the models are not rejected and that firms adjust their leverage ratios relatively quickly in an attempt to achieve their target debt ratios. In addition, the speed of capital structure adjustment varies with firm characteristics which means that firm characteristics and the lagged value of leverage can help to explain much of the variation in the current leverage.
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However, researchers believe that merely implementing Green HRM practices and adopting EMS cannot improve SCP. Consequently, the success of EMS and GHRM practices depends on pro-enviornemtnal behaviours (Daily et al., 2009), to mitigate the imbalance between economic and environmental performance and improve SP. Therefore, the EMS ISO 14001 cannot be more effective and successful without considering the vital role of PEB at workplace (Boiral, 2007; Christmann and Taylor, 2006). Therefore, to overcome this problem the current study will examine the relationship among sustainable GHRM practices, organizational citizenship behavior for the environment (OCBE) and EMS to predict SP (SP) at Malaysian manufacturing industry. Malaysian economy and industry is facing the sustainability challenge to balance the economic, social and environmental performance especially in industrial sectors to meet the growing energy and production demand, without degrading the environment. The manufacturing sector is one of a significant contributor to GDP, exports, and vital source of foreign investment and job creation (Department of Statistics, 2015; Economic Report 2014/2015). However, the imbalance between economic and environmental performance, resulting environmental problems. Taking into consideration the growing energy and production demands for sustainable Malaysian economy. It is a prerequisite that manufacturing industry needs to adopt sustainability agenda as planned in EMP (2016-2020). In addition, it addresses the barriers and enablers to the SP of manufacturing companies in Malaysia. Therefore, this study scope is limited to the manufacturing industry of Malaysia.
The table describes the monetary transactions occurring between the industrial sectors, value added and final demand categories. Sectors exchange goods and services e.g. steel bought by the vehicle industry or meat bought by the catering industry. There are sales to external purchasers, such as households, the government and foreign trade. Also in producing goods and services sectors pay for other items such as labour, capital and imported goods, known as value added.
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As electricity is an essential input in almost every production process, it is essential to quantify the impact of economic policies aimed at electricity conservation on the output. This research investigates the effect of unanticipated shocks in electricity consumption, technical efficiency, and electricity price on the value added in the heterogenous service and industrial sectors, under a demand side model. Ireland is utilized as a case study as it is pursuing ambitious electricity conservation targets while in the midst of a severe economic recession. Given the important role of electricity as an input in both the services and industrial sectors, it was feared that these energy conservation targets may adversely impact on these sectors and as a result worsen the national economic situation. Findings show that value added, electricity consumption, electricity price and technical efficiency are co-integrated for both the service and industrial sectors. However, impulse response functions show that positive technical efficiency and consumption shocks have persistent negative effects on the value added of both sectors. Therefore, a direct electricity conservation policy, that puts a constraint on electricity consumption, should not have an adverse effect on sector specific value added.
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Some studies suggest classification of industrial sectors on the parameters of market concentration, share of factors of production in value–added, intensity of R&D, skilled-labour intensity and the number of patents (Davies & Lyons, 1996; OECD, 1996). Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (1996) proposed a classification of industrial sectors (excluding services) into four groups according to technological (R&D) intensity: high-technology industries (HT), medium-high technology industries (MHT), medium-low technology industries (MLT), low-technology industries (LT) (ISIC Rev.3 Technology intensity definition, 2011). Although this classification is used for evaluating economic structure and formation of strategies (including Lithuania), it has some flaws and is unable to foresee all economic aspects. Today, all branches contain segments of high-technology production and products, effective marketing channels, well- known brands, etc. Due to globalization, subjects in low- technology branch earn a significant number of subcontractors in high-technology branch (Kilvits, 2012).
Our economic analysis focused on the economic contribution of South Caro- lina’s natural resource base and recreational related activities to the state econ- omy. In addition, to the three resource-based sectors that provide both industrial and direct recreational opportunities (outdoor recreation, tourism, and forestry), three additional industrial sectors are driven by the state’s natural resource base and contribute to economic activity (mining, boat manufacturing, and commer- cial fishing). The mining sector comprises establishments that extract natural- ly-occurring mineral solids and liquid minerals. Mining includes quarrying, well operations, beneficiating (e.g., crushing, screening, washing, and flotation), and all other operations normally performed at a mine site. The recreational boating industry represents production and maintenance of boats, engines, trailers, ac- cessories, and gear purchased by boaters and anglers in South Carolina and oth- er states. In 2013, it was estimated that there were nearly 400,000 recreational boats in the state, and nearly 700 boating businesses . Commercial fishing is important to South Carolina’s economy. In 2012, commercial fishermen landed over 1000 metric tons of finfish and nearly 4500 metric tons of shellfish .
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1. Structural proportions of the industrial centers gross output by types of economic activity. It is advisable to consider the types of economic activity with the most accessible level of detail. According to the authors, it is acceptable to detail at the level of the second mark of the Classification of Types of Economic Activity. In assessing this indicator, the absence of types of economic activity, whose share exceeds a third of the total volume of gross output, should be considered as positive. Also, a situation of high concentration, when three or less types of economic activity form more than half of the gross output of the industrial center, can be threatening. The assessment of this indicator will help to determine the level of sectorial structure and form the basis for concluding that there is a need to support new types of activities or existing production proportions. As examples, the scenario of the development of industrial centers with imperfect structural proportions of the output can include scenarios for the development of the Detroit city (USA), one- industry towns in eastern Ukraine, and others.
There some factors need to be fulfilled by human beings such as clothing, food, board. They need them but they feel difficult to get them. So, earning a decent living is the right of every human being, therefore, any business activity is done for a better life. The desire of the villagers in the area to earn a high income and decent housing has become a polemic instantly to most major cities in Indonesia such as Jakarta, Bandung, Surabaya, etc. The capacity of these towns is not balanced by the number of traffic. This causes traffic jams everywhere as well as the emergence of slums, informal settlements and industrial pollution as an example of the impact of urbanization . Urbanization has pulling factors and driving forces. Urbanization pulls factors, among others: 1) More modern city life; 2) more complete urban infrastructure;; and 3) Many jobs in the city and better quality education in the city. The urbanization driving factors include: 1) Agricultural land is becoming narrow; 2) Employment is limited; 3) Facilities and infrastructure are limited; and 4) Having a strong dream to be rich.
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Perhaps it is at this level that one finds a core truth of the oft evoked, yet rarely defined notion of a transition towards “creative” industries or economy. Indeed, if one considers the sub-sectors of clothing textiles, crafts or recorded music, in Shetland and over the past twen- ty-odd years, none of these actually have “transited”; if these fields have undergone some changes in their modes of production and capitalisation, or with regard to labour organisa- tion, it makes no sense to affirm that they have mutated to become more “creative”. Howev- er, because of their integration within the Mareel apparatus, and their summoning by its pro- moters, they indirectly contribute to a more general movement: the extension of capitalism within the communication and cultural industries, which has notably been accomplished via the privatisation of equipments and services that were fully or partially socialised after the second world war. Such is the plight of the long-awaited cultural centre (even if expectations were not equally high among all Shetlanders): indeed local citizens have obtained it, but at the cost of their cultural funding and support agency, Shetland Arts, being transformed into a “social enterprise”, in other words, a commercial entity whose key aims include securing prof- its via the sale of popcorn and cinema tickets (Matthews 2015, 112).
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On the other hand, electricity is distributed to these economic sectors of the Eastern Cape province via the National grid. Electricity is transmitted, via the transmission grid to three major substations (i.e. Poseidon, Delphi and Vuyani substations) that mainly feed the Eastern Cape. Different municipalities within the province act as redistributors by purchasing electricity in bulk from Eskom and then redistribute it to various sectors of the economy. Figure 2 provides time series plots of electricity usage by the four growth sectors in the province, that is, electricity usage in commercial sector (ELE_COMM), electricity usage in agriculture sector (ELE_AGRI), electricity usage in industry sector (ELE_IND) and electricity usage in minerals sector (ELE_MIN). As can be observed, the structure of electricity usage has gone through changes over the period of 2003 and 2017. For instance, between 2003 and 2005, electricity consumption was dominated by the industrial sector followed by the commercial sector, the agriculture sector and then the minerals sector. However, subsequent to 2007, electricity usage has been dominated by the commercial sector followed by the agriculture sector, the industrial sector and the minerals sector. Henceforth, the cardinal ranking of electricity consumption in the different growth sectors in the Eastern Cape corresponds to the contribution of the various growth sectors to economic activity.
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FDI considered as very important investment model for utilization of natural resources and development of a nation. For developing countries FDI inflow brings a hope of Long Term Capital, Good Infrastructure, and Raise in Productivity, Advanced Technology, Employment opportunities, Innovative Management and overall growth of economy. In India FDI is also considered as a development tool, which helps in achieving self-reliance in various sectors and in overall development of the economy. It is investment inflow in the enterprises of a country by the
This study examines the importance of the capital structure determinants of Malaysian firms listed across two different sectors. The industrial product and trade and services sectors that have been listed on the Bursa Malaysia will be tested by admiring the firms’ size and economic environment, bring about different influence on the firms' financial behavior. To determine how the firm size effected capital structure determinants, the firms are divided into three categories which are the large firms (main board), the medium firms (second board), and the small firms (MESDAQ) based on the Bursa Malaysia’s listed firms and paid-up capital requirements within the balanced panel data. Based on fiscal year, the data covers 10 years period from 2003 to 2012. Moreover the study will emphasize short term and long term debt across sectors as well as other factors that show the relationship between capital structure determinants and leverage.
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industrial structure was shaped by the interaction of locational advantages and economic and social forces. Its future development is ‘path dependent’ in that its current assets will influence future possibilities. For some cities, such as Blackpool, this leaves little option but to re-invent their present specialism. For others, such as most industrial cities, it limits their range of future options. The risk for industrial and gateway cities is that the
incompatibilities between national institutions. It is apparent that such an issue is particularly relevant at the sector level, given that the impact of the European single market and of EU regulations vary by sector, and that a specific effort has been made to develop sector-level European social dialogue, but in a rather uneven way (Keller and Sörries, 1998; Marginson, 2005; Pochet et al., 2009). For instance, the steel sector has been ‘Europeanised’ since the European Coal and Steel Community came into effect in 1952, whereas some service sectors, such as hairdressing, have remained localised with little or no transnational influences until recently. One important effort at investigating Europeanization at the sector level has been made by Marginson and Sisson (2004), who, in particular, highlighted the impact of multinational companies in fostering a complex double movement: towards decentralisation within national sectors, but also, indirectly and more tentatively, towards cross-border co-ordination. Marginson and Sisson’s study, however, focused on only two sectors (banking and manufacturing) in only four countries. Studies covering a broader range of countries and sectors are still missing.
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Against other aspects of the industrial revolution, environmental protection, resource management and green technology are being further developed. Human society's health relies on the climate. Although natural resources are improving industry and economy, the climate has a negative impact on public health and social issues. Natural disaster preparedness, damage restoration, food security implementation, timely avoidance of global environmental cataclysms, climate change adaptation, biodiversity conservation, water resource management, etc. These issues require new technology for leadership and decision-making. For this reason, new monitoring systems should be built; information exchange systems should be created, intellectual decision- making technologies will be established and integrated with other related economic and technological systems. As a consequence of the industrial revolution there will be a need for new regulation frameworks in human resource relations due to the energy storage and the emergence of new alternative sources of energy.
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