One of the consequences of non-essentialist philosophy is that con- cepts can be best viewed as continua. Like most other concepts, the cru- cial ones discussed in this essay — “useful” and “socially relevant” — may then be treated as continua as well. In other words, rather than saying that a study, or a discipline, is useful to something or not, we should be prepared to say that it may be more useful, less useful, very useful, almost useless, etc. This approach allows us to make non-categorical evaluations (e.g., linguistics is quite useful for some people in some situations), which are so much easier to make than categorical ones (e.g., linguistics is defi- nitely useful). Viewing “usefulness” or “social relevance” as continua al- lows us to point to typical cases, about which we will tend to agree. For instance, given the finding that the way questions from the prosecution are asked in court may affect the way they are answered by the defend- ant, we will tend to agree, I think, that such findings may have significant legal consequences. Research on how such questions and answers work is then very likely to be widely seen as socially useful. We will, however, tend to disagree or be in doubt about borderline cases, for example, about whether research on accommodation in discourse (i.e., on how we adapt our language to the language of our interlocutors) is socially useful. Some of us will probably see it as useful; others as hardly useful or as useless.
vous allés? – as ‘allo-questions’, each corresponding to a distinct pragmatic function. Kerry Mullan, *Expressing Opinions in French and Australian English Discourse: A Semantic and Interactional Analysis (Pragmatics and Beyond, new series, 200), Amsterdam, Benjamins, xvii+282 pp., focuses on the function of the discourse markers I think, je pense, je crois, and je trouve, and shows how their interactive function is determined by prosody, intonation unit position, and surrounding context. Marianne Broadwater, *The Role of Popular Culture in Language Borrowing: a comparative linguistic study of French and English, Saarbrücken, VDM, 2008, 60 pp. J. Jayez and L. M. Tovena, ‘Presque and almost: how argumentation derives from comparative meaning’, Emprical Issues in Syntax and Semantics 7 (2008:217–39), ed. O. Bonami and P. Cabredo Hofherr (available online only at <www.cssp.cnrs.fr/eiss7>). R. Gergel, *‘Towards notions of comparative continuity in English and French’, pp. 119–44 of Continuity and Change in Grammar, ed. A. Breitbarth et al. (Linguistics Today, 159), Amsterdam,
Hansen has called for a return to and revival of philology in the form of a “philology of culture,” taking this concept from German Anglicist, Herbert Grabes (see Grabes 2002). Tracing the development of language studies from classical philology, through the (romanticist and historicist) national philologies of the nineteenth century to the modern language studies of the twentieth century, Hansen has shown how modern lan- guage studies, increasingly influenced by developments within the now separately organised comparative humanities and social sciences — his- tory, linguistics, literary analysis, anthropology, sociology, etc. — have incorporated structuralism, Marxism, communications theories, post- structuralism, and cultural analysis, as well as the pragmatic turn within linguistics, the linguistic turn within cultural and social studies, and the cultural turn within literary studies (Hansen 2005, 305–11). It goes with- out saying that a single modern language programme (with ever fewer employees) cannot possibly incorporate all of this; yet, depending on the researchers involved in a programme and the relevance to the studied language and culture, any of these theories and approaches may be re- searched and taught. In addition, and somewhat ironically I would add, the so-called linguistic turn within cultural studies, with its focus on of- ten rather abstract linguo-philosophical aspects, seems to have to some degree displaced rather than supported the study of concrete languages and specific linguistic issues. Likewise, the sociological tendency and favouring of popular culture within cultural studies, including the de- throning of elite culture, has not exactly been supportive of a philologi- cal interest in linguistic detail, creative individuality, and, thus, “high” literature.
Mari C. Jones, ‘Variation and Change in Sark Norman French’, TPS, 110:149–70, compares recent data with forms recorded in earlier linguistics atlases to examine phonological variation and change within the most vulnerable extant variety of insular Norman, and suggests that not all cases of widespread variation in dying languages should be automatically attributed to the process of obsolescence. Id. employs the PFC protocol (see section 1) and (unusually for obsolescent speech communities) finds striking uniformity across informants regarding ‘Liaison Patterns and Usage in Jersey Norman French’, Probus, 24:197–232, and across a number of different syntactic contexts and two different speech styles, showing that the contexts that trigger obligatory liaison in standard Fr. on the whole do so in Jèrriais too, while very different patterns emerge for optional liaison and for conversational vs. reading style. Richard P. Ingham, *The Transmission of Anglo-Norman: Language History and Language Acquisition , Amsterdam, Benjamins, xii + 179 pp., uses AN — whose phonology (but not syntax) diverged rapidly and sharply from continental Fr. — as a case study relating to issues of second language
‘defective’ structures with an embedded kind-denoting generic DP rather than a true definite DP hence, for example, the absence of any existence presupposition. M. Wilmet, *‘A stranger in the house: the French article de’, pp. 65–78 of Essays on Nominal Determination: From Morphology to Discourse Management (Studies in Language companion series, vol. 99), ed. Henrik Høeg Müller and Alex Klinge, Amsterdam, Benjamins, xviii + 369 pp., argues on the basis of historical and theoretical considerations for the existence of de as an article in Fr., occurring alone or together with another article, and defined in terms of the oppositions part/whole, mass/count and continuous/discontinuous. Tabea Ihsane, *The Layered DP: Form and Meaning in French Indefinites (Linguistik aktuell/Linguistics Today, vol. 124), Amsterdam, Benjamins, viii + 260 pp., is a revised version of the author’s 2006 Geneva Ph.D. thesis relating the interpretation and structure of un/du-initial indefinite nominals and exploiting the inflectional and left-peripheral structure made available in cartographical approaches to generative syntax. Laurence Benetti, *L’article zéro en français contemporain: aspects syntaxiques et sémantiques (Linguistik, vol. 307), Oxford, etc., Lang, viii + 187 pp.
He added that the only effective teacher should be the Language is learnt only through use, practice. trained linguist working alongside the students, because The more the learner is exposed to the use of language teachers often have an insufficient command of language the better the chances of learning it. the language, only the trained linguists know how to The production of language depends on the guide the students learning from native speakers and how situation which makes its use necessary. to teach the forms of the language. Meng  argued that Language cannot be taught divorced from the “language is an inherently complex system. It presents situation; the teacher has to introduce each new some contradictions and oppositions. Both linguistics pattern of language in a meaningful situation. and language teaching must consider these Producing the correct linguistic response to a contradictions; otherwise they cannot provide a stimulus requires effort. If the learner is not called satisfactory solution to the problems of language”. upon to make this effort there is no learning. This paper can conclude that linguistics gives Producing the correct response also requires contribution to the theory of language teaching and attention. Attention is bound to slacken after a time, the language teacher should get knowledge of them. so prolonged practice is less useful than spaced The language teacher should be master of linguistics practice.
AN EXPERIMENTAL APPLICATIVE PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE FOR LINGUISTICS AND STRING PROCESSING AN EXPERIMENTAL APPLICATIVE PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE FOR LINGUISTICS AND STRING PROCESSING P A C Bailes and L H Reeke[.]
Traditionally, both problems were investigated with comparative linguistics instruments (Campbell, 1998) and required a manual process. Most of the previous approaches to word form production relied on phonetic transcriptions. They built on the idea that, given the phonological context, sound changes follow certain regularities across the entire vocabulary of a language. The proposed methods (Eastlack, 1977; Hartman, 1981) required a list of known sound correspondences as input, collected from dictionaries or published studies.
Another significant aspect laid in Combinatory Linguistics is combinability. It consists in studying word combinations subordinated to certain communicative tasks under existing conditions of their realization. The choice of the model of the utterance and filling it with certain lexical units depend on the speaker’s intentions and the specific situation in which the speaker takes part. A wide study of combinability of language units from the historical viewpoint has revealed the theoretical and methodological fundamentals of Combinatory Linguistics. The theory of A. Diskol and early doctrines of Russian linguists [7-10] became the preconditions of its origin. However, the area of their interests was limited to syntax as a process of syntagmatic deployment in time since the formation of blocks on syntactic dependences is more available to observation.
Abstract Digital Linguistics (DL) is an interdisciplinary study that identifies human language as a digital evolution of mammal analog vocal sign communications, founded on the vertebrate spinal sign reflex mechanism. The author identifies the birth of linguistic humans at the time of the laryngeal descent, which provided vowel accented syllables containing logical properties of phonemes and morae. A character set and literacy is the second evolution. Written text is long lasting syllables in the brain of literate persons, and a civilization started as a linguistic phenomenon. At the end of their biological life, they can write their accumulated knowledge with a character set, so that subsequent generations can share their thoughts and experiences to develop further. In the 21st century, text is available in electronic form, which is interactive against keyword searches. It is time for linguistic humans to integrate disciplinary sciences and correct any errors to establish collective human intelligence. Piaget indicated that concepts can be manipulated correctly based on a group theory, which seems to be a base logic for intellectual evolution of linguistic humans as well as a tool for respectful and productive interdisciplinary discussions. 
Applied linguistics has two definitions: narrow sense and broad sense. In narrow sense, this discipline mainly studies intercultural communication terms and language teaching, mainly focusing on the internal research of linguistics. In broad sense, applied linguistics has been fully utilized in sociology, psychology, philosophy and logic, and has a certain guidance significance to the design of professional terms in various disciplines . Therefore, whether it is a narrow paradigm to understand applied linguistics or a broad view of applied linguistics, scholars generally agrees that applied linguistics is a discipline to solve linguistic problems. Applied linguistics holds that people should reconstruct the language teaching system so as to link language with context and social practice . In How to cite this paper: Xing, H.H. (2018)
Table 3 tells us that Language Teaching, with its seven sub-topics, is the most dominant area of the conference, followed by Language Acquisition, which of course includes SLA. To keep the ‘applied’ nature of AL, the next two areas are Applied Psycholinguistics and Applied Sociolinguistics (italics added), suggesting that it is the application or practical sides of both disci- plines that are the major concerns. Discourse Analysis and Corpus Studies con- stitute part of macro-linguistics, or the study of language in context, reminding us that solving a real-world language problem is always framed in a particular ‘context’. As for Translation and Interpretation, applied linguists are well aware that the act of translating and interpreting always involves linguistic as- pects pertaining to both the source language and the target language, telling us that this act is partly ‘applications of linguistics’ is the real sense of the term. Finally, Literary Studies and Social Praxis, placed at the end of the list, looks more like an addendum: who knows there are language-related problems creep- ing around in literature or in the society that need attention from applied lin- guists. 6
Language Acquisition and Language skills are not inherent entity or quality in peoples mind. But it crosses various phases, especially the three important phases said above. Therefore, a criminal utters speech he has a pattern of set structure of language skills. Not does only a criminal, but also the statements, reports, investigation statements made by police. Legal terms, justice concluding statements, legal languages, criminals’ responses and witnesses’ statements either written textually or speech (Phonetics) can be subject to interpretation or re-interpretation in order to bring out the proper judgment and justice in the world. The need of Forensic linguistic help is not necessary for all the cases. But in certain complicated and sensitive cases Forensic linguistics assistance can be had. In some of the Common Law Countries Forensic linguistic Scientists are called to help justice to write judgment appropriately.
Lexical resources are widely used for language and knowledge engineering. In both monolingual and multilingual environments, language resources play a crucial role in preparing, processing and managing the information and knowledge needed by computers as well as humans. In field-linguistics they also play a central role since they are focusing on basic linguistic units such as words, affixes and fixed expressions. The variety of lexical requirements in field linguistics is greater, since the language types differ widely.
involves research methods which in their nature resemble more exact forensic sciences. As a result, in the UK, forensic phonetics is classed under the Forensic Science Regulator as a field of digital forensics (i.e. forensic phoneticians need to meet the quality standards of the regulator), whereas forensic linguistics research methods cannot be easily mapped out onto the strict requirements of the Forensic Science Regulator (“Forensic Language Analysis”, 2015). Since it is essential to be “cognizant of the needs of the court when undertaking any investigative work” (Coulthard et al., 2011: 536), investigative forensic linguists have been developing valid and reliable research methodology to ensure their expertise conforms to the practice directions of the applicable jurisdiction (e.g. the Daubert criteria in the US, the UK Law Commission criteria, the Criminal Procedure Rules of the Ministry of Justice in England and Wales) and can therefore be admitted in court (Grant, 2013: 468, “Forensic Language Analysis”, 2015). The challenge is that investigative work can be extremely varied and each case may require developing its own methodological approach.
With eye-tracking technology the eye is thought to give researchers a window into the mind. Importantly, eye- tracking has significant advantages over traditional online processing measures: chiefly that it allows for more ‘natural’ processing as it does not require a secondary task, and that it provides a very rich moment-to-moment data source. In recognition of the technology’s benefits, an ever increasing number of researchers in applied linguistics and second language research are beginning to use it. As eye-tracking gains traction in the field, it is important to ensure that it is established in an empirically sound fashion. To do this it is important for the field to come to an understanding about what eye-tracking is, what eye-tracking measures tell us, what it can be used for, and what different eye-tracking systems can and cannot do. Further, it is important to establish guidelines for designing sound research studies using the technology. The goal of the current review is to begin to address these issues.
In cognitive linguistics Saussure's points of view about considering language as a set of indefinite systems of signs have been accepted. As it was said before, one of the main ways (methods) in this approach is conceptualization. It can be used in different fields such as space, time, etc. In conceptualization, the human's mind by using concrete and embodied experiences can make abstract and mental concepts. Consider the following examples:
The question of which signals we use to find linguistic information is not resolved, ex- cept by the assumption of innate structures; i.e. we do not find it because it is already there. Optimizing the probability of a sentence is obviously hard given a limited sam- ple, and the infinite possibilities of language to form new sentences and new words. This article will show how the change in probability when comparing alternatives can be used for a seemingly simple task of deciding whether (any) two consecutive words should be written as one or two words. This expands on work by Rømcke and Johans- son (2008), where frequencies from a search engine were used to decide categories for named entities, by comparing frequency responses to the words in contexts such as Hotel in Bergen or Her name is Bergen. Search engine frequencies have also been used to investigate the dative alternation, using frequency responses to the two versions of the dative construction for a set of different dative verbs (Jenset and Johansson 2013). The aim of the examples is to illustrate the signal surprise and expectation, as measured by a new measure.
In history, teachers may want students to read primary source docu- ments in order to extract various points of view on the same historical event. Since this is not only a content-related task, but also a linguistic one, teachers could show their students examples of different ways of ex- pressing points of view. Moreover, they could teach reading strategies in order to facilitate the extraction of main ideas from a text. In addition, the prior knowledge that language functions related to comparing and contrasting would facilitate the achievement of this task would remind teachers to provide examples of ways to communicate comparisons (e.g. “From the point of many Norwegians, the German invasion in 1940 was seen as a provocation and a serious threat to Norwegian independence. However, from the perspective of some Norwegians, cooperation with the Germans would provide alliance to a powerful nation, which could yield financial advantages.”). One can see from this example that cer- tain words, phrases and transitional terms would be useful to learners in order to enable them to achieve the curricular outcomes. Mindfulness of such linguistic scaffolding gives teachers a way to see themselves not simply as subject teachers, but also as contributors to their students´ lan- guage development.
Teenage talk has been criticized for being inarticulate and full of slang and taboo words and not least for being peppered with unnecessary smallwords (discourse markers/vocatives), like, for instance, o sea, como, ¿sabes? tío/a, tronco/a (Sánches Olsen 2006). These “unnecessary” small words are often what irritate speakers of normative standard language, who thinks they should be eradicated from their speech or at least avoided. There is with no doubt a certain abuse of discourse markers among Madrid teenagers, which can be illustrated by the following example, expressed by Mar, a fifteen year old girl, when talking to a friend about her father’s reactions: