the majority of them are still foreigners control. Therefore, Vietnamese workers will be easily replaced by machines and robots. According to the International Labor Organization (ILO), 86% of workers in Vietnam's garment and footwear sectors are at high risk of losing their jobs; other sectors will also be affected such as agriculture, accounting, assembly and repair of equipment, etc. Vietnamese laborers are not active and creative in their work as well as lack of skills and initiative in the process of receiving "The Wave of Technology". According to ManpowerGroup Solutions (2018) in Total Workforce Index TM 2017 Global Analysis indicates that Vietnam's human resources index ranks the 62 nd in the world and the 14 th in the Asia Pacific region; only 5% of the laborers are proficient in English and only 10.4% are skilled workers. After the effects of industrial revolution 4.0, Vietnam has faced with many challenges, especially the ability to compete to maintain and seek job of low-qualified labors. In the "Readiness for the Future of Production Report 2018" report was released by the World Economic Forum (2018), in a total of 100 countries, Vietnam fell in the group of countries where are not ready for the 4th industrial revolution; the quality of human resources ranked No. 70 and the indicators related to innovation and the quality of human resources at a very low level. Table 2 has illustrated that Vietnam's labor ranks are much lower than those in some Southeast Asian countries. The majority of indicators assess the quality of human resources readiness for the Industry 4.0, Vietnam ranks behind Figure 6. Average employee’s income per month in Vietnam and some Asia Pacific countries Source: Manpower Group Solutions (2018)
Each advertisement was analyzed in terms of the required skills, level of experience, and personal attributes demanded from candidates. These were matched against the report produced by People 1st (2010) in order to consider how this industry report matched up to the stated requirements of employers. In addition, each job advertisement was analyzed in the light of the concepts of emotional labor and aesthetic labor, as discussed above, and for underly- ing gender, racial, and class-based assumptions. The decision to analyze advertisements on a single day as opposed to over a longer time period means that this study cannot claim to be representative of events management-related job advertisements in the UK. however, as these issues have not previously been explored in the events industry, this study is explor- atory and marks the first stage in a wider consider- ation of recruitment and selection processes. The aim of the study was to provide a snapshot of job adver- tisements and a preliminary understanding of the right type of person these advertisements were seek- ing to attract as well as to provide a basis for further research into the recruitment and selection processes of the events industry, as discussed further below.
NCCTA, served as a contact for information about issues regarding the H-2A program that impact the Christmas tree industry. Additional informal conversations took place with members of the Department of Labor, the North Carolina Growers Association, and the North Carolina Farm Bureau Federation to become familiar with the policy issues affecting the industry. Semi-structured interviews with these industry participants were open ended and allowed informants to elaborate more thoroughly on perspectives and issues such as the advantages and disadvantages of hiring Hispanic workers. More thorough description and explanation of industry issues such as housing and wage policies, interaction among growers and workers, and anecdotes to illustrate points were achieved through interviews and served to explain the broader theoretical questions and implications. Interviews took place with growers at their homes, farm offices, in the field, or at restaurants. Interview notes were transcribed by hand during the interview because initial interview subjects appeared uncomfortable with tape-recording interviews. Interviews ranged from one to three hours. Two interviews lasted entire days while the researcher participated in on-farm activities with the grower.
The forecast model and potential labor demand outcomes will be useful to a variety of construction industry stakeholders. Construction business owners will have a better understanding of future staffing needs. Model outputs can assist trade and apprenticeship groups with recruitment efforts and planning for future training needs. Also, the research can provide policy advocates and makers with data to make sound decisions regarding funding and support for skilled labor needs for the United States. High demand forecasts will enable industry stakeholders to ensure that training program enrollment and completion is on track to supply the forecasted demand; or such forecasts could help a company plan project start and finish dates and plan and allocate their skilled labor resources. Correspondingly, low demand forecasts may also prompt the industry to plan; lobbying groups may work to garner government funding and support of new construction projects. Overall, effective demand forecasting can help the industry recognize labor trends and patterns which can improve planning and allocation of labor resources.
Thailand’s international trade, exports in particular, expanded considerably after the major policy changes in 1990. According to this expansion, there was also a significant increase in intra-industry trade even though the major characteristic of Thailand trade is still inter-industry. However, intra-industry trade is hypothesized to reduce adjustment costs due to trade expansion and changes in trade compared to inter-industry trade. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of increased Intra-Industry Trade (IIT) on the labor market adjustment cost, in view of the changes in Thailand’s pattern of trade over the post-1990 period. The study is focused on the hypothesis that Intra-Industry Trade (IIT) expansion entails lower factor adjustment costs (Smooth Adjustment Hypothesis-SAH). A dynamic panel data approach is employed. The results suggest a nega- tive correlation between changes in employment and Marginal Intra-Industry Trade (MIIT) and confirmation of the SAH. Given the increase in IIT as a proportion of Thailand’s overall trade during the period under review, the adjustment in labor markets in the form of reduced employment from trade liberalization at that time is likely to have been less than that would have otherwise been expected.
ABSTRACT: In construction the migration of labors is high. Labors are the main and precious resource of construction industry. The study examines the critical factors influencing labor productivity in construction industry. From the study nine factors affecting labor productivity are identified, each factors having their own sub factors. Based on the factors the questionnaire is designed and the respondents for distribution of questionnaire are selected. The labors are selected as the target respondents and the total of 111 questionnaires are completed by the respondents. The collected data are analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) software. From the analysis result the major factors influencing labor productivity are identified and the solutions are given for all the impacts.
The garment industry is notorious for the endemic problem of labor exploitation we conducted an analysis of the average wages reported by Nike in 2001 and in its financial statements, showing that the brand could have doubled or tripled the wages of workers while maintaining a high net income. This is a paradigmatic case for the sector, and a unique opportunity to prove that paying a decent living wage is possible without suffering losses. To our knowledge, no other leading brand of the garment industry has published a detailed report on the wages of its workers. Even Nike decided not to do so again after the publication of its 2001 report. Consequently, the findings of our study have important implications for those who continue to demand that textile companies improve the labor conditions of their workers
The objections discussed above are not persuasive for many rea- sons. Fundamentally, employees should not lose basic labor protec- tions simply because the industry runs afoul of federal law. After all, employers are also violating the law and should not reap an unfair bargaining advantage as a result. Moreover, any conflict between the CSA and the NLRA is implicit and minor. Even if there were a genu- ine conflict, the federal government remains free to enforce the CSA against industry participants. Enforcement is preferable to allowing unfair labor practices to continue to go unchecked. Doing so advances neither the purpose of the NLRA nor the purpose of the CSA. Finally, many employees in the cannabis industry do not neatly fit within the agricultural worker exception under the NLRA. The Board did not give cannabis industry participants protections other workers do not enjoy. Instead, the Board simply recognized the nature of the work performed by some employees in the industry.
This paper concludes some of the results from the first phase of TuoVa-project. The first hypothesis to be tested was that labor productivity has developed very little in the last 30 years. Our study shows that level of labor productivity has improved from the mid 70´s by approximately 1 % per year. Only significant improvement happened during and after the recession of 1990-1994. The shocking drop in the volume of construction industry led into a more labor productive phase. Main factor was the changes in project structures as more and more work was done by subcontractors and not by own employees. Figures 1 and 2 show how the influence of such development is not very long lasting. External factors like the economic situation can increase or decrease the labor productivity, but internal development in management practices, technology and labor skills and training are needed to make real changes (e.g. Lavender, 1996; Olomolaiye et al., 1998; Naoum, 2001).
Abstract Although, the economy of Bangladesh is primarily dependent on agriculture, Readymade Garment (RMG) industry has emerged as the largest earner foreign currency of Bangladesh in recent years. More than 75% of foreign earnings are coming through export from this very important sector of Bangladesh. In study of Islam & Chowdhuri,  presently more than four million workers are working in 4,500 RMG companies of Bangladesh in which 90% are illiterate women who are from the rural areas of the country. The policymakers and the employers of this sector claim that the growth of garment sector has helped employing a huge number of rural women that has subsequently developed their socioeconomic. But, it is a concern of the national and internal observers that the compliances like factory laws, industrial relations laws, employment laws, payment of wages laws, ILO standards, ethics applied in this sector are hardly followed by the RMG companies that make the lives of the workers very misery. Sometimes, the female workers are exploited by employing more hours a day without the payment of overtime by capitalizing their illiteracy and submissiveness. Hence, this paper aims at identifying the level of application of the labor laws and the compliances in RMG industry of Bangladesh that is the only protective measures of the large number of female workers of this sector of Bangladesh. A total of 238 workers of this sector were interviewed in this study with a structured questionnaire. Multivariate analysis techniques such as, Factor Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis were used to analyze the data. Results show that in case of measures for protecting sexual harassment there is a severe problem of the use of the labor laws in this sector followed by physical movement and access control, exit and access path of the company, working hours, and counseling arrangements in the company. This study suggests that the readymade garment companies should address the sexual harassment issue seriously so that the workers will feel safe at their work. They also should focus more on the safety issues, working hours, and counseling of the workers in order to make the working environment more favorable to the
The statistical information analyzed expresses two readings in its interpretation: one referring to the objectives of those who developed the indicator (INEGI) 12 , whether territorial, population, industrial (establishments and their differentiation by corporate name), labor market (salaried employees, with or without affiliation to health institutions, with or without a contract, among other things) or the disaggregated combination of the type of establishment with or without a business name in the textile and clothing industry; and a second reading which has the function of evaluating certain conditions and presence of vestiges of CSR in the industrial and occupational structure of the workforce, with its category of employed personnel. Therefore, it can be affirmed that both readings discover in essence that there is a structural condition of the Aguascalientes industry that contravenes the CSR principles, since it combines a type of formal enterprise that complies with the specific aspects of an employment relationship, with its employed personnel: the "dependents of the corporate name", but coexisting with another (those not dependent on a company name), which serves the former to simulate the responsibility of employers in labor matters with their employees, avoiding the costs to the companies of all that employed personnel which does not directly contribute to the production. The previous fact leads to determine that the impact of CSR strategies on the State industry, and specifically on the textile and clothing industry, is null, and it can be stated that entrepreneurs do not have a clear vision of how to apply the agreements embodied in the green books of CSR and Corporate. This conclusion is supported by the fact that, observing the combination of types of companies in
(2) A case study of Suihua, Heilongjiang Province was conducted. In the case study, the data of the cultivated land that the average labor covered were collected when the degrees of mechanization were 0 and 100% through survey. Through the distribution of the survey data, a method of dealing with χ 2 distribution was applied and tested. The results show that the data obtained by the questionnaire conform to the normal distribution. On this basis, the abnormal data are eliminated and arranged to obtain the sample data of the cultivated land that the average labor covered area when the degrees of mechanization are 0 and 100%. In addition, according to the data of the mechanization degree, and the measure of cultivated area, and the estimation model of labor demand for planting industry from 2005 to 2014, the demand of planting labor force in Suihua area were estimated to verify the accuracy and rationality of the model.
At present, China has gone from "low cost of production era" into the "high cost of production of the times", under conditions of low labor cost, small-scale manufacturing enterprises greater profit margins. The status quo of China's textile industry is small and micro enterprises, many small mills, such enterprises technology is weak, weak anti-risk ability, influenced by rising labor costs. Thus textile enterprises should actively explore scale upgrade path to the "efficiency wage theory" as the basis, but also to improve the workers compensation achieve higher productivity; in terms of personnel, should increase investment in human capital by improving workers qualities and skills.
Also according to the human capital approach, a variety of other factors that affect wages and productivity of the study results Becker (1976) showed that the difference in income is derived from the difference in labor productivity between men and women. Furthermore, Blanchard (2004) mentions that the work experience and training to be a determinant of income, while according to Polacheck (2004), wage differences can be explained by individual characteristics associated with productivity, such as level of education. So based on the phenomenon, theories and various results of previous research, this study will examine further and showed that the level of wages is influenced by productivity, which means that both influence each other. This study will use a simultaneous equation model and introduce some other variables that affect both the variable human capital, variable working hours, variable employment status as well as being specificity (novelty) in this study is introducing variable life quality of work (Quality of worklife) of workers in the hospitality industry. This is one of renewal of this study considering similar studies generally only stop the problem of how big the influence of individual characteristics and the characteristics of the human capital of the level of wages received by workers.
The factors that influence the development of the tofu industry in Dairi Regency are capital, labor and production costs. These three factors influence industrial development. Capital has a positive and significant influence on people's income, meaning that with the increase in capital, it will certainly affect the increase in people's income. The same is the case with labor and production costs. These two factors also have a positive influence on people's income. But the influence of these two factors is not significant. This happens because these two factors are still influenced by other factors outside of this research ...