we found out that neither the total height nor the increments of young plantations in the KrušnéhoryMts. achieve the values recorded on the control plots. The young crops on the large clearcuts exhib- ited a 44% share of corresponding increments in the case of identical height with the elimination of plants with the disturbed terminal shoot while the share was 50% if all plants were included. The game pres- sure being one of the limiting factors to successful growth of young plantations is documented by mal- formed stem expressed in the number of older and annual forks and individuals with multiple terminal shoots. Interesting with respect to game damage is a comparison of total height on the neighbouring plots H-12-10.00a and H-12-10.00b, where the dif- ference amounted to more than 1 m notwithstanding the fact that the area in question was originally one plot (H-12-10.00a was fenced only three years ago). The percentage of damage to plants by late frost also reached very high values, which exceeded 80% at some places and resulted in a relatively profound drying out of terminal buds as compared with plants in other stand situations. Damage by frost and lateral browsing dramatically impair the value of crown form and prevailing “bonsai”-shaped plants are no exception at such places (crown form 4).
ABSTRACT: The density of red deer in the area of forest ecosystems disturbed by air pollution in the KrušnéhoryMts. – Klášterec nad Ohří Forest District was determined in two model hunting districts Jelení hora and Černý potok. To determine the density of red deer two methods were used, namely the clearance plot method and a method without the clearance of transects – faecal standing crop. Based on the repeated counting of faecal pellet groups on 16 marked plots (No. 1 to 16) in the research area, mean values of the estimate of the red deer population density were deter- mined in the Jelení hora hunting district in 2007 and 2008 using the FSC method, viz 24 ± 23 individuals·km –2 (95%
Air pollution and ecological situation in the KrušnéhoryMts. claimed the establishment of stands with substitute tree species whose area is over 30 thousand hectares. The proportion of birch in these stands is significant (40%). Birch was used mainly as an admixed species but there is a number of stands with birch forming monocultures. It is to be pointed out that – with the exception of damage caused by game, snow and rime, the species grew success- fully, fulfilling all functions anticipated from the stands of substitute species until the mid-1990s. This situation markedly changed in 1997, when birch trees did not flush on extensive areas, many of them died or have been ob- served declining since that time – with the symptoms of drying out crowns and general defoliation. Therefore the goal of the paper was to analyze and assess the response of root system to defoliation in this tree species, possibly to find out whether defoliation occurred as a consequence of root system damage.
Another type of deterioration was observed in the western KrušnéhoryMts. The long-term effects of acid deposition connected with base cation leaching, granite bedrock poor in base cations, massive wash- ing of the soil horizon after winter at the turn of the century resulted in the historically repeated yellowing of Norway spruce stands (Hadaš 2006; Šrámek et al. 2008a). The yellowing of the stands in all age cat- egories was connected with a base cation deficiency – primarily of magnesium and of calcium – in the forest soil and in the needles. This type of damage affected about 8,000 ha of forest stands (Šrámek et al. 2001; Lomský, Šrámek 2004). Based on Government Res- olution No. 532/2000, during the period from 2000 to 2004 liming and fertilising of the forest stands were carried out in the KrušnéhoryMts. forests. Dolomite lime was applied, together with a liquid magnesium fertiliser and dry fertilisers (Lomský et al. 2006; Po- drázský 2006; Šrámek et al. 2006). The ameliorative methods including biological and chemical amelio- ration and reduced air pollution pressure have con- tributed to stand regeneration and enabled the trans- formation of existing transitory stands into stands composed of the target tree species (Slodičák et al. 2008; Šrámek et al. 2008b).
AbstRAct: The paper presents results from a study of sycamore maple development, health condition and growth in forest altitudinal vegetation zones (FAVZ) 6 and 7 occurring in pollution damage zones A and B in the air-polluted region of KrušnéhoryMts. as compared with the trees of identical height in FAVZ 4 and 5 occurring in pollution damage zone D in the Bohemian-Moravian Upland. Sycamore maple develops a fully diversified root system. On spread mounds it creates only a superficial root system and its growth is retarded. The growth of sycamore maple is limited by the layer of humus horizons. If the layer thickness is over 20 cm, the sycamore roots would grow into mineral horizons.
The character of Anthroposols (Němeček 2001) is influenced quite significantly by the properties of geogenic substrates, methods of their overlaying (mixing) including the reclamation technologies used for the improvement of their soil properties. In the course of reclamation of the lowest slope parts of the KrušnéhoryMts. pelitic Anthroposols (with the content of soil particles < 0.01 mm higher than 45%) will be formed most frequently while their soil-forming substrate will be composed of il- litic-kaolinitic gray clays with chemical and physical soil properties favourable for forestry production; overlaid Anthroposols will also be formed that will consist of various proportions of rocks of the coal seam, gray clays including substrates of the original natural soils (sand, gravel, boulders). Reclamations at the highest locations will be finished by terraced Anthroposols – erosion-control measures will be taken on the slopes using only substrates of original natural soils (Cambisols).
Gregar J., Kovář P., Bačinová H., Bažatová T. (2017): Comparison of water regimes of two dump catchments in the KrušnéhoryMts. (Czech Republic) in dry years using a hydrological balance. Soil & Water Res., 12: 137−143. The dump catchments water regime optimization is one of fundamental recultivation operations in areas dev- astated after surface coal mining. Two dump catchments (at Radovesice and Loket in the KrušnéhoryMts., Czech Republic) were selected to study whether their hydrological balance allows to keep life in them on a suf- ficiently natural level. The WBCM-6 water balance model was implemented. Different hydrological conditions of the mentioned dump catchments located ca. 90 km apart were compared. The Radovesice catchment lies in a precipitation shadow and suffers from a much greater precipitation deficiency than the Loket one. Its long-term annual precipitation deficit makes about 100 mm. Based on the analysis of the dry year 2003 growing season, biotechnical hydrological measures, in particular cascades of small reservoirs, were proposed.
Further comparison is possible using the results available from evaluations of the Mláka and So- fronka research plots of the same series at the iden- tical age of 34 years (Fulín et al. 2017; Novotný et al. 2017). Provenances at the Sofronka location excelled in height growth, and 12 of them in total exceed the tallest provenance 2091 Mount Hood “l” at the Kovářská plot. The lowest heights were found at the Mláka location. Trunk volume was the greatest at Sofronka again and the least at Mláka. Provenances at the Kovářská plot are ranked best in most qualitative features (trunk shape, trunk forking, and bark type), and especially those of the “l” subspecies. On the other hand, values at the KrušnéhoryMts. plot are the poorest for vitality as expressed by defoliation and branch thickness. There, similarly to the Sofronka plot, the greatest defoliation was detected in high-elevation moun- tainous provenances of the “m” subspecies and in the Oregon provenance 2100 Pistol River “c”. The CLU result (Fig. 4) expressing clustering of prov- enances based on combinations of values of the determined quantitative and qualitative charac- teristics documents that the individual subspecies can be relatively well distinguished by phenotypic expression. This is true especially of the “c” sub- species, which was well distinguished also at the Sofronka and Mláka plots, whereas the analyses Fig. 4. Output of cluster analysis – PAST (Version 2.07, 2011)
5, no signiﬁ cant diﬀ erence was determined among particular variants). Th e P content was low in the H horizon, being aﬀ ected by soil acidity (the uptake of phosphorus is blocked in acid soils). Th is was ex- plained earlier as a result of the formation of hardly available aluminium and iron phosphates (L 2006). Th is can also be due to the fact that it is re- leased from the surface humus layer into the Ah ho- rizon where it is promptly accepted by plants. Th e optimum content of available phosphorus in the Ah horizon can be given by the bond of phosphorus in the biomass of microorganisms, which prevents loss- es (through leaching) or by immobilization to the soil sorption complex (Š 2003). With respect to the relatively fast life cycles of soil microorganisms, large amounts of available phosphorus are released after their death. Phosphorus is immediately taken up by plants before being immobilized or leached (Š 2003). However, coniferous species can take up phos- phorus from hardly available forms, particularly on heavily acid soils by means of soil mycorrhizae (L 2006). Th e obtained results are in compli- ance with the statement of K et al. (2008) that in the H and Ah horizons, nearly two thirds of the area of the KrušnéhoryMts. are below a limit of 10 mg·kg –1. F and R (2000) also reported
AbStrAct: The plateau of the KrušnéhoryMts. belongs to areas that suffered the greatest damage caused by air- pollution stresses in Europe. A part of cultural practices aimed at the reconstruction of local mountain forests was the inconsiderate use of bulldozer technologies for the preparation of sites for forest stand restoration. In the course of large-scale scarification the top-soil horizons were moved into line windrows, which caused marked degradation of the soil environment. The present revitalization of the soil environment is based on the principle of spreading these man- made windrows. Experimental plots were established in localities affected by scarification; the organomineral material from windrows was superimposed on them and subsequently they were reforested with Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.). In 2005 the point application of fertilizer tablets of Silvamix type in three treatments and calcic dolomite was performed into the rhizosphere of plants. Before fertilization and after three years of the experiment soil samples were taken from the organomineral zone of the root balls of plants, and the condition of the soil environment on spread windrows and changes in pedochemical properties as a result of applied fertilization were evaluated. Three years after the windrow spreading the content of the majority of soil macrobiogenic elements (N, K, Ca, Mg) is at the level of me- dium-high to high reserves, and only the low phosphorus reserves pose a certain hazard. The organomineral substrate of spread windrows is a suitable growth environment for the root systems of target tree species. The proportion of humus substances is the most important factor in spread windrows from which the characteristics of the other parameters of soil are derived. Along with the higher proportion of humus substances in Špičák locality significantly higher reserves of major macrobiogenic elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) were determined. The applied fertilizers of Silvamix type signifi- cantly increased the reserves of soil P, K, Ca, Mg and are a suitable means for the stimulation of spruce plantations in the restored environment of the KrušnéhoryMts. Silvamix Forte fertilizer tablets are the most complex fertilizer with the most balanced effects that significantly increases the reserves of soil P, Mg and K. This fertilizer has a high effect on an increase in the reserves of soil phosphorus that may be deficient in conditions of spread windrows. Silvamix R is the most efficient fertilizer to increase potassium reserves. A positive effect of calcic dolomite on an increase in Ca and Mg content was observed while no such effect on the other elements was recorded.
Extensive part of birch stands at the turn of the first and second age classes was bent by the mass of icing. After the receding of icing, particularly young stands of the higher degree of stocking returned to their original position and breakage damage was not important (Kula, Kawulok 1998). In 1995, there was the high proportion of young birch stands in the eastern KrušnéhoryMts. at medium and higher locations where stem and crown breakage was not so frequent as at locations 550–650 m a.s.l. There, growth conditions were more favourable for birch and the species reached higher height and dbh with the lower plasticity for bending in the same age category (Kula 1998). In assessing the impact of icing on birch stands nobody dealt with frost cracks because they were not sufficiently striking and thus they escaped attention.
The aim of this study consisted in verifying the hypothesis whether the application of tableted fertilizers Silvamix® Forte, Silvamix® R, Stromfolixyl® and calcareous dolomite affected significantly the nutrition and growth of Norway spruce. In order to carry out research investigation, the experimental Suchdol locality has been selected as it represents large‑scale reclaimed sites in the KrušnéhoryMts. Ameliorating agents were applied using the initial spot fertilization of Norway spruce plantations. In the course of two years, activities as follows were carried out annually: (1) top shoots measurement, (2) sampling the latest needle year‑class. The applied fertilizers impact on the concentrations of nutrients in needle dry matter was not significant with minor exception. Fertilizers Silvamix® Forte and Silvamix® R can be recommended to support seedlings growth in the area of interest since there had been positive effect on annual height increment found out. Calcareous dolomite showed the most favourable effect on the shoot biomass growth. Stromfolixyl® fertilizer had no effect on the annual increment; its impact on the nutrition can be characterized as insignificant since fertilized individuals showed lower phosphorus concentration in needle dry matter.
Within the KrušnéHoryMts. area of interest, chemical amelioration was applied using individu- al fertilization or large-scale liming. Individual fer- tilization (individually for each transplant) is the most frequently applied treatment using slow-re- lease mineral fertilizers. Their effect on the nutri- tion and growth of forest tree species was studied by Remeš et al. (2005) and Vavříček et al. (2011) in the region concerned, and by Ingerslev (1997) or Podrázský and Remeš (2008) elsewhere. The fertilizer effect on the soil environment was studied only sporadically and in short intervals (Vavříček et al. 2010). Large-scale liming was applied espe- cially in the 1980s, and in some regions also in the following decades (the extent is not clearly re- corded). The short-term, but also long-term effects on the soil environment were described (Frank, Stuanes 2003; Podrázský, Ulbrichová 2003; Šrámek et al. 2003; Borůvka et al. 2005).
In the KrušnéhoryMts. and Děčín Sandstone Uplands the Carabidae fauna has been explored in stands of sub- stitute tree species with dominant birch (Betula pendula Roth) for a long time and has been used for various faunal and ecological studies (K ULA 1992, 1997; K ULA et al. 2002, 2003, 2004). F ARKAČ (1996) described the Carabid
ABSTRACT: In 2001–2004 National Forest Inventory was realized in the Czech Republic. A great number of variables was measured giving rise to an extensive information database that can be used to assess the state and development of various quantitative and qualitative dendrometric characteristics. This work presents the results of regeneration state and game damage in the KrušnéhoryMts. based on the data from both the National Forest Inventory and the sec- ond enlarged measurement carried out after five years that was done in a part of the Fláje preserve and enabled basic comparison with the rest of the area. For the calculation of data acquired in the old and recent measurement standard methodology for processing National Forest Inventory was used. Comparison of data showed that the average number of regeneration individuals dropped by more than a third in the interval of 5 years, as well as the number of plots with regeneration; game damage of regeneration also was lower by 4%. The proportion of individuals damaged by peeling did not change during the investigated period. A significant increase in game damage to regeneration was found in the Fláje preserve.
If compared with analogical experimental planta- tions, our results are comparable with the silver fir development in Lesní bouda locality in the Krkonoše Mts. (altitude 1,080 m a.s.l., Kriegel 2002), where the average six-year height increment was 22 cm. Contrary to the previous statement concerning the unsuitability of the fir in summit parts of the Czech mountains (Zatloukal 2001), the fir planted under the conditions of spruce with beech-spruce FAZ grew successfully in juvenile stage. The growth ca- pacity of plantations in the mountain and foothills localities at lower altitudes with more favourable growth conditions was higher, e.g. in Fláje local- ity at an altitude of 800 m a.s.l. (KrušnéhoryMts. – Kriegel, Bartoš 2004) or in Lanovka locality at the altitude of 520 m (Broumovská vrchovina upland – Balcar 1991).
Water directly affects the activity of the cambium even though in some periods the cambium is more sensitive to the lack of water than in others. The main source of water in the system is atmospheric rainfall which affects the water balance in dependence on its amount, intensity and time distribution during the vegetation period (Horáček 1994). Precipita- tion is the main factor limiting the wood growth at lower altitudes (Larcher 1988). Tree radial growth can be influenced both by precipitation in the pre- vious year and by precipitation in that particular year. Precipitation in spring of the previous year and precipitation in winter, spring and summer of that particular year are of the highest importance. The positive correlation between precipitation and growth, i.e. an increase in growth with the volume of precipitation, is supported with evidence mainly for lower and medium altitudes; the relation cannot often be supported with evidence for the highest altitudes. The negative correlation between the tree-ring width and precipitation, i.e. a decrease in increments consequent to above-average precipita- tion mainly during July and August, was only found in areas with exceedingly high precipitation, for ex- ample on the German side of the KrušnéhoryMts. (Čermák 2007).
tail, were different. Needle length was distinctly larger than in the KrušnéhoryMts. but needle width was smaller, so that a markedly different value of the shape index (rl/rw) was found out. It is also important that the value of the respective standard deviation was lower compared to the analysed localities in the KrušnéhoryMts., which were described in the preceding paragraph, which does not correspond to lower growth variability in the Krkonoše Mts. (Table 4). Obviously, the vari- ability of spruce populations according to growth and phenotype features is probably directly com- parable only within one natural area. The needle length was one and only needle parameter mea- sured in history. This length on PRP 24 is compa- rable with common data from the Krkonoše Mts. (Fanta 1974, 1976).
The Fláje locality (KrušnéhoryMts., at a height of ca 800 m a.s.l.) used in this study was dominated by broadleaves Sorbus aucuparia, Salix arita and Salix pentandra and conifers Picea abies and Larix decidua. Soil type in this locality is modal crypto- podzols. The samples of leaves and needles were collected from 4–5 trees of each species growing in the studied locality in September 2010 and trans- ferred to a laboratory for phenolic acid analyses.
divergences from the normal state. The changes are very gradual, thus making it more difficult to observe minor and even larger changes. Over the past 20 years, an unprecedented expansion of the formerly rare sika deer has taken place in the Doupovské horyMts. and this species has become the most numerous ungulate game in this area. The influence of this species on other ungulate game species was described in literature already more than 40 years ago (Rowland 1967). The in- fluences described are very extensive in the study area, where large amounts of suitable habitats are available for development of an abundant popula- tion. The deepest interactions exist with the red deer ‒ the sika deer is taxonomically closest to this species and crossbreeds with it. Individuals are frequently killed whose species determination is difficult even for experienced gamekeepers and zoologists, and there are other manifestations, too, to confirm crossbreeding. The shift in the timing of the rutting season is such a manifesta- tion which is very striking in comparison with ar- eas inhabited by pure populations of the sika deer and red deer. The local populations of the red deer and sika deer in the Doupovské horyMts. are, of course, not isolated from their surroundings, and they also communicate with neighbouring abun- dant populations of the two species. The intensive growth of the sika deer population influences not only other game species, but also the surrounding environment. At a suitable site, even the formerly very scarce sika game can quickly multiply, live covertly and cause significant damage especially to forest stands. Serious research has been carried out since 2009 with the aim to monitor the growth of the sika deer population, its behaviour and its influence on the environment in the Doupovské horyMts.