This research project aimed to explore the experience of people who define themselves as low in self-compassion and have trouble showing kindness to themselves in case of painful events such as failures, inadequacies, mistakes or misfortunes. In order to discover how participants are making sense of their personal and social world and the meanings that are attributed to those particular situations, InterpretativePhenomenologicalAnalysis (IPA) was found to be the most appropriate design. (Smith, 2008; Bogdan &Biklen, 2003). Furthermore, owing to the theoretically flexible structure of IPA, the researcher and participants engaged in an analytic dialogue within the framework of double hermeneutics, known as the two-stage interpretation process (Smith & Osborn, 2008). Thus both sides were involved in the interpretation of data with their collaborative efforts by making sense of the participants‟ world (Smith, Flowers & Larkin, 2009). The researcher accepted participants as experiential experts and solely focused on the statements of participants by bracketing her own world including personal feelings and biases (Merriam, 2002). Then the analytic process which, reflected the mutual evaluation of both the analyst and the participants, demonstrated how the analyst thinks the participant is thinking (Smith, Flowers & Larkin, 2009). One-to-one semi-structured interviews were arranged to allow participants to speak, think and to be heard without the limitation of highly structured interviews (Reid, Flowers & Larkin, 2005).
Methods: A qualitative research method was applied in order to explore unknown and personal aspects of SC use. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six participants who had problematic SC use and entered treatment. The research was conducted in Hungary in 2015. We analyzed data using interpretativephenomenologicalanalysis (IPA). Results: Participants perceived SCs to be unpredictable: their initial positive experiences quickly turned negative. They also reported that SCs took over their lives both interpersonally and intrapersonally: the drug took their old friends away, and while initially it gave them new ones, in the end it not only made them asocial but the drug became their only friend, it hijacked their personalities and made them addicted.
Demonstrating rigour through a careful and comprehensive articulation of data analysis is a critical issue in improving the robustness of qualitative entrepreneurship research. As Bryman (2004) points out, too few studies elaborate on their method of data analysis. As a new and developing approach to understanding the nature of lived experience, IPA provides a clear set of thorough and accessible guidelines. IPA is not a prescriptive methodology and allows for individuality and flexibility of approach (Smith and Eatough, 2006). IPA is systematic in its procedures, but whilst “there is a basic process to IPA (moving from the descriptive to the interpretative), the method does not claim objectivity through the use of a detailed, formulaic procedure” (Brocki and Waerden, 2006: 97). Drawing on and adapting the principles of IPA developed by Jonathan Smith and colleagues (c.f. Smith et al., 1999), together with Hycner's (1985) seminal work on the phenomenologicalanalysis of interview data, I specify the different levels of analysis and interpretation applied to the eight fully transcribed interviews. IPA is emphatically inductive and idiographic, starting with a detailed, nuanced analysis of one case and then moving to the meticulous analysis of subsequent cases (Smith, 2004). Table 2 outlines the different levels of interpretativephenomenologicalanalysis conducted.
understanding how social occasions are managed by non-drinkers. In-depth, semi-structured interviews with five 19-22 year old non-drinking English undergraduates were subjected to interpretativephenomenologicalanalysis (IPA). We present five inter-linked themes: ‘living with challenges to non-drinking’; ‘seeing what goes on in drinking environments’; ‘dealing with conversations about non-drinking (‘making excuses vs. coming out’)’; ‘knowing which friends care about you’; and ‘the importance of withholding “legroom” for peer pressure’. Participants felt under persistent peer scrutiny (as a form of peer pressure) and could feel alienated in drinking environments. Talking about non-drinking was characterised by whether to ‘come out’ (as a non-drinker) or ‘fake it’ (e.g., ‘I’m on antibiotics’). Loyal friendships were reported as particularly important in this context. The decision not to drink was experienced as providing a successful buffer to peer pressure for former drinkers. Our findings unsettle traditional health promotion campaigns which advocate moderate drinking among students without always suggesting how it might be most successfully accomplished, and offer tentative guidance on how non-drinking during specific social occasions might be managed more successfully. Findings are discussed in relation to extant literature and future research directions are suggested.
The qualitative method presented in this research is a rapidly growing approach to qualitative research, known as InterpretativePhenomenologicalAnalysis (IPA) . The main aim of IPA is to investigate the meaning that particular experiences hold for certain individuals. This is central to the aims of this research, as the desire is to obtain an insider’s perspective on the phenomenon of increased tuition fees. However, IPA acknowledges that the participants’ world is not directly accessible. Firstly, researchers can only gain an understanding of this world through the participants’ interpretations of it (the first interpretation). This process is then open for further interpretation, as the researcher attempts to make sense of the participants’ interpretation (the second interpretation). This captures the dual role of the IPA researcher, in that they only have access to the participant’s experience through the participant’s own account of it. This phenomenon is otherwise known as a double hermeneutic . Rather than being viewed as biasing, this interpretative journey is seen as a requirement for making sense of the participants’ experiences.
The aim of this study was to explore the childhood experience of living with a parent with depression from a retrospective point of view. Five women between 39 and 47 years of age, who grew up with a mother with depression, were interviewed about their current perspectives on their childhood experiences. Interviews were semi-structured and the data were analyzed using interpretativephenomenologicalanalysis. Data analysis led to a narrative organized in two parts. The first part (retrospective understanding of childhood experiences) reports on feelings of desolation contrasted to exceptional support, context-related dwelling on own experiences, and growing into a caring role as a way to keep standing. The second part (towards an integration of childhood experiences in adult realities) evidences ongoing processes of growing understanding of the situation at home, coping with own vulnerabilities, making the difference in their current family life and finding balance in the continued bond with the parents. This retrospective investigation of adults’ perspectives on their childhood experiences gave access to aspects of their experience that remain underexposed in research based on data from children and adolescents. Keywords: Children, Caregivers/Caregiving, Depression, InterpretativePhenomenologicalAnalysis (IPA), Parent-Child Relationships, Qualitative Research
InterpretativePhenomenologicalAnalysis (IPA) is the newest entry to the cannon of qualitative approaches to data analysis, introduced by Jonathan Smith and colleagues in the mid-1990s, it has become an increasingly popular qualitative approach, particularly in applied areas like health and counselling psychology (it’s fair to say that some academic qualitative researchers are less enthusiastic; see Parker, 2005). IPA can be seen as an alternative to discursive approaches, which gained ascendancy in the 1990s. Whereas discursive approaches aim to provide an alternative to mainstream
that waste is collected using a bag, is used to treat conditions including Inflammatory Bowel Disease and colorectal cancer. This paper reports an in depth idiographic analysis of the experience of living with an ileostomy. Methods: 21 participants took part in semi-structured interviews about their lives and relationships. Those interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the experiential qualitative methodology InterpretativePhenomenologicalAnalysis (IPA). Results: Two super-ordinate themes arose from the data: Ileostomy’s intra- personal impact; the impact of ileostomy on relationships with others. We found that ileostomy may destabilise the sense of self, disrupt body image, and alter experience of age and sexuality. Other participants were able to employ their illness to positively reframe the self. Disclosure of ileostomy status was difficult for some. Intimate and friend relationships were often challenged by stoma status, whilst other family relationships were largely characterised as supportive. Conclusions: Ileostomy may impact upon both intra and interpersonal aspects of the lives of those who live with it, in both negative and positive ways. Consequently, the sense of self can appear challenged, and relationships with partners, family members and friendships could be causes of distress. On the other hand, some partners were supportive, and children were found to be sources of comfort.
Qualitative studies collecting in-depth information may provide insights into the most appropriate target for psychosocial intervention and identify changes that might be required in dermatological practice 20 . In light of this, this study uses interpretativephenomenologicalanalysis (IPA). IPA is a specific form of phenomenological approach that focuses on individual experiential accounts 21 and has been extensively used to investigate illness experience 22 . It is thus well suited to the aim of investigating the experiences of adults living with rosacea, and experiences of seeking and receiving treatment.
In this paper I present a rebuttal of Max Van Manen’s (2017) critique of interpretativephenomenologicalanalysis (IPA). Unfortunately Van Manen’s piece contains a series of misrepresentations of IPA and its history. Here I answer these misrepresentations and present IPA as subscribing, and contributing, to a broad and holistic phenomenology concerned with both pre- reflective and reflective domains of lived experience. I contend that IPA has much to offer to our understanding of the experience of health and illness where participants are spontaneously and actively engaged in making sense of the significant and unexpected things which happen to them.
Interpretativephenomenologicalanalysis has developed over the last 10 years, emerging from the health psychology field. It is, however, being increasingly used outside health psychology in health related areas, being primarily concerned with people and predicaments (Smith, 2004), and is now advocated in occupational therapy, (Finlay, 2010). IPA is congruent with occupational therapy philosophy (Clarke, 2009; Cronin- Davis, Butler & Mayers, 2009). It is suggested that IPA is a useful methodology for occupational therapy to seek a deeper understanding of the experiences of clients, carers and colleagues (Clarke, 2009). As has already been discussed, occupational therapy focuses on the individual experience; working in a client-centred way and does not have a “one size fits all” approach. The therapist facilitates the client to tell their own story and identify their goals and focus for intervention. The therapist listens to the client’s story and uses their professional knowledge, skills and judgement to develop interventions, interpreting the subjective experience of the client. Therefore, Cronin- Davies, Butler and Mayers, (2009) argue that using a higher order interpretation process is a compatible methodology for occupational therapists, as it allows the participant’s voice to be heard, as well as facilitating the researcher to draw upon theory,
Purposive sampling of 10 participants was done for the justice team. Participants were identified as 1, 8, 12, and 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 25, 28. These included magistrates, public prosecutors, clerks of court, and members of the Mental Health Review Tribunal and superintendents of the special institutions. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. These were meant to initiate and allow the flow of the interviews in the direction of participants while focusing on mental health within the justice system. InterpretativePhenomenologicalAnalysis (IPA) was applied in the study because the research sought to understand the experiences of the justice team within the mental health service. This understanding was based on a double hermeneutic in that the justice team as participants interpreted their experiences of processes and procedures followed in the care and management of female psychiatric patients. Their reflections were then interpreted by the researchers during the analysis stage. IPA was also viewed as idiographic in the study because it allowed examination of each participant experience in detail . In the process, points of convergence and divergence were identified before experiences were analyzed together and themes were grouped.
The present study adopted a qualitative, phenomenological, and idiographic design to enable exploration of older same-sex oriented women who had lost a partner, including these women's personal experiences of loss and how they made sense of these. This focus makes the use of interpretativephenomenologicalanalysis (IPA) appropriate (Smith, Flowers & Larkin, 2009). In contrast to phenomenological approaches which seek to identify what the essence of a phenomenon is, IPA studies aim to ascertain what the experiences and meanings of a phenomenon are like for a well-defined sample. The approach highlights the importance of individual and personal perceptions and aims to obtain an ‘‘insider’s view’’ of the research topic. In contrast to other branches of qualitative inquiry which may seek to explain factors which account for behaviour (e.g., grounded theory) or how people talk about particular topics (such as discursive psychology), IPA is concerned with the sense-making of people who share particular experiences, As in the present study, IPA typically uses semi-structured interviews to explore topics of research interest with participants as this allows the researcher to follow up on interesting and important issues that arise during the interview (see Smith, 2004). Subsequent analysis is centred on identifying thematic areas which describe the central experiences of research interest whilst also elucidating the meanings these
This paper focuses on the teaching of the qualitative method, InterpretativePhenomenologicalAnalysis (IPA), to healthcare professionals (HCPs). It introduces briefly the philosophical background of IPA, and how it has been used within healthcare research, and then goes on to discuss the teaching of IPA to HCPs within received educational theory. Lastly, the paper describes how IPA has been taught to students/trainees in some specific healthcare professions (clinical psychology, medicine, nursing and related disciplines). In doing this, the paper demonstrates the essential simplicity, paradoxical complexity and methodological rigour that IPA can offer as a research tool in understanding healthcare and illness from the patient or service user perspective.
We developed a semi-structured interview schedule using the protocol suggested for interpretativephenomenologicalanalysis (IPA) (Smith, 1995) which aimed to encourage participants to talk freely about their experiences and to minimise the influence of the researchers’ pre-conceived ideas. Questions covered participants’ experience of periods and period pain, coping strategies employed, the experience of painful periods, and the effects on others and on themselves. Two pilot interviews were undertaken to test the interview schedule. After the first, the schedule was improved by reducing and reordering the questions. Neither interview was used in the final analysis to ensure findings were based on a similar standard of interview. Pilot interviewees were informed of this beforehand.
The importance of authenticity for student non drinkers An interpretative phenomenological analysis Conroy, D and de Visser, R O Journal of Health Psychology DOI 10 1177/1359105313514285 Our paper ill[.]
In the UK, changes to the Higher Education system have increased the range of stressors experienced by students above those traditionally associated with the transition to university. Despite this, there is little qualitative research examining how students experience and cope with the adjustment to university. The experience of the transition was investigated in depth amongst 10 first year UK undergraduates. Purposive sampling resulted in a group with demographics similar to national statistics on UK undergraduates. Semi- structured interviews were used beginning with a content specific vignette to develop rapport. InterpretativePhenomenologicalAnalysis was utilised to analyse the transcripts (Smith, 2003) and quality checks were implemented to increase the validity of the analysis. Five main themes were identified: all the change, with subthemes of independent living, homesickness, differences between post-compulsory education and university; expectations of university; academic focus with subthemes of self-discipline, motivation, learning from experience; support network with subthemes of establishing a support network, support for coping with problems; and difficulties with subthemes of difficulties experienced with housemates, finances and employment, and academic difficulties. Students used a range of coping
The world of competitive sport affords an individual the opportunity to enter a spiritual community adding meaning that transcends one’s current understanding of life (Parry et al. 2007). Previously established dimensions of sports fanship (group affiliation, psychological commitment and team identification) share characteristics commonly associated with religious or spiritual affiliation indicating that fans may generate substantial life meaning from observing sporting encounters. In the present study, 12 male basketball fans (M=32.42; SD=7.97) completed semi-structured interviews immediately prior to viewing a competitive match at the 2011 European Basketball Championships (Vilnius, Lithuania). Interviews were structured under four headings; 1) the most memorable moment as a basketball fan, 2) thoughts, feelings and emotions attached to their team, 3) affiliation to the team in the context of the fan’s meaning of life, 4) connection with members of the fan’s sporting community. InterpretativePhenomenologicalAnalysis was employed to analyse interview transcripts. Raw data clustered into four dimensions; 1) devotion, 2) obscure emotions, 3) connectedness, and 4) universal values. The results indicate that sports fanship is characterised by, and synonymous with, an established understanding of spirituality derived from membership of wider spiritual and/or religious communities. The findings hold implications for the marketing and membership of local, amateur and professional sports clubs and brands, as well as community development, health and welfare.
A qualitative methodology was employed as it provides participants with scope to discuss personal experiences in depth. It can also achieve a specific and deep know- ledge of an issue and has the potential to capture con- cepts that may not have previously been identified [29-33]. Interpretive PhenomenologicalAnalysis (IPA) was used as it enables the researcher to explore, flexibly and in detail, an area of concern . IPA is concerned with an individual’s subjective report, rather than formu- lating an objective account and is therefore considered phenomenological; furthermore, research is recognised as a dynamic process . Within this dynamic process the researcher plays an active role by taking an ‘insider’s perspective’  to explore the essence of the partici- pant’s experience and engage in new areas of knowledge. The researcher also uses their own conceptions to inter- pret this information . This method of the participant interpreting their own life and the researcher interpreting this knowledge is known as a “double hermeneutic” . Although the interpretation of the researcher could be seen as a disadvantage of the methodology, this flexibility and ability to engage in new areas allows the researcher to become immersed within the data whilst acknowledg- ing their own values. This is a key strength of the IPA approach .