AbsTRAcT: The paper presented evaluates reserves and chemical composition of forest floor of three stands of Douglas fir, spruce and spruce with beech at acid sites (3K) in the Hůrky Training Forest District (TFD) and at a meso- trophic site (4H) in the Křtiny Training Forest Enterprise (TFE). The aim of the study was to evaluate: (i) reserves of forest floor, (ii) soil reaction, (iii) total content of carbon and nitrogen for the forest floor layers, (iv) C/N ratio, and (v) the content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The lowest reserve occurs in the Douglas fir stand at a mesotrophic site (25.0 t/ha), the highest accumulation occurs in the spruce stand and in the spruce/beech stand at an acid site (79.4–79.6 t/ha). The soil reaction is strongly acid to acid. The most favourable values of pH for forest floor and soil at acid (4.6 ± 0.4) and mesotrophic sites (5.2 ± 0.4) occur in the Douglas fir stand. It also corresponds to C/N ratio (23–26). The highest reserve of carbon in forest floor occurs at the acid site 34.7 t/ha (1.3 t/ha nitrogen). The lowest reserve of carbon in forest floor at the mesotrophic site amounts to 8.5 t/ha (0.4 t/ha nitrogen). The higher content of DOC in stands at acid sites can result in a higher risk of soil acidification.
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The paper deals with determination of the rate of damage by red deer barking, determination of the rate of damage by a subsequent rot caused by Stereum sanguinolentum and the rate of its progress. The paper elucidates causes of the damage and quantifies depreciation of wood by rots in the Proklest For- est Range, the Křtiny Training Forest Enterprise “Masaryk Forest“. The deer barking caused damage to 85% of stands. In the most damaged 2nd and 4th age classes, rot caused by Stereum sanguinolen- tum was noticed in 89% of damaged trees. The greatest proportion is made by damage from the 70s of the last century. After the 80s, the damage occurred only exceptionally. The average percentage loss of wood is highest in the 2nd age class, viz. 38%. The determined progress of the rot ranged from 1 to 36.4 cm.year -1 .
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AbsTrAcT: The study evaluates production parameters (height, diameter at breast height, volume) of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) at mesotrophic sites of the Křtiny Training Forest Enterprise in mature stands. In total, 29 mixed stands were assessed with the registered proportion of Douglas fir at an age of 85 to 136 years. Com- paring the 10 largest Douglas firs with the 10 largest spruces or larches higher, and as a rule markedly higher, produc- tion potential of introduced Douglas fir was found in all assessed stands. There were also groups of trees where the volume of Douglas fir was twice to 3 times higher than the volume of spruce or larch (see Tabs. 5 to 10). For example, in stand 177B11, the mean volume of 9.12 m 3 was recorded in the 10 largest Douglas fir trees but the volume of spruce
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However, interesting data on mixed beech/larch stands from other regions of the Czech Republic are available in older papers of Tichý (1949), Málek (1967) and Zakopal (1970). Important data on this mixture were published in papers of Šindelář (1977, 2000). In European literature, considerable attention is also paid to mixed beech/larch stands. Lüdemann (1990), Freist (1991), Schwanecke (1992) and Moser (1995) recommended to estab- lish mixed stands of this type. Production potential was studied in papers of Bachmann (1967) and Preuhsler and Mayer (1992), stability in studies of Städtler (1991, 1995) and Duchiron (2000), com- petition relationships of both species were analyzed by Dippel (1988), Roth (1992), Guericke (2001), etc. From the aspect of the age and spatial structure of forest ecosystems the position of beech and larch was assessed by Burschel (1987), Seitschek (1989, 1991), Kenk (1992), Smaltschinski (1990), etc. This brief and incomplete overview of papers indi- cates the wide range of problems under study.
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On the basis of the evaluation importance and propor- tion were assessed of spruce and beech on the produc- tion potential and stability of a tree component of the mixed stand under evaluation. Simultaneously, data were also obtained to fulfil the strategic targets of the project, viz. specification and presentation of a proposal (proposal variants) of the target species composition in the most important management groups (manage- ment sets of stands made up for forest management purposes and based on principles of forest typology) of upland/hilly regions, viz. for management groups HS 245 (or 255).
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The 1997 law had an objective to deregulate the management of natural forests and introduced support for community forestry. It also regulated and continued to promote incentives for commercial plantations. It created the Support Program for the Development of Commercial Forest Plantations (PRODEPLAN for its acronym in Spanish), and the Forest Development Program (PRODEFOR for its acronym in Spanish). The first program had as objective to develop productive projects, and the second to encourage the sustainable use of natural ecosystems. The Conservation and Sustainable Management of Forest Resources was created in 2001 (PROCYMAF for its acronym in Spanish), with the objective of promoting the strengthening of ejido and community organizations, as well as the construction and operation of CFEs. In 2009 the program increased its budget for more attention to communities; during this second stage it created the framework to build the type of CFEs according to the level of its organizational capacities for the management natural resources, capitalization and level of vertical integration in the chain of forest production (Segura, 2014). Type I enterprises are those that have forest resources but do not perform management activities, type II enterprises sell their stumpage, type III enterprises have some forestry units and sell their roundwood, and type IV are those enterprises that transform natural resources and add value to products (mills and factories). From 2011 PROCYMAF was renamed the Community Forestry Development Program (PDFC for its acronym in Spanish) whose program promotes technical training of forest advisors, processes of community organization and support to CFE (CONAFOR, 2012). Thus the agrarian law of 1992 retained the forms of governance of the communities that were established during the Mexican Revolution, and were used to create CFEs (Antinori and Bray, 2005). According to Bray et al. (2006) currently there are at least three
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SYSPRO is known for being one of the longest standing and largest independent, international ERP business solution vendors (SYSPRO, n.d.). At the time of writing this paper, existing SYSPRO e-learning systems allow users to watch video tutorials of demonstrations, training and assessments of specific tasks performed in the actual ERP system. However, these are not interactive simulations and are designed only for desktops, thus motivating the need for the proposed SYSPRO Latte application and for it to be implemented via m-learning. Many students in Africa have access to smart phones, but no access to laptops or desktop computers off-campus (Oyedemi, 2012). Simulations have several benefits over hands-on training with the actual software system, since users do not need access to the ERP system itself, which can be resource intensive.
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Three types of young oak stands were extracted from the state forest inventory databases of the federal states Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Hesse and Schleswig- Holstein. First, all stands with young (≤ 20 years) pedun- culate oak (Quercus robur) or sessile oak (Q. petraea) as the dominant tree species. The designation of the age threshold was based on silvicultural considerations: Dur- ing the first 20 years of stand development, young oaks become established in the stand. In this period the de- cisive measures and processes take place that are crucial for the success or failure of oak regeneration (Leibund- gut 1978; Ammann 2013). The reference date for setting the tree age was 1 January 2016. Second, stands that were listed as yet unstocked at the publication date of the relevant management plan, but where afforestation with oak was planned were also included. This was done since forest inventories, which are the basis of forests management plans in the considered state forest enter- prises, are conducted only once in a decade. For ex- ample, if a forest management plan from 2008 set the afforestation of a certain stand with oaks for 2009, this stand was included in our analysis with a tree age of seven years. Third, stands with established oak regener- ation under the canopy of mature oaks were considered. In each case, the smallest forest area unit (e.g., forest compartment) of the respective forest inventory was used as spatial reference. Since 1) the silvicultural separ- ation of the two oak species is becoming increasingly questionable (Lüpke 1998), 2) both species often occur mixed together, and 3) forest inventory data does not al- ways specify the species affiliation correctly, we did not separate between Q. robur and Q. petraea in our analyses.
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One spontaneous hybrid of J. ×intermedia whose age was determined to be approximately 100 years was found at a field walk in the area of Židlochovice Forest Enterprise in 2002. The maternal species is most probably J. nigra because the specimen was found in an even-aged black walnut stand artificially established from seeds. There is no other finding of the mentioned hybrid known from other places in the Czech Republic and this is why the paper aims at a detailed descrip- tion of its morphological traits and basic biometric characteristics.
Staff education is one of the key components of human capital management, and it should be based on the overall objective of enterprise. Therefore, enterprise has gradually attached great importance on staff training. However, enterprises often worry that staff will find another job after they spend money and time on staff training. Therefore, enterprises are concerned about an operative staff training and development system. They attach greater importance on staff’s spiritual civilization which can be trained through enterprise training and development learning. As a result, enterprises cannot ignore the significance of staff training and their spirit development.
the enterprise is assessed by measuring the quantitative but not financial influence of training on the functioning of enterprise, for example, productivity growth, quality growth, reduction of rejec- tion rate, reduction of the number of accidents, etc. The assess- ment is carried out 6-12 month after the end of training. For this purpose the following is being recorded [19, 26]: dynamics of profit indicators, dynamics of stability of enterprise position in the market, changes in intellectual capital, image and reputation im- provement, growth of labor productivity, increase of sales volume , quality improvement, reduction of rejection rate, calculation of “return of expectations” (ROE). For a quantitative non-financial assessment of training effectiveness, the indicator ROE of return expectations is used, that is, the expected change in certain indica- tors after training. Absolute “return expectations” ROE is calcu- lated using the following formula:
Supported by Mendel University in Brno, Project No. 20/2014. Forest structure can be described by means of structural indices. Pommerening (2002) divided structural indices into spatial, non-spatial (neigh- bourhood), spatial autocorrelation based or relying on species mixture or size class diversity calcula- tions of both horizontal and vertical strata. Pom- merening (2002) also examined typical represen- tatives of the classification groups such as Shannon index, Clark and Evans aggregation index, conta- gion index, Pielou coefficient of segregation, min- gling index, diameter differentiation index, pair correlation and mark correlation functions.
Most Private enterprises pay little attention to staff training of knowledge and skills, which is a common problem nowadays in private enterprises. As many enterprises were just in the form of workshop at their prior periods, mostly depending on emotional management, and practitioners were of low quality and poor skills. As corporate manager always wanted to reduce costs, very little money was in- vested in staff training, so that once the business turned to be bigger and stronger, some employees would be un- comfortable and work under pressure, especially the sales department, without proper training, it would be com- pletely impossible to have staff sales achievement in pro- portion to his selling skills. In the limited time, use of the limited resources, greater enhancement of the training ef- fectiveness, will greatly promote the development of pri- vate business.
The parties that tend to be involved in today’s governing political party coalition are Rahvaliit (People’s Union), representing the rural population, and Reformierakond (Reform Party), representing big businesses. Since gaining power in the mid 1990s, Rahvaliit and Reformierakond have advocated for liberal forest regu- lations that would support economic growth during hard times in rural areas. This political stance has led to a reduction in regulation and generated major forestry problems, such as unplanned forest management, widespread illegal forestry, and unsustainable over-logging (Ahas 2003). After the 2003 elections, the Rahvaliit party reversed course and declared a need to limit forest use and destruction (Ministry of Environment 2003). Observers in NGOs maintain, however, that the steps taken by Rahvaliit have been insufficient to achieve proper use of forest resources (EGM 2004). A number of fundamental changes occurred in the forestry sector after Estonia regained independence in 1991. Most significantly, forestlands that had been private- ly owned during the former Estonian Republic (1918-1940) were returned to descen- dants of their historical owners. With the establishment and increase of private forest property came the swift growth of the timber industry. Furthermore, the Soviet structure for forestry administration was no longer functional; the government and state forestry department could no longer control forestry effectively (Ahas 2003). Harvesting rates (Figure 1), illegal logging, and timber-related tax fraud increased precipitously during the mid 1990s (Hain 2003). The need for fundamental changes
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EVA is a method more and more frequently ap- plied as a way of operating management on the basis of the value created for the enterprise owner or owners. The method is applied in evaluating the capital projects, investment decision-making, when measuring performance of an enterprise or when managing and motivating the staff and managers. While the EVA achieves positive values, then such an enterprise is successful. From the viewpoint of its owners, the enterprise value grows as they get back more than they invested in the enterprise and this is also in satisfying creditors – lenders. In Table 7 we can see that the EVA shows positive values dur- ing the whole observed period. These values have an increasing tendency each year, which means that the enterprise might prosper in the future. According to the previous findings and calculations of ratios, and Table 3. Overview of net operating assets (NOA)
Costs of the construction, repair and maintenance of 1 km of forest road network are calculated on the basis of averaged values for these activities obtained by conducting a study of the actual announced pa- rameters in the public procurement of the official and completely free access ‒ Public Procurement Portal (PPP). The depreciation period for roads with similar pavement is 50 years.
In the meantime Public Forest Enterprise Croatian Forests has transformed into Limited Liability Company and new and the latest Forest Law has been brought. The latest Forest Law  did not brought significant change related to environmental tax, but after the amendment in 2006 entrepreneurs were excluded from this obligatory payment scheme , as a part of governmental scheme to support small entrepreneurship, which means that from that year on only legal subjects are paying this environmental tax.The most important change occurred very recently when Government decided to reduce the rate of environmental tax for 25%, from 0.07% to 0.0525% of annual income, starting with 1 July 2010 , as a part of anti-recession measures . It is still too soon to foresee the impact of this change, but Croatian Forests Ltd. has already planned to reduce funding for mine sweeping and afforestation. Fund is managed by Department for Public Welfare Fund Programme at Croatian Forests Ltd. company. It is used for financing renewal of forests, forest protection, management of forests in karst areas, restoration of forests threatened by dieback and diseases, forest roads’ building, mine sweeping, protection of gene diversity, establishment of clone plantations, forestry-based scientific work, forest management programs for private forest owners [13, article 64].
Beam size plays an important role for the forest-guided supertagger training method, since a larger beam size reduces the possibility of search errors. Precisely speaking, we control the beam size by limiting the number of edges in the chart in both the forest-guided supertagger training pro- cess and the final parsing. Figure 2 shows the re- sults of setting different limits for the chart size during supertagger training and parsing on the de- velopment set. The X-axis represents the chart size limitation for the parsing. “10k-train” rep- resents the chart size to be limited to 10k dur- ing FT supertagger training phase. A similar representation is used for “20k-train”. There is no tree structure search process for the baseline PW supertagger. We evaluated the F-score of the parsers using different supertaggers. As shown in Figure 2, when the chart size of the parser was
However, some reports have presented indifferent or positive effects of coppicing on soil conditions (Ranger, Nys 1996; Hölscher et al. 2001; Pignataro et al. 2011). Non-decreasing pH or nutrient availability as well as burning of post-harvest biomass and incorpo- ration of organic matter into the soil surface are attrib- uted to the unintentional cultivation of soil, and were also highlighted as the main positive consequences of coppicing. Furthermore, plants colonizing forest clear- ings (e.g. the family Fabaceae) can contribute to nitro- gen fixation also in the case of coppicing. Despite the short rotation and intense erosion of phytomass, cop- pice stands do not reduce the availability of nutrients. Soil properties were analysed at a nutrient-rich site at the Training Forest Enterprise “Masarykův les” Křtiny (Czech Republic) to assess the soil degradation and changes in the condition of forest stands that had been managed as a coppice in the past and, approximately for the last 110 years, they have been converted to high forest. The purpose of the study was to compare the current condition of forest stands and the soil environ- ment with those of 1959 (Macharáček 1961) and to evaluate the response of soil properties to management conversion from coppice to high forest.
The first record of Chalara fraxinea in the Czech Republic originated from samples collected at Drahany Highland, Arboretum Křtiny, from Fraxi- nus excelsior cv. Pendula at the entrance to the Arboretum, coordinates: 49°19'7''N, 16°44'35''E (date of collection: 26. 09. 2007). Various fungi were isolated from the necrotic lesions, but only a single lesion yielded C. fraxinea. The pathogen was present only in the xylem; the bark was colo- nised by Phomopsis sp. and a dark sterile mycelium (presumably Diplodia sp.). All other lesions yielded Phomopsis sp., cf. Diplodia sp. or Fusarium sp. (in 3 of 5 lesions only the bark was colonised). While multiple causes for dieback on the same tree had been observed as early as 2004, research did not demonstrate the occurrence of C. fraxinea.