Abstract: Hunger and poverty are main critical issues in lessdevelopedcountries (LDCs) and can be attributed to the fact that almost 70% of the LDC populations are employed in the agricultural sector. Although the international trade can redu- ce food insecurity in LDCs, for example, facilitating the access to larger markets, the volatility in food prices since the late 2000s has negatively aﬀ ected the food availability. Th is study examines the eﬀ ects of trade on the food security and traces a U-shaped relationship between two variables, using 2000–2010 panel data for the LDCs. Th e results are robust across dif- ferent methods and show that the food security decreases in the initial stages of the trade expansion but increases beyond a given threshold. Th e key ﬁ nding of this study is the U-shaped relationship between trade and food security, which suggests that the policy makers should pay more attention to expanding investments in the agricultural productivity, particularly from the viewpoints of the self-suﬃ ciency and self-reliance.
From what has been discussed in this paper, it is pertinent to state from the outset that although the idea of integration is a noble one, economic integration is a complex process – requiring, among other things, virile regional organizations, beneficial customs union, etc. to foster integration. Consequently, the lessdevelopedcountries though may have regional bloc, do not satisfy other requirements, thus making their quest for economic integration a distant dream. Also, external trade among these countries is relatively large and intra- union trade relatively small. The benefits arising from redistribution in the pattern of production within the union, given the under-developed nature of the economies and the importance of primary production for export, would not be large, and for some members could be negative. It is also discovered that most nation-states are too small or too poor to operate successfully in either regional or global economy. Or even big nations with abundant resources are unable to harness their natural resources, because of unstable political climate, low technological capability, and because Western nations subtly impose their morality, ethics, tradition and means of investment on them. There is, therefore, the need for the LDCs to come together and form an organization that will compete favourably with the EU, and industrialized nations with huge investment in these countries should pledge a percentage of the benefits into a fund for improving conditions in the LDCs. Economic integration among the LDCs is an imperative if countries involved are to achieve practical and to participate on equal terms in the global economy. The eventual realignment of national economies will turn some of the LDCs into big emerging markets.
Poor governance, particularly in social service delivery, is widespread in public sectors in most of the LessDevelopedCountries (LDCs). Delivery of public social services whether in schooling, health care or nutrition is a complex and difficult task. It demands establishment of institutions which will carry out their mission in working toward their goals and incentives including transferring responsibilities for service delivery to local governments and communities, involving non-government sectors in service delivery through contracts, empowering consumers to demand better services from government institutions, and ensuring motivation of front-line workers such as teachers and nurses (Human Development Unit, 2005). Combination of sound governance with strong institutional framework, quality management, balanced strategy, sufficient financing and adequate demand all complement each other in service delivery. Why Do We Have to Think about Social Services for the Poor?
regional strengths, sustainable strategies), I argue that SS can provide a critical function in the broader systems of innovation, by focusing innovative capacity on few strategic areas, and sustaining competitiveness through commercial success 2 . As a result, SS will play an important role in the policy domain, namely that of transferring competitive advantage from the knowledge context (innovation, basic and applied science, etc.) to the economic one (income levels, exports, productivity, etc.), thereby providing entrepreneurs with new opportunities to capitalize on existing or future STI assets. This could also lead to a minor overlap between systemic and SS policies in the knowledge realm; however, the levels, aims, and tools employed by these two types of policy interventions remain very different. Lastly, a well-functioning SS depends on national policies and strategies to support and coordinate all these actors, especially when regional autonomy is limited and STI capabilities are weak (Healy, 2016; Bröchler and Kalentzis, 2017). Thus, for less-developedcountries, this symbiosis backs the idea of a concerted policy mix across different levels of governance to implement and achieve SS in a much more heterogeneous regional context.
The above two points do not entirely explain the absence of significant quantities of economic assistance. It has been seen in the case studies that Secretary of State Bryan saw benefits in the initiation of a programme of economic aid for Latin America, but that this was rejected by Wilson as politically unacceptable. Moreover, it has been seen that policy makers sometimes resorted to what appear to have been disguised ways of providing economic aid, such as the purchase of base rights which were not of high priority in terms of U.S. i n t e r e s t s T h i s suggests that the domestic climate for aid was unfavourable. It was not, of course, so unfavourable as to prevent the transfer of assistance to Europe during and after the First World War, but it is likely that larger quantities of economic aid would have been provided to lessdevelopedcountries had attitudes in the domestic arena offered greater support.
Abstract: This paper describes the development of micro-financial activities in lessdevelopedcountries in the world. The history of this development is divided into four periods with their short characteristics. currently, the main questions in each period are highlighted and discussed by experts in microfinance. in the past, these problems were published in many scientific periodicals. it concerns mainly opinions, as for example, if the influence of microfinance on poverty reduction is overestimated, or on the other hand, the analysis related to the position of informal and formal micro-financial institutions, their development and acceleration of transformation, the influence of non-governmental organizations etc. At present, there is discussed the question of the preference – the model of ‘charity’ or ‘business’, which is mainly related to the fourth, current development period. For these reasons, this question is intensively focused and analysed. The conclusion of this paper concerns just this area which is fundamentally related to the future development of microfinance as a factor of pover- ty reduction in the less economically developed regions in the world.
The article appears in three sections. The first section lays out the ethical principles that bind which are raised by health examination surveys, and reviews current practices. The use of these so called biomarkers has a long history in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) of the Centers for Disease Control and other major epidemiological studies (Framingham, Alameda county) [14,15]. These population-based health surveys have dealt with the following types of ethical issues: safety of the survey to subjects and workers in survey, obtaining appropriate informed consent, confidentiality of informa- tion collected in the survey, the reporting of findings of the health examination to the participant, the use of stored samples for research, and the provision of health care as part of a survey. While ethical principles may be global, implementation of those principles must be care- ful considered within local contexts in which the health examination survey takes place. In the second section these ethical issues will be addressed as they relate to con- ducting health examination surveys in lessdevelopedcountries. This section emphasizes situations in which global standards have to be interpreted in a national or local context. While the spirit of the standard may be toward uniformity of procedures, implementation of sur- veys must consider many local conditions. Implementa- tion of global standards in resource poor settings has created feedback and frequently challenges interpretation of those standards. The final section is a set of recommen-
Abstract: The research paper is mainly focusing on analysis and findings about the most suitable regional economic development models in lessdevelopedcountries. Strategically the research is concentrated to find ways and build an approach toward balanced regional economic development (RED). During research the paper, specifically ifs focused to develop a strategic model for regional economic development in young country used as case study in the paper- Kosovo case. That model should be used to support the business environment as well affecting the overall development of the country through coordinated project management and synergy creation among the communities, local authorities and businesses. The research methodology used shows and mixed-methodological approach including both qualitative and quantitative data collection and appraisal, which included desk review covering existing literature at national and international level, semi-structured interviews with key, group discussions, relevant reports and other related documents. Actual situation in Kosovo regarding regional development suffers in many directions. Policies and strategies actually leave a gap, whilst most of regions and municipalities lack the capacities to create an effective environment for private sector development and job creation. There as well is dissatisfaction among stakeholders regarding the functioning of existing regional development model, structures and processes. The paper aims to establish new model and approach for balanced regional economic development based on balanced distribution of responsibilities between the central and local government levels with clear roles and responsibilities. This model will serve as one stop shop at regions supporting the business development and increasing employability in the country.
Historically, poverty was considered largely unavoidable as traditional modes of production were insufficient to give an entire population a comfortable standard of living. After the industrial revolution, mass production in factories made wealth increasingly more inexpensive and accessible. More importantly, is the modernization of agriculture, such as use of fertilizers to provide enough farm produce yield to feed the population. The supply of basic needs can be restricted by constraints on government services such as corruption, tax avoidance, debt and loan conditionality and the brain drain of health care and educational professionals. Oladeji (1980) asserted that the causes of poverty among lessdevelopedcountries can be identified as insufficient capital, lack of resources, over population, value system of the people, ignorance, colonialism, lack of law and order and incompetent economic policies.
Open economic policy in lessdevelopedcountries (LDC) leads to consideration of the main effects on the labour market, a relevant analysis because of labour’s impact on economic efficiency and social welfare. Outside the eco- nomics profession, many people think that trade agree- ments lead to the destruction of jobs and significant un- employment. Although this negative effect on employ- ment is to be expected initially, international trade can also bring about the creation of jobs as a result of a new economic dynamic.
Indigenous Nigerian religious beliefs and practices offer an illustration of the underlying unity that characterizes the traditions of the country. Imasogie (1985) says th a t Nigerians share a belief in the existence of a ‘Supreme Being’, known as Olurun or Olodumare among the Yoruba, Chineka among the Ibo, Obassi among the Efik, to name but a few. Although the ‘Supreme Being’ is conceived as being omnipresent and omniscient, he is not ordinarily thought of as being involved in human affairs, but as belonging to a sphere too exalted to permit intercourse with mankind. Hence the recourse to lesser divinities having power of intervention, such as the earth divinity, Ala of the Ibo speaking people, or Shango the Yoruba deity associated with thunder and lightning. In addition to divinities, other categories of spirit beings are also believed to exist, and the Kalahari of the Niger Delta for instance make a distinction between water spirits and the spirits of the dead. According to Imasogie (1985) Traditional Nigerian religions usually coexist peacefully with other major religions of non-Nigerian origin which have developed large followings in modern times
Innovation in mobile phones has always been evolving over the time and the technology has been improved. Currently, many sophisticated services are added to the 3 rd G mobile phones including financial services. Nowadays the mobile phone is in a widespread adoption and this technology is not used only as a mean of communication but also as a new payment solution. Today’s mobile phones (called 4 th G) can store money (as information) in the SIM card or in an internal or external memory card and can be used as a device to transfer monetary value from person to person in the real and the virtual world. Mobiles phone are becoming a means of payment and a channel to conduct financial services. This system was born in the recent years and it has received a large acceptability from emerging countries which are excluded from the financial services. In France, the experience of m- payment was first experienced on 20 th of May 2010 at Nice; consumers seem to be charmed and 500 merchants are already interested about the adoption of this new payment technology.
2006 used data from 2001 to 2006, and so on until 1997 (the ﬁ rst year of mea- surement was 1995). This approach has several limitations: distant retrospective data suffer from recall bias, retrospective cohorts may not be nationally represen- tative, and the wealth status of households whose relative wealth changed signi ﬁ - cantly over the 10-year period may be misclassi ﬁ ed. On the other hand, it allows an examination of a greater number of countries, 54 as compared with 29, by using longitudinal analyses of single survey data, whereas consecutive sur- veys may differ based on sampling or other chance events. 19 The combined
The meaning of the unemployment is people want to do work but they have not many opportunity. One of the main causes is Population. Approximately the total population of the Pakistan is 195,194,877  Pakistan population ranked no 6 in the world. And now the population literacy rate is 60% while in 2014 58 %( survey 2015).another most important key factor is technical education. Now a day’s people not got technical education and the reason is that they have not good job. Our nation does not neglect educated persons. Our youth graduate can change our nation. Government should introduce new training centers and technical education or entrepreneurship which is much benefitted for our society. There are many factors which determine the unemployment in less develop countries but here we use these variables are GDP, population, crude activity rate, employment labor force, industrialization, technical education.
Mobile phones were born in the United States in the early forties. They were a heavy device with restricted services; they were costly and constrained by imperfect mobility (Vesa 2005). Since then, engineers and developers were working to improve the performance of the technology and to enhance its use. As a result the first generation (1 st G) of mobile phones was born in 1970 and they were initially installed in vehicles ; they were called “car phone service”. The 1 st G of mobile phones has started to be in widespread use in the eighties with the introduction of cell phones that were based on cellular networks. In the nineties the second generation (2 nd G) of mobile phones using the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) technology was introduced. The new device was less large and more manipulative
Developedcountries have called on every nation around the world to end CFC production, but the poor developing countries have asked, “How can we possibly acquire the money, technology, and expertise required to produce alternatives to CFCs?” The situation is especially frustrating to developing countries because they are just beginning to enjoy the “benefits” of CFCs by acquiring air conditioners and other products that emit the harmful chemicals. Developing countries also see the stance taken by developedcountries as hypocritical. Developedcountries have been the primary users of CFCs and now, having found alternative chemicals, they insist that developing countries get their houses in order too, knowing full well that poor countries cannot do so without substantial assistance from the North (Bradshaw and Wallace, 1996: 163-164).