Intellectual History

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Intellectual history

Intellectual history

Much has been written on the Cambridge School of Intellectual History, not least by its leading exponents, who seem to have entered a phase of self-memorialization. With the awe-inspiring eloquence that brought him many admirers, Quentin Skinner has given countless interviews in the last fifteen years, recalling his own intellectual socialization and constructing a compelling narrative of the School's evolution. Apparently it all started in the 1960s. Peter Laslett, a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, published his pathbreaking edition of John Locke's Two Treatises of Government in 1960, an edition which placed the classic firmly in the historical context preceding the Glorious Revolu- tion of 1688, thereby altering the treatises' interpretation for generations to come (they had traditionally been viewed as a celebration of the Revolution). 25 John Pocock pub- lished his first methodological inquiries into the history of political thought in 1962 as part of an important series founded and co-edited by Laslett. 26 John Dunn, a fellow of King's College, Cambridge, followed suit with reflections on the "identity" of the his- tory of ideas, which appeared in 1968 and made the case for a fundamental revision of the history of philosophy in general and the history of political thought in particu- lar. Mocking the "bloodlessness" and unhistorical nature of a field preoccupied with Platonic ideas and reified reconstructions of "great books", Dunn argued in favour of a history of thought that rendered thinking a "social activity" and that investigated the question as to what thinkers were "doing" in saying things, that is, when they engaged in "speech acts" (John Austin) in a particular context at a particular time. 27
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Exploring the Enlightenment from Intellectual History and Critical Theory: A Case Study of Hybrid Methodologies in Literary Criticism

Exploring the Enlightenment from Intellectual History and Critical Theory: A Case Study of Hybrid Methodologies in Literary Criticism

The following piece is a reflection on the main methodological problems that have arisen, and the tentative solutions I have devised for them, during the writing of my PhD dissertation. This reflection is therefore bound up with the specific nature of my research topic, as well as with the personal influences and inclinations that have led me to pursue it in the way I have. It is a forced stop in the middle of an unfinished process, an attempt to make that process move in a new direction, out of the methodological deadlock in which it seems to find itself, and towards conclusions which I can now perhaps only vaguely glimpse. Despite its inevitably confessional and provisional character, however, this reflection on method has a general interest insofar as it addresses the concrete problems raised by two different ways of approaching the Enlightenment (critical theory and intellectual history), and assesses the possibility of articulating them together in a single argument. It can also in this way be read as a case study of the general challenges posed by bringing together historicist and theory-based methodologies in literary criticism, which may inspire similar reflections in different periods and fields of research.
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From Realism to Critical Legal Studies: A Truncated Intellectual History

From Realism to Critical Legal Studies: A Truncated Intellectual History

From Realism to Critical Legal Studies A Truncated Intellectual History SMU Law Review Volume 40 | Issue 2 Article 4 1986 From Realism to Critical Legal Studies A Truncated Intellectual History G Edwa[.]

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Worlds of American Intellectual History

Worlds of American Intellectual History

Sarah E. Igo’s essay in the ‘Method’ section, ‘Towards free range intellectual history,’ provides a beautiful example of the method its title promises. Examining the meaning of the modern concept of privacy, she begins with the traditional starting point, Joseph Warren and Louis Brandeis’s 1890 Harvard Law Review article in which they quote Thomas Cooley’s phrase ‘the right to be left alone’. The threat Warren and Brandeis imagined, however, was not the threat of intrusive government surveillance, but the threat of paparazzi, who catered to a prurient curiosity about the lives of the socially prominent, of the people who might have been found in the well-to-do social circles of the authors. Ironically, the concern with privacy ran somewhat against the grain of Brandeis’ thinking at the largest scale, since he was for the most part an advocate of opening up the public sphere, and particularly an advocate of a free press.
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Global Intellectual History

Global Intellectual History

In ‘A framework for debate’ Moyn and Sartori discuss the reasons for and implications of the turn to global history and the possible interpretations of global intellectual history. The editors explain that ‘Global Intellectual History is intended to showcase the available choices at a threshold moment in the possible formation of an intellectual history extending across geographical parameters far larger than usual’ (p. 4). However, the most valuable contribution of this book comes not from its expansion of geographical scale, but from the way in which it relativises and interrogates the global concept. Moyn and Sartori write, tantalisingly, that ‘it may even be that the expansive space that is today called “the global” has never really existed’ (p. 5). From this perspective the ‘global’ shifts from object to subject.
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One Hundred Years of Mouse Genetics: An Intellectual History. II. The Molecular Revolution (1981-2002)

One Hundred Years of Mouse Genetics: An Intellectual History. II. The Molecular Revolution (1981-2002)

1995, and then now. This expansion of possibilities goes beyond our intellectual desire to understand biological THE PRESENT STATE OF AFFAIRS systems; it goes to the heart of the reason society sup- We largely understand the basic mechanisms of genet- ports our efforts: understanding the nature of our physi- ics, how traits are passed from one generation to the cal being toward the goal of improving the quality and next, as well as the fundamental mechanisms of gene duration of human life.

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Odious Debt, Old and New: The Legal Intellectual History of an Idea

Odious Debt, Old and New: The Legal Intellectual History of an Idea

Although Thomas’s analysis begins “by arguing that 1970s commercial bank lending to developing countries was in a sense uniquely amenable to cancellation under the doctrine of odious[r]

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Writing the Resistance: A Palestinian Intellectual History, 1967-1974

Writing the Resistance: A Palestinian Intellectual History, 1967-1974

53 seeing a restriction in the establishment of newspapers and journals. The nineteenth century, particularly the latter half, is also considered a period of decline in the Ottoman Empire, ultimately leading to its defeat at the end of World War I. The Crimean War (1853–1856), the rule of Muhammad Ali Pasha (1769–1849) and his son Ibrahim Pasha (1789–1848), and the power struggle between the Ottomans, Britain, France, and Russia rocked the Ottoman Empire and its inhabitants. In Greater Syria, the increasing presence of foreign powers, on top of the presence of the Ottomans, could be seen as both a help and a hindrance. On the one hand, Muhammad Ali Pasha and Ibrahim Pasha worked to establish schools in the region; intellectual spaces flourished; missionaries, who worked with local intellectuals and public servants, established schools that functioned in Arabic and were, in large part, responsible for bringing the printing presses to the region. On the other hand, imperialism and the pressure for the Arabs to align with either the British, the French, or the Ottomans, was growing. The Arab choice to back the British, rather than the Ottomans, during World War I, ironically in order to remove a “foreign” power, is indicative of such pressure. Furthermore, the presence, in the region, of Muhammad Ali and Ibrahim, also saw the stirring of popular revolt against the Pashas, as a foreign power. Thus, not only was there a struggle to maintain Arab culture, there was also the added difficulty of undertaking such a struggle during a period of broader political upheaval.
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An Intellectual History of Mass Incarceration

An Intellectual History of Mass Incarceration

The introduction of defense counsel appears to have caused a brief uptick in the frequency with which defendants elected to go to trial, at least in some jurisdictions. But the increase was short-lived, as more frequent prosecutions and more crowded dockets counteracted the influence of defense coun- sel. See James D. Rice, The Criminal Trial Before and After the Lawyers: Authority, Law, and Culture in Maryland Jury Trials, 1681–1837, 40 A M . J. L EGAL H IST . 455, 464 (1996); see also Raymond Moley, The Vanishing Jury, 2 S. C AL . L. R EV . 97, 97 (1928) (discussing the marked decline in the frequency of criminal trials). And for much of this country’s history, even when cases did go to jury trial, the jury became just another agent with discretion to decide outcomes, a maker (or “finder”) of law rather than a mechanical functionary of it. See Matthew P. Harrington, The Law-Finding Function of the American Jury, 1999 W IS . L. R EV . 377, 423 (noting that early American juries were understood to have the power to determine questions of law, and arguing that this law-finding function lasted much longer in criminal cases than in civil ones). The view that a jury is permitted to determine facts but not law, and is strictly bound to apply preexisting law, was introduced throughout the nineteenth century and finally triumphed only in the twentieth century. Id. at 434–35.
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One Hundred Years of Mouse Genetics: An Intellectual History. I. The Classical Period (1902-1980)

One Hundred Years of Mouse Genetics: An Intellectual History. I. The Classical Period (1902-1980)

recurrent ironies of scientific history. While the study structural gene for this enzyme deciding its tissue-spe- of spontaneous neoplasms led to the discovery of retrovi- cific pattern of expression, intracellular location, and ruses and oncogenes and has brought us to the brink responsiveness to hormonal regulation, thereby demon- of a deep understanding of the biological basis of cancer strating for the first time the existence of mammalian at a molecular level, the studies of tumor transplanta- genetic regulatory systems at the molecular level. During tion, which started it all, had no significant impact on the 1960s and ’70s a number of laboratories analyzed our understanding of cancer. Rather, in leading to the increasing numbers of genetic variants with altered en- discovery of the major histocompatibility complex, these zyme activity, until a fairly comprehensive picture of the studies inadvertently initiated the description of a mo- kinds of genetic variation likely to lead to changes in lecular complex central to the operation of cellular enzyme activity emerged. Two salient features were
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Intellectual Humility in Mathematics

Intellectual Humility in Mathematics

In this talk I wish to defend the claim that intellectual humility can aide mathematical creativity. This claim is really two claims in disguise. First, I say something theoretical about humility. I argue that intellectual humility has points of interaction with creativity. This has bearing on the accounts, definitions or conceptual analyses we give of intellectual humility. The second claim is about story-telling. I claim that investigating certain cases in terms of intellectual humility helps us to better explain and understand these cases. This is thus a claim about story-telling: to tell a story through the lenses of intellectual humility may make the story more accessible to us. It is a principal aim of this talk to make visible what this may mean.
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Suicide and intellectual disability

Suicide and intellectual disability

Le azioni prioritarie di intervento, attraverso un lavoro di rete, riguardano non soltanto l’accura- tezza della diagnosi e del trattamento dei disturbi psichiatrici, sopra[r]

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Networks Origin and History Internet Protocols Intellectual Property. NBA 6120 Lecture #9 September 23, 2015 Dr. Donald P.

Networks Origin and History Internet Protocols Intellectual Property. NBA 6120 Lecture #9 September 23, 2015 Dr. Donald P.

Bells make equipment and enter the cable and long-distance business in return for accepting competition in their local telephone markets.. • A comparable Senate bill collapses - too mu[r]

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Dental anxiety in patients with borderline intellectual functioning and patients with intellectual disabilities

Dental anxiety in patients with borderline intellectual functioning and patients with intellectual disabilities

Dental anxiety was assessed using Corah’s DAS, 1978 [21]. It’s a four-item scale with 5 multiple-choice an- swers, tapping on dental practice-related situations and assessing anticipatory anxiety as well as assumed anxiety during treatment (Table 2). Answers were scored from 4 to 20 and grouped in 5 categories: No Anxiety (NA, score = 4); Slight Anxiety (SLA, score = 5 to 8); Moderate Anxiety (MA, score = 9 to 12); High Anxiety (HA, score = 13 to 14); Severe Anxiety (SA, score = 15 to 20). Personal data were collected and integrated to the information de- rived from the scale. Corah’s scale was administered through interviews either to patients. Data were collected Table 1 Borderline Intellectual Functioning and mild/moderate intellectual disabilities
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New insights in the interpretation of array-CGH: autism spectrum disorder and positive family history for intellectual disability predict the detection of pathogenic variants

New insights in the interpretation of array-CGH: autism spectrum disorder and positive family history for intellectual disability predict the detection of pathogenic variants

ID (intellectual disability) and ASD (autism spectrum disorder) are life-long conditions with deficits in cogni- tive functioning (IQ<70) and adaptive skills that affects 1–3 % of children worldwide [1]. Array-CGH (aCGH) offers a high diagnostic yield, ranging from 14–20 %, for individuals with unexplained ID, ASD or multiple con- genital anomalies (MCA) [2–5]. Available evidence sug- gests a change in the diagnostic approach for children with neuropsychiatric disorders and/or congenital anom- alies, indicating the aCGH as the first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test [5]. In 2014 the SIGU (Italian Society of Human Genetics) suggested that ID, of all severity, and/ or ASD and/or epilepsy, hypotonia, dysmorphisms, growth alteration, congenital malformations might be associated with pathogenic aCGH results.
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Accounting for intellectual property?

Accounting for intellectual property?

While Stewart (2001) argues that ‘you can not manage what you can not measure is one of the oldest clichés in management since companies have always managed things -people, morale, strategy- that are essentially unmeasured,’ he ignores the overall social function of accounting, which shapes a very specific understanding of a business. 42 The management of a company becomes a much greater challenge since adequate information on all the assets and liabilities of a company are not available. The internal management of IP is seriously hampered since its value is not made explicit through accounting. Since the bulk of the space of accounting statements is devoted to tangibles, managing intellectual property becomes a very intangible undertaking. Managerial efforts may at best be indirectly reflected, but do not become directly visible. The lack of visibility of IP through accounting systems makes it very difficult for management to shift the focus to developing adequate IP strategies. After all, bottom line results need to be delivered, yet in the case of intellectual property these will hardly find any reflection in the officially recognized language of business. The chart below illustrates the various advantages
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A History of History

A History of History

careless editor, and state that what he means is that the scientist him/ herself studies an object in order to determine how it should be investigated. But this is almost equally ludicrous, as a quick perusal of any primer on the philosophy of science will tell you. I think what Munslow is trying to say here is that objects such as stars are available to direct perception, whereas the historian directly constitutes his/her objects of study: ‘the historian ... creates their objects and makes all the decisions by creating general statements as to cause and effect’ (p. 44). So although things-in-themselves existed in the past, such as kings, queens and so forth, as soon as the historian tries to pin any sense of meaning to them, he/she comes unstuck. The problem is however, that what Munslow is ascribing to the historian here sounds remarkably like what scientists do, in the sense that they impose taxonomic categories upon ‘the-world-in-itself’, which subsequently ‘cut the world up in different ways’. History ‘is always an imposition on the past dictated by the narrative
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Conrad and Intellectual Movements

Conrad and Intellectual Movements

German Idealism. In the case of Carlyle, Conrad recognised a towering figure in English letters who, along with Coleridge, familiarised English literature with Goethe, Kant, and Hegel. Carlyle represented a British tradition of historical philosophy, continued by F.H. Bradley, which questioned the respective values of a romantic approach to history or a sceptical view of the past. The problems voiced in Carlyle’s essay ‘On History’ (1830) and Bradley’s later ‘The Presuppositions of Critical History’ (1874) reflected philosophical debate in Poland between the adherents of Romanticism and Positivism. In his final essay ‘Legends,’ left unfinished at his death in 1924, Conrad wrote that he still had ‘nothing against a legend twining its tendrils fancifully about the facts of history’ (LE, p. 44), articulating his career-long occupation with history and its representation.
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Intellectual Property Law

Intellectual Property Law

Intellectual Property Law SMU Law Review Volume 62 | Issue 3 Article 20 2009 Intellectual Property Law David L McCombs Phillip B Philbin Donald E Tiller Follow this and additional works at https //sch[.]

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Intellectual capital reporting

Intellectual capital reporting

to its external relationships; such as with its custom- ers, suppliers, r&D partners, etc (MEriTUM 2002). intellectual capital can be both the product of r&D activities and the enabler for creating a greater value from r&D. This combination of intangible resources and activities allows an organisation to transform a bundle of material, financial and human resources into a system capable of creating stakeholder value. For intangibles to become part of the intellectual capital of an organisation, these have to be durably and effectively internalised and/or appropriated by it.
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