Information Ethics

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Tshwane Declaration: A new dawn for Information ethics in Africa

Tshwane Declaration: A new dawn for Information ethics in Africa

It was eminently clear to all participants that the African continent had poor representation at the symposium. The handful of African participants were mainly sourced from expatriates. Consequently, there were cardinal reasons that occasioned the absence of African scholars in the summit. Some of the ideas just to mention a few relate with; Lack of international recognition; poor funding and facilitation for attending international events and also not much research has been done on the African continent on this critical information ethics topic. A closer scrutiny portrays a picture that indicates seems that African scholars have meager publications compared to there global counterparts and therefore they did not have much to offer on ethical challenges facing Africa in the era of globalization. Rafael Capurro searched for Publications related to African Information Ethics by African scholars and came across a limited number of publications (Africainfoethics.org)
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Digital Platforms and Digital Inequality - An Analysis From Information Ethics Perspective

Digital Platforms and Digital Inequality - An Analysis From Information Ethics Perspective

Digital platforms are information technology artifacts that erode established market structures by providing a digital interaction space for producers and consumers. Therefore, it is argued here that digital platforms inherently support digital divide. This potential, if not governed or made visible for the involved actors, can lead and is already leading to undesired societal and ethical consequences. To derive these insights, Information Systems (IS) perspective is enriched with the Information Ethics approach and terminology. This interdisciplinary view allows considering both the technical and the social side of the problem. The analysis of interactions and roles is performed using the four ethical issues identified by Mason as a general taxonomy of ethical concerns in IS context. The identified aspects offer insights on the potentials of digital platforms that fosters digital inequality. Power asym- metries between the digital platform and its users are identified, outlining their potential for manifes- tation of the digital divide.
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Some Principles of Information Ethics from the Koran

Some Principles of Information Ethics from the Koran

This study aimed at extracting some main principles of information ethics directly or indirectly explained in the Koran and interpreting them in the context of our information society. For extracting the Koranic principles of information ethics, the exegesis of the Koran (tafsīr) approach was used. A relatively comprehensive and public Koran exegesis in Persian, entitled Tafsīr Nūr authored by Muhsin Qarā‘tī was referred to. Findings showed that the Koran considers some ethical principle directly or indirectly applied to information search, use, dissemination and evaluation and ones giving, transforming, receiving, searching and using information, applicable to our information society worldwide. Deeply investigating and carefully applying these main principles of information ethics can be beneficial to all information-related sections.
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Bibliometric mapping of computer and information ethics

Bibliometric mapping of computer and information ethics

The main aim of this paper is to provide an all-in-one overview of the field of C&IE. Given the size and complexity of the field, it is helpful to have a comprehensive all-in-one overview of the most important topics and concepts and their relations. In this paper, we take a bibliometric mapping approach to obtain such an overview. Our approach yields a map of the relations between key terms in the field of and information ethics. A data set was constructed of over thousand titles and abstracts of articles published in journals and conference proceedings on C&IE in the period 2003–2009. Key terms in the data set were identified with the help of a computer algorithm, and for each pair of terms the number of times the terms occur together in the same article was counted. The number of co-occurrences of two terms was used as a
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Information Ethics in Malaysia Paperless Hospital

Information Ethics in Malaysia Paperless Hospital

This paper focuses on the information ethics in Malaysian paperless hospital because of the variability of human behaviour due to the very dynamic nature of cyber space. Currently, Malaysia had implemented two paperless hospitals. These hospitals are using computer information system as a medium to improve their operation efficiency. But at the moment, there is no code of ethics for the healthcare professionals in handling the patient’s information using the computer. They only have code of conduct as a guide. This code of conduct focuses more on patient’s care. The objective of this study is to design an ethical framework towards a successful paperless hospital implementation. The data will be collected by interview and questionnaires. It is hope that the ethical framework will help to increase the efficiency of medical information system in Malaysian public paperless hospital.
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Whistleblowing and information ethics: Facilitation, entropy, and ecopoeisis

Whistleblowing and information ethics: Facilitation, entropy, and ecopoeisis

varan (2005). Brown (2008) offers the most comprehensive study of organizational factors influencing whistleblowing to date, and there is also a stream focusing on rationales and legal aspects of whistleblowing policies (Lewis, 2010; Vandekerckhove, 2006, 2010; Vaughn, 2013). A recent status quaestionis of the field of whistleblowing research can be found in Brown, Lewis, Moberly and Vandekerckhove (2014). Whistleblowing has never been studied from a macro-ethical point of view, i.e. from the perspective of an ethics of environment. Lu- ciano Floridi’s information ethics (IE) is such a macro-ethical approach because it regards information as intrinsically valuable and it provides a framework to evaluate a practice in terms of the extent to which whistleblowing causes or prevents harm to informational objects and regards information as intrinsically valuable. That is a first contribution of this paper to the literature on whistleblowing. It is the first paper to explore whistleblowing from an ecopoietic perspective. My aim, in line with Floridi’s IE, is not to provide an ethical evalua- tion that is superior or overrides egopoietic or sociopoietic evaluations but rather offer com- plementary insights that can be useful for practitioners and policy makers when designing and implementing whistleblowing policies, and when debating the value of public whistle- blowing.
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Role of information ethics in the provision of library and information services in university libraries in Tanzania.

Role of information ethics in the provision of library and information services in university libraries in Tanzania.

Information Ethics in the Northern hemisphere has a longer history than in the Southern hemisphere. Froehlich (2004) claims that in 1980 Barbara J. Kostrewski and Charles Oppenheim wrote an article on ‘Ethics in Information Science’ in which they discussed issues of confidentiality of information, bias of information provided to clients, and the quality of data supplied to online vendors. In 1990 some library schools in North America started teaching information ethics. Most schools of library and information science in United States during that time did not have courses devoted regularly and solely to ethical issues, and even today most of ethical and legal issues are presented in the context of another topic. As years have progressed, information ethics have been adopted by faculty in schools of computer science. In tandem textbooks have emerged like Richard Severson’s “the principles of information ethics”. In this book he outlines the major principles of information ethics in respect to intellectual property, privacy, fair representation, and maleficence (or “do not harm”). Similarly, Marcher Cook wrote on “computer and information ethics” in which he addressed the issue of computer crime, copyright, privacy, software reliability, artificial intelligence, and e-commerce. Other text books have tried to span issues in computer ethics and ethical issues in information management systems, with some treatment of library issues. For example, the University of Pittsburg offered the course on information ethics at Master’s level; Robert Hauptman started the journal of information ethics in 1992 wrote an article on “ethical challenges in librarianship” and identified issues related to censorship, privacy, access to information, balance in collection development, copyright, fair use, code of ethics and problem related to patrons, to mention but a few. Rafael Capurro established International Centre for Information Ethics (ICIE) in 1999. During this period there seemed no activity concerning information ethics in the Southern hemisphere and this may explain why most of the available textbooks on information ethics are from North America and Europe. Besides, most of the activities such as conferences and workshops on information ethics at the time were held in North America.
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Information Ethics for 21 st Century Library Professionals

Information Ethics for 21 st Century Library Professionals

Mill’s (1859) influential argument for intellectual freedom, and against censorship, shows how utilitarianism can be applied to information ethics. There are two steps to Mill’s argument. First, he argues that we are more likely to acquire true beliefs if there is no censorship. Second, he argues that acquiring true beliefs tends to increase overall happiness. In support of the first step, Mill points out that, since human beings are fallible, we are sure to censor some true information if we censor (even if we try to only censor false information). Furthermore, even if we succeeded in only censoring false information, our true beliefs would quickly become “dead dogma[s], not … living truth[s].” That is, we would lose the conviction in our beliefs that comes from seeing how they stand up to criticism.
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Educating Students’ Privacy Decision Making through Information Ethics Curriculum

Educating Students’ Privacy Decision Making through Information Ethics Curriculum

Nowadays, the public have perceived a ubiquitous threat from information technologies, which are equipped with enhanced capabilities for surveillance, storage, retrieval, and transmission of personal information (Clarke, 1988; Mason, 1986). Looking back the contemporary privacy protection technologies, the existing protection methods and techniques seem fail to achieve this goal in guarding information privacy. In addition to technolo- gical protections, we are calling for an essential way to raise people’s consciousness of information privacy. Moreover, while this study conducts in Taiwan, the term “privacy” under Chinese culture is a fragile and vague perception, which traditionally is treated as a right that authority owns; those disadvantaged minorities often have to sacrifice their privacy to gratify the authority’s interest. Under such circumstances, arousing the con- sciousness of privacy is valuable and needed. According to a recent study by Lin & Chou (2014) that investi- gated ethics-related courses related to information ethics in Taiwan 118 universities during 2010 to 2012, the results showed that the information ethics curricula has not yet prevalent offered in the universities, therefore calling for the necessity of higher education on information ethics.
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TEACHING OF INFORMATION ETHICS IN KENYA

TEACHING OF INFORMATION ETHICS IN KENYA

- Wikipedia defines information ethics as the field that investigates the ethical issues arising from the development of and application of information technologies. Information ethics provides a critical frame work for considering moral issues concerning information privacy, moral agency, new environmental issues, problems arising from the life-cycle (creation, collection, recording, distribution, processing, etc.) of information.

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Justice and Responsibility: on (not) teaching computer and information ethics

Justice and Responsibility: on (not) teaching computer and information ethics

Levinas (1991(1974), p.158) argues that we can not speak of the Other without immediately and simultaneously speaking of all Others. The face of the Other obsesses me both in its refusal to be contained (rendered equal) and its recalling of the always already equal claim of all Others weighing down on me in this particular face before me. In the face of the Other is signified always and already the face of all other Others—the ‘third’ in Levinas’ terminology. In the words of Critchly (1999, p.226-7): “Thus my ethical relation to the Other is an unequal, asymmetrical relation to a height that cannot be comprehended, but which, at the same time, opens onto a relation to the third and to humanity as a whole – that is, to a symmetrical communities of equals. This simultaneity of ethics and politics gives a doubling quality to all discourse…the community has a double structure; it is a community of equals which is at the same time based on the inegalitarian moment of the ethical relation.” It is exactly this simultaneous presence of the Other and all other Others that gives birth to the question of justice. The urgency of justice is an urgency born out of the radical asymmetry of every ethical relation. Without such a radical asymmetry the claim of the other can always in principle become determined and codified into a calculation, justice as a calculation and distribution. Thus, justice has its standard, its force, in proximity of the face of the Other. Levinas (1991(1974), p.159) asserts: “justice remains justice only, in a society where there is no distinction between those close and those far off, but in which there also remains the impossibility of passing by the closest. The equality of all is born by my inequality, the surplus of my duties over my rights. The forgetting of self moves justice” (my emphasis). This formulation of justice by Levinas highlights the tension; one could almost say a paradox in Levinas’ justice. There ought to be ‘no distinction between those close and those far
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INTRODUCTION. Information Ethics (Lipinski, 2006). Copyright

INTRODUCTION. Information Ethics (Lipinski, 2006). Copyright

This principle of conditional privilege is illustrated in Crucey v. Jackall, where Williams College sociology professor Robert Jackall, and co-defendant publisher Harvard University Press were sued for statements in his book entitled Wild Cowboys: Urban Marauders & the Forces of Order. The appellate court dismissed the case but with little discussion, failing to assess whether the source of the comments were from an “official proceeding” which would make the republication privileged under law. “It is uncontroverted that the statements at issue had their genesis in an investigation conducted by various elected officials, the results of which were ultimately included in the Congressional Record.” (Crucey v. Jackall, 2000, 20) Instead the court relied on a “gross irresponsibility” standard under New York law. If the subject matter is “arguably within the sphere of legitimate public concern, which is reasonably related to matters warranting public exposition” the plaintiff must prove that the defendant acted in a “grossly irresponsible manner without due consideration for the standards of information gathering and dissemination ordinarily followed by responsible parties.” (Chapadeau v. Utica Observer-Dispatch, 1975, 64) This is yet another form of privilege sometimes known as the privilege of fair comment.
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IRIE International Review of Information Ethics Vol. 14 (12/2010)

IRIE International Review of Information Ethics Vol. 14 (12/2010)

The “real” incorporation of information technology in the teaching process—that is, the actual state of things in the Rio school system—is clearly linked to yet another element, beyond the influx of younger teachers: namely, the Internet itself. Our research points to the clear centrality of the Internet in the current context: laboratories with a quality Inter- net connection see greater use, and Internet research is the most frequent lab activity (and practically the only one assigned by teachers who do not use the lab). Teachers who have more Internet-related skills are the ones who use the lab most frequently. Lastly, but no less importantly, teachers who access the Internet on a daily basis are also the ones most likely to use school com- puters for this purpose (and, ergo, most likely to strive for satisfactory levels of access, in terms of both connectivity and equipment conditions). Finally, it seems clear that incorporating computer use into school curricula, in a broader sense, is different from using computers with the specific goal of remedial learning in mind, with tools creat- ed specifically for that purpose. While the former may contribute, at worst, to spreading a “culture” in which computers and the Internet become inseparable from everyday experience, the latter demands specific training and information. There is no evidence that these two dynamics, which are complementary in theory, can work together in actuality. In this regard, our research shows that the teacher training carried out by the Secretariat of Education over the course of 10 years, although limited in scope, has played a decisive role in determining whether or not a teacher will use the school laboratory with his or her students. Never- theless, this tendency, which helps encourage the use of labs whose Internet access is absent or precarious, seems to prevail only with respect to the early years of primary education. The higher the grade level, the more likely it is that “educa- tional computing” will be limited to “Internet research.” It was not possible to identify the reasons behind this trend in terms of the present study, although possibilities include a lack of knowledge, a lack of specific tools, shortcomings in the way training programs have been designed, or simply a lack of faith among teachers that these resources are compatible with traditional teaching methods.
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CRM systems and information ethics in call centres   you are the weakest link Goodbye!

CRM systems and information ethics in call centres you are the weakest link Goodbye!

We consider the inherent contradictions between CRM systems and the strategically important front line work in terms of privacy, communication richness, management methods and computer e[r]

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Encyclopedia of Information Ethics and Security

Encyclopedia of Information Ethics and Security

The problem of Chase with respect to data con- fidentiality is that it has the ability to reveal hidden data. Sensitive data may be hidden from an informa- tion system, for example, by replacing them with null values. However, any user in the KDS who has access to the knowledge base is able to reconstruct hidden data with Chase by treating them as incomplete or missing elements. For example, in a standalone infor- mation system with a partially confidential attribute, knowledge extracted from a non-confidential part can be used to reconstruct hidden (confidential) values (Im & Ras, 2005a). When a system is distributed with autonomous sites, knowledge extracted from local or remote information systems (Im, Ras, & Dardzinska,
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Ethics of Information Education for Living with Robots

Ethics of Information Education for Living with Robots

Worse, limited school budget does not allow introduce and renew up-to-date computers and infrastructure such as wi-fi connections as well as personnel for maintenance. Excessive network security due to zero-risk mind has led the situation that most schools do not offer school email accounts to students or guardians. Students are only informed of online dangers such as copyright infringement, scams, and personal information leaks in “information ethics courses” or other extracurricular occasions. Most schools do not allow students to bring smartphones to schools. Most families do not have computers for children in home. Young generation in Japan have little idea how to use computers for work; they do not use computers for homework; communications on student affairs in Japanese schools remain paper-based.
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Public relations ethics in information management

Public relations ethics in information management

Surely, information ethics has an important role in information management. In PR, it is important to reconsider how to use information in the contemporary world. What are the implications of old practices in terms of using information and how they could be reinforced with some new ideas? Today, the concept of information is viewed in a different way than in the past, because we are exposed to a wide range of information. Some of this information, which we create within the Internet space, became the focus for various market researchers. Castells (2009) noticed that, with the development of ICT, workers became increasingly dependent on computer ne- tworking in their activity and most companies have decided that they are entitled to monitor them when they are online. At fi rst, with the beginning of the Internet, it seemed that we could protect our privacy. That nation was based on the concept of anonymity. It was possible to introduce oneself by a nickname and it seemed as though we could not be identifi ed. Today, the situation is different, so public relations campaigns by Ralph Tench and Liz Yeomans (2009) should set educating individuals and organizations as one of their goals in the terms of need to adopt proactive practi- ces and protect their own data.
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Baring All: Legal Ethics and Confidentiality of Electronically Stored Information in the Cloud

Baring All: Legal Ethics and Confidentiality of Electronically Stored Information in the Cloud

This Note will explore the use of cloud computing by law firms and the electronic storage of sensitive client information. It will compare the ramifica- tions of notable security breaches with those that may occur within a law firm, and the measures that may be taken to prevent such breaches. To assist in out- lining a balancing test for using the cloud, Part III will explore the advantages to cloud computing as well as the risks that a law firm shoulders in trusting a third party with sensitive client information. Part III will also discuss the risks associated with electronic discovery procedures that accompany a client’s use of the cloud. Part IV will outline current state and federal statutes that govern ESI and e-discovery within a law firm. Also, Part IV will analyze the various ethical duties by which a law firm must abide in providing competent represen- tation.
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Business Ethics -Your Way to Success. An Information Kit for Business Organisations

Business Ethics -Your Way to Success. An Information Kit for Business Organisations

Following the spate of corporate failures in some parts of the world, the quest for ethical leaders has become a global concern. Investors are increasingly in search for leaders with high integrity standard on whom they can put their trust and investments. Apart from the regulations and guidelines issued by the regulators, corporate governance, which embraces ethical principles and practices, serves as a useful reference for leaders to put ethics into practice. However, good governance goes beyond all these but requires your commitment as the top management to perform in the best interests of the shareholders.
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The Ethics of Veracity and It Is Importance in the Medical Ethics

The Ethics of Veracity and It Is Importance in the Medical Ethics

The goals of this overview is to discuss the ethics of telling the patient the truth, with some historical backgrounds and it is importance in medical prac- tice, Justifying Less than Full Disclosure in some situations in which the truth may have a terrible impact on the occasional patient, and the influence of the culture on the health care professionals attitudes towards telling the patient the truth. Conclusion: The health care professionals need more awareness, and training in ethics of veracity and also in the communication skills espe- cially in the context of breaking bad news in telling the patient the truth about diagnosis, treatment outcomes, and prognosis of any serious illness.
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