Despite differences in the format and content of earnings announcements and conference calls, the informationtransfer literature usually combines them into a single informational event when studying the capital market implications. In contrast, we rely on intraday data to separate the effect of the earnings announcement and the conference call. Specifically, capitalizing on the observation that the majority of earnings announcements are made outside of trading hours and a significant proportion of the follow-up conference calls are conducted during the next business day, we construct a large sample of firm-quarter observations where the two information events do not overlap. Using Thomson StreetEvents data between 2002 and 2010, we obtain 19,122 announcing firm observations with a combination of earnings conference calls during trading hours and earnings announcements outside of trading hours. The corresponding sample of peers consists of 334,713 observations, where the peers are firms covered by at least one analyst who also covers the announcing firms (as per I/B/E/S), and which also belong to the same 4-digit Global Industry Classification Standard [GICS] industry group.
System (d TDS), allows people with severe disabilities to use computers more effectively with increased speed, flexibility, usability, and independence through their tongue motion and speech. The effectiveness of the d TDS is proved by calculating the InformationTransfer Rate using the Ns2 simulator.The high InformationTransfer Rate proves that the d TDS is better than either unimodal forms based on the tongue motion or speech alone, particularly in completing tasks that require both pointing and text entry.
It is generally believed that a major cause of motor dysfunction is the impairment in neural network that controls movement. But little is known about the underlying mechanisms of the impairment in cortical control or in the neural connections between cortex and muscle that lead to the loss of motor ability. So understanding the functional connec- tion between motor cortex and effector muscle is of utmost importance. Previous study mostly relied on cross-correla- tion, coherence functions or model based approaches such as Granger causality or dynamic causal modeling. In this work the informationtransfer index (ITI) was introduced to describe the information flows between motor cortex and muscle. Based on the information entropy the ITI can detect both linear and nonlinear interaction between two signals and thus represent a very comprehensive way to define the causality strength. The applicability of ITI is investigated based on simulations and electroencephalogram (EEG), surface electromyography (sEMG) recordings in a simple mo- tor task.
We establish the concept of the density of the optical degrees of freedom that may be applied to any photonics based system. As a key example of this versatile approach we explore informationtransfer using optical communication. We demonstrate both experimentally, theoretically and numerically that the use of a basis set with fields containing optical vortices does not increase the telecommunication capacity of an optical system.
In this chapter, we investigate the problem of conformation change in a network of coupled oscil- lator system with double well internal potential. Conformation change refers to the phenomena where all the oscillators in the network make a transition from one potential well to another potential well un- der the influence of external perturbation. We propose a novel approach based on informationtransfer in network dynamical systems to understand this phenomenon. We consider a heterogeneous network system where the internal dynamics of the oscillators are assumed to be nonidentical and the intercon- necting Laplacian can also be asymmetric. The objective is to determine which of the network oscillator is most influential in driving the conformation dynamics. We show that the net informationtransfer of individual oscillators can be used to determine the most influential oscillator which can drive the entire network from one well to another well of the potential. Three different network topologies and one power system network are used to verify our proposed framework.
In this paper, we argue that English-Italian projection of frame-semantic annotation can be a means of developing Italian FrameNet with reduced human effort. We observe sufficient semantic parallelism between English and Italian to map frame assignments, even if at present the projection task seems more suitable to speed up semiautomatic an- notation than to convey fully automatic frame informationtransfer. In particular, we noticed that in the Italian corpus there are instances where the fundamental assumption of our projection approach, namely that word alignment can be interpreted as frame-semantic equivalence, fails. The same had been observed for French as well in (Pad´o, 2007). See for example the following instance:
Another characteristic of our measurement system is the procedure to collect and evaluate patients ’ informa- tion recall. The human mind can hold so much informa- tion, yet we access only a small part at a time. It has been demonstrated that contextual cues affect the ability to retrieve memory items and recall information in dif- ferent situations . Sandberg et al. compared recogni- tion, free recall and cued recall; all methods used to measure recall in different studies . Their study demonstrated that free recall is poor, but improves as more cues are provided. Performance on the multiple- choice task was better than cued recall performance, which was better than free recall performance . In a recently published method for measuring informationtransfer, called PICcode , a short free recall interview was performed by research assistants who were not aware of the consultation contents. In our study, we wanted the preconditions to be as similar to a natural situation as possible. Therefore, our recall interviews were performed by an interviewer who witnessed the consultations in real time on-screen right ahead of the interview, and therefore was aware of which information had been given. This made it possible to achieve an in- timately tailored interview with prompted recall, a tech- nique placed somewhere in between free recall and cued recall. Since the interviewer had a checklist of which topics had been covered in the conversation, she was able to give open prompts, as a means towards making implicit knowledge explicit. With this procedure, the interviewer could ensure that the patients were prompted to search their memory about all topics men- tioned by the doctor. Retrieval processes are cue- dependent: what we can and cannot recall at a given point in time is strongly influenced by the cues available to us . If we had asked the patients to write down or just tell to the camera everything they remembered right after the consultation, it is probable that we would have gotten a much lower recall rate. If we had asked a fixed number of predetermined questions, we would not have achieved a reliable recall number for those doctors who had given more details or a higher number of informa- tion units. It is reasonable to assume that this tailored interview creates a more valid test of memory as it de Table 2 Interrater reliability of coders, based on 168 randomly selected statements comprising 10% of all statements in the material
Abstract—Smart grids will be regarded as a dual compound network composed of power network and cyber network, called Cyber-power System (CPS). Studying the cyber- power relationship, especially the effects of cyber on the whole system, is of theoretical and engineering importance. In this paper, CPS studies were reviewed first, and then a method based on Inclusion-exclusion theory was proposed, which made elements disjoint and obtained the minimal path set for an assessment. By putting forward a simple model and precise calculation, we conclude that the optimized network topology is useful for analyzing the informationtransfer capability of smart grids. The results may provide theoretical guidelines for the construction of power grids, especially for optimizing the placement of smart grids.
A strategy development working group consisting of key stakeholders used the results of phases one and two to develop an intervention (made up of a range of strategies as outlined in Table 1) aimed to improve informationtransfer for multi-trauma patients on discharge from the ED. Participants provided fully informed consent in writing. The main focus of the strategy was to implement standardisation of a minimum data set through the use of an adapted SBAR handover (Table 1). Table 1 outlines more detail of the other strategies used including; education and awareness raising about the gold standard of information required, sequencing of tasks, continuity in care provider being the one to transfer the patient, local change agents in each area, experienced staff be the documenters in the trauma resuscitation,
The next screen is for follow-up appointments. An unlimited number of physician appointments and post-discharge studies may be speciﬁed from this screen. The ‘With whom?’ combo box initially defaults to the patient’s primary care physician as speciﬁed on the Patient Information screen. To help assure appro- priate follow-up, an entry must be made in the physi- cian appointment ﬁeld before the user can proceed further through the program. Follow-up physician appointments and labs and tests may be designated by indicating an interval from the combo box (such as ‘2 weeks’), or a speciﬁc date and time can be entered as text. Physicians’ oﬃce addresses and telephone num- bers are automatically merged into the patient instruc- tions.
The relevance of soliton dynamics to biophysics can be traced back in part to the studies of Fröhlich (1968, 1975) who considered one–dimensional electron systems occur- ring in biology. When these systems admit holes of some kind, it was conjectured that electron–hole pairing leads to the existence of intracellular solitonic dynamics inducing dissipationless energy transfer. Fröhlich postulated unusual protein dipole moments and wave frequencies as exhibited by cell membranes and certain enzymes. Such dielectric systems were considered as producing longitudinal electric oscillations across the matter. At suitable levels, energy can be channeled into a single mode and sufficiently or- dered so as to sustain coherent electric waves, an ordering suggestive of long range quantum–coherence comparable to BE–condensation. In short, particles forsake their indi- vidual characteristics and unite into a condensate regulated by a single wave function, whereas particles outside of the condensate disperse erratically.
Overview: This chapter presents a closed-form expression for the degrees of free- dom of band limited signals observed over a source-free finite spherical region within a finite time window. To address this topic, we characterize the observable signals using modal expansion of wave propagation in 3D. When signals are transmitted to a spatially constrained region, an infinite number of spatial modes are excited in the spatial region. Our analysis shows that the effective observation time, which is greater than the given time window, is independent of spatial modes and dependent on the size of the observation region. Further, though the effective bandwidth at the lower spatial modes is equal to the given frequency bandwidth, the effective band- width drops as mode index increases depending on the acceptable signal to noise ratio (SNR) at each spatial mode. Thus, only a finite number of spatial modes carry information. In the context of broadband MIMO communications, these findings indicate that the classical degrees of freedom result of time-bandwidth product does not extend directly to the product of spatial degrees of freedom and time-bandwidth product. Instead, finite number of spatial modes (independent channels) are avail- able, each with its own time-frequency degrees of freedom.
We identified four Joint Apprenticeship Training Centers (JATC) that offer training for supervisors and three contractors that have internal supervisory training programs. Information about these programs was obtained as a result of direct observation of classroom instruction; interviews with training coordinators, instructors, and participants; and analyses of course material and curricula. We are also gathering data on supervisory training programs developed by national unions and contractor associations. Our initial analysis confirms that safety and health content is limited in these courses, with the emphasis being on production and quality issues, but some are beginning to address leadership and communication skills. Barriers to participation have also been identified, including scheduling, cost, and uncertain rewards for completion.
ments on annotation transfer have shown (see ), the automatic projection of annotation between two par- allel corpora in different languages can benefit from a translation that minimizes syntactic differences from source and target language. For this reason (i) we se- lected 400 frames that are not represented in the Eu- roparl gold standard and (ii) for each of them, we chose the target with the largest set of example sentences in the English FrameNet database. Even if the informa- tion in the FrameNet database is not statistically sig- nificant w.r.t. the frequency of the occurrence of the different targets, we assumed that a target with several attestations in the Berkeley corpus and a complete an- notation should be considered significant of the frame it belongs to. Among the extracted sentences for ev- ery target, (iii) we selected the shortest one, discarding the instances where all frame elements are expressed by a personal pronoun (e.g. “He took it”). In the end, we obtained an English corpus composed of 400 sen- tences with one example per frame. The sentences are taken from the English FNet database, thus they are PoS tagged and annotated with frame information. All frame elements are also labeled with phrase type (NP, PP, VP, etc.) and grammatical function (Ext, Dep, Head, etc.). We manually translated the English cor- pus into Italian trying to limit “free” translations in or- der to enhance the correspondence between source and target texts. If possible, we preferred Italian transla- tions minimizing divergences with English. However, priority was always given to good Italian prose. Once we created the Italian version of the corpus, the rest of the pre-processing step remained the same as for the Europarl corpus, with the Italian sentences being parsed with Bikel’s parser and the bitext aligned at word level with KNOWA. Finally, we manually anno- tated all Italian sentences with frame information in order to create a second gold standard for evaluation. We call the resulting corpus MultiBerkeley.
Liu et al. studied the opportunistic RF EH over the point-to-point interference link, where the receiver can adaptively switch between EH and ID based on the obser- vations of signal and interference strength, and the opti- mal switching rule is determined to achieve the trade-off between the EH amount and the ID capacity . In the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) broadcast sys- tem with one access point (AP) serving two user terminals (UTs), the optimal transmission strategy with simulta- neous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) from the AP is proposed in , and the trade-off between the information rate and the energy transfer is achieved by scheduling each UT either for the EH or ID. The power control mechanism based on the WET is further stud- ied in the broadband system with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), where the optimal beam- forming is developed at the base station (BS) to create a set of parallel sub-channels for the SWIPT . Furthermore, Ju et al. proposed the optimal time allocation between EH and data transmission to maximize the sum throughput of the multiuser system, where an AP can wirelessly trans- fer energy to the UTs over the downlink and, using the harvested energy the UTs, can successively transmit their information to the AP over the uplink .
RSGM protocol has two tiers namely lower tier and upper tier. At the lower tier a zone structure is built based on the position information and a leader is elected on demand when a zone has group members. The upper tier consists of source and source home. The leaders of the member zone report the zone membership to the sources directly along a virtual reverse-tree based structure or through the source home .
Here, preservation results might characterize formulas f such that, if both M |= f and N |= f, then MxN |= f. (In particular, this holds for first-order Horn sentences.) But one does not want 'preservation' here so much as combination of information, or viewed in the other direction, decomposition. If we have a tight constructive definition of some operation on Chu spaces, then we can use it to reduce first-order evaluation.
The results of Experiments 2 and 3 support Ward and Zahavi's (1973) hypothesis that roosts and breeding assemblies of birds can serve as information centres, wherein knowledge of the location of food may be obtained by birds which have been unsuccessful in their own searches. Experiment 1 did not support the hypothesis, because birds from the control loft also found the food. But they may not have discovered it by chance. The opening of their loft faced directly towards the food, and its inhabitants had an unobstructed view of pigeons from the other loft circling above the food and dropping down to feed. Local enhancement, where birds find food by observing where others are feeding, is known in many species (Krebs et al., 1972). Experiment I probably did not provide a fair test of the hypothesis, therefore. In subsequent experiments the food was placed at a much greater distance from the lofts, to prevent the possibility of learning by local enhancement.
After the 1970s, the SEA model entered a critical period due to the administrative break-up of Spain into Autonomous Communities, so that means and personnel were moved to the regions. Even before this however, since the beginning of the seventies, tension ran high between those agents more concerned with the traditional work of Extension and the diffusion of innovation or economic development of the rural sector and those for whom social development prevailed over technical aspects. The transfer to the Comunidades Autónomas of all the Extension responsibilities that had previously come under State power also caused a change in the internal model, as one of the first consequences was that the agrarian research policies and the Extension policies that had been separate would now be united.
We are currently live in a unique era, an era in which human civilization is at a start of a new phase of its evolution. As we depart the industrial age as it has been for the last century we simultaneously enter an era of knowledge. This can be in analogy with the transformation from the agricultural based production to the industrial process of manufacturing during the 19 th century. In this world, and more so in the future, information will constitute the most important component of any economical activity. Natural resources will be subordinate to human investment. This fundamental change offers numerous opportunities, but also raises serious challenges. In this article, we will focus on the impact of this change and how it can be used to impact Egypt, and specifically the prosperity of its research community. We will also present ideas to bridge the gap between scientific research in Egypt and its counterparts in more “developed” nations.