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Biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib ) de Bary, the causal agent of white mould disease in red cabbage, by some bacteria

Biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib ) de Bary, the causal agent of white mould disease in red cabbage, by some bacteria

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is the causal agent of white mould, stem, and fruit rot diseases on a wide va- riety of crop plants including cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) in field and storage. Control of this pathogen by using commercial disease management methods is extremely difficult. Therefore, this study was performed to develop an alternative and effective control method for the diseases by using biocontrol bacteria – Bacillus subtilis (strains TV-6F, TV-17C, TV-12H, BA-140 and EK-7), Bacillus megaterium (strains TV-103B), and Bacillus pumilus (strains RK-103) on Petri plate assays and on red cabbage in pot assays. On Petri plates, all of the tested bacterial strains showed the zone of inhibition against the pathogen fungus ranging 15.00–26.50 mm. Their percentage inhibition rates and lesion length ranged 42.64–79.41% and 0.02–4.50 cm in pot assays, respectively. Consequently, our results indicated that especially B. subtilis strains TV-17C, TV-12H, and TV-6F can be used as bio control agent of S. sclerotiorum in red cabbage production.
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The consequences of inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis in sclerotinia sclerotiorum (lib) de bary by propiconazole

The consequences of inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis in sclerotinia sclerotiorum (lib) de bary by propiconazole

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) de Bary is one of the most devastating pathogens and is of a cosmopolitan occurrence. More than 60 names have been used to refer to the diseases caused by this fungal pathogen (Purdy, 1979 and Le Tourneau, 1979) including cottony rot, watery soft rot, stem rot, drop, crown rot, blossom blight and, perha common, white mould (Chet and Henis, 1975; Adams and Ayers, 1979; Willets and Bullock, 1992). This pathogen is known to infect about 408 species of plants in 34 families (Purdy, 1979). S. sclerotiorum poses a threat to dicotyledonous crops such as sunflower, soybean, oilseed rape, edible dry bean, chickpea, peanut, dry pea, lentils and various vegetables, besides monocotyledons such as onion and tulip (Boland and Hall, 1994). Annual losses caused by S. sclerotiorum in the United States, for example,
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Mating type distribution of Phytophthora infestans (Mont ) de Bary in the Czech Republic in 2007 and 2008

Mating type distribution of Phytophthora infestans (Mont ) de Bary in the Czech Republic in 2007 and 2008

The oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary (1876), the causal agent of the late blight, is the pathogen currently devastating potato and tomato plants and thus causing economically important yield losses in fields and in stores worldwide. In the Czech Republic under favourable cool and moist conditions and without any suitable control steps against the pathogen, P. infestans can cause almost 100% yield reduction; therefore, potato growing cannot be managed without frequent fungicide ap- plications for the effective control of this disease. The pathogen is a heterothallic organism with two mating types designated as A1 and A2. When the hyphae of compatible strains of opposite mating type coexist and interact, sexual oospores are formed (Gallegly & Galindo 1958).
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Effect Of Planting Dates and Fungicides on Potato Late Blight (Phytophthora Infestans (Mont.) De Bary) Development and Tuber Yield In Chitwan, Nepal

Effect Of Planting Dates and Fungicides on Potato Late Blight (Phytophthora Infestans (Mont.) De Bary) Development and Tuber Yield In Chitwan, Nepal

A field experiment was conducted to find out the effects of different planting dates and fungicides in the control of potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary) on commercial TPS potato, variety HPS 7/67, at Rampur, Chitwan, during October 2011- March, 2012 under natural epidemiological conditions. The study consisted of four different planting dates, starting from 25 th Oct. at ten days intervals and three fungicidal sprays (Acrobat, Dithane M-45, Jeebatu) and without spray as a check in split plot design with three replications. Planting dates were assigned to the main plots and fungicides to the sub-plots. The data revealed highly significant (p<0.01) difference between dates of planting for RAUDPC and tuber yield (t ha -1 ). Potato planted on 25 th Oct. showed minimum RAUDPC value (0.34) of late blight and maximum tuber yield (16.65 t ha -1 ). Delaying in planting time, there was increased in RAUDPC value and decreasing tuber yield. Fungicides application was found highly significant (P<0.01) on RAUDPC and tuber yield (t ha -1 ). Acrobat sprayed plot had minimum RAUDPC (0.2114), maximum tuber yield (11.86 t ha -1 ). The increase in tuber yield over check was
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In Vitro Evaluation of Resistance to Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans Mont  De Bary ) in Solanum Accessions Native to Chile, by Inoculation of Detached Leaflets

In Vitro Evaluation of Resistance to Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans Mont De Bary ) in Solanum Accessions Native to Chile, by Inoculation of Detached Leaflets

Chile is considered as a sub-centre of the origin of cultivated potatoes, with native and introduced genetic mate- rial co-existing in the country. This accounts for its rich heritage, which should be characterised, conserved and used. Native potatoes present a rich variety of colours, both of the pulp and the skin, opening up great possibili- ties for the development of novel gourmet products. However, since the introduction of the Désirée variety in 1962, more than 50 varieties have been introduced, principally from Europe [1] [2]. Late blight, caused by the fungus Phytophthora infestans Mont. De Bary, is one of the most important diseases of the crop [3], and can de- stroy complete plantations in a short space of time. It is therefore considered to be the most serious problem af- fecting production worldwide. It affects plants at any stage of their development and early infection can produce losses of up to 100% of production. P. infestans is a very difficult enemy to fight due to its population diversity [4]. Work has been done over many years to obtain resistant cultivars, although in the majority of cases this re- sistance is overcome within 2 or 3 years, due to the emergence of ever more aggressive isolations. In this context, wild species are used as a source of resistance for potato improvement [5].
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STUDIES ON OCCURRENCE AND INTENSITY OF PEA RUST (Uromyces fabac pers de Bary) disease in Manipur, India

STUDIES ON OCCURRENCE AND INTENSITY OF PEA RUST (Uromyces fabac pers de Bary) disease in Manipur, India

The investigation on the occurrence and intensity of peas rust (Uromyccs fabac) pers de Bary disease was carried out for two crop season (September 2013 to March 2015). The determination of pustules percentage possible coverage, rate of infection has been discussed. The average area of postule were calculate as 0.0308 cm 2 (1 st crop) and 0.0306 cm 2 (2 nd crop) during two crop seasons size of pustule was inversely proportional to the density of pustule. Percentage possible disease coverage was determined as 85.47% (1 st crop) and 85.49%. (2 nd crop) The rate of rust disease infection was calculated as 0.047 percent unit per day for 1 st crop season. And 0.047 percent per day for 2 nd crop season. The present investigation would be useful for further study in order to understand the full knowledge of disease intensity and disease occurrence.
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Occurrence and Distribution of Mating Types A1 and A2 of Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary in the Czech Republic

Occurrence and Distribution of Mating Types A1 and A2 of Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary in the Czech Republic

Under conditions in Central Europe, potatoes are practically every year infected by late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary. In the Czech Republic during the last 5 years, periods of intensive development of the pathogen alternated with periods of low occurrence. In the “late blight years” 2000–2002, the occurrence of late blight was very high throughout the vegetative period. In 2003, the disease was found at the beginning of the growing season, but was then stopped by dry weather that persisted to the end of the growth of potatoes. During 2004 and 2005 the fungus caused medium to strong levels of infection that were about 3 weeks later than normal.
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Impacts of climate change on the first occurrence of the Light blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary 1876)

Impacts of climate change on the first occurrence of the Light blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary 1876)

Výzkum dopadů změny klimatu je převážně ori- entován na studie se zaměřením na variabilitu a po- sun výnosů a jejich trendů navzdory skutečnosti, že škodliví činitelé (plevele, choroby, škůdci) mohou vý- razně redukovat předpovězené hodnoty (např. Coak- ley et al., 1999). Plíseň bramborová je jednou z chorob, která v kontextu s dopady změny klimatu může být využita jako příkladová studie vzhledem ke svému ekonomickému významu, prakticky celosvětovému rozšíření pěstování brambor (resp. dalších citlivých zemědělských plodin) a především pro vysokou citli- vost na příznivou kombinaci meteorologických vlivů. Brambory jsou podle svého významu pro výživu (člo- věka, populace, lidstva) čtvrtou nejrozšířenější plodi- nou po rýži, pšenici a kukuřici. Jsou pěstovány prak- ticky ve všech klimatických oblastech, přičemž jejich produkce stále roste (Walker et al., 1999). Plíseň bram- borová, jejíž původcem je oomyceta Phytophthora infes- tans (Mont.) de Bary, je považována za nejvýznamnější chorobu brambor. Zvláště ve vlhkých ročnících je výše výnosů závislá především na chemické ochraně a používání fungicidů. Počet ošetření se může lišit podle účinné látky. Jsou známy případy v subtropic-
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The occurence of Peronospora radii de Bary on Argyranthemum frutescens (L.) Schultz-Bip. in the Czech Republic

The occurence of Peronospora radii de Bary on Argyranthemum frutescens (L.) Schultz-Bip. in the Czech Republic

První nález plísně P. radii na planém druhu Compo- sitae (=Asteraceae, Cichoriaceae) pochází z r. 1862 z Německa, uveřejněný popis z r. 1863. De Bary popsal a pojmenoval plíseň vyskytující se na jazyko- vitých květech heřmánkovce nevonného (Tripleuro- spermum inodorum (L.) Schulz-Bip.) Peronospora radii. Zpočátku byla P. radii izolována pouze z jazy-

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Different Plant Extracts against Phytophthora infestans (Mont ) de Bary in Tomato in Vitro

Different Plant Extracts against Phytophthora infestans (Mont ) de Bary in Tomato in Vitro

Despite its economic importance, tomato is susceptible to a wide range of diseases such as bacteria [5], fungi [6], viruses [7] and nematodes [8] among others which adversely affect quality, quantity and profitability. Of these dis- eases, the fungal disease like late blight disease caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary is among the economically important diseases which reduce the quality and quantity of the tomato yield and the losses can go up to 100% [6] [9]. The disease causes lose in terms of reduced yield, poor quality of fruits and di- minished storability [10]. The late blight disease-causing-pathogen is seriously deadly to tomato due to its biology (sexual and asexual reproduction), host range (more than 20 hosts), dispersal mechanism and persistence for a long pe- riod of time in the soil [11]. In Tanzania, the average tomato yield is 17.5 tons/ha which is far below the global average yield of 33.6 tons/ha.
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Effect of essential oils on miceliogenic and carpogenic germination of Sclerotiniasclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary

Effect of essential oils on miceliogenic and carpogenic germination of Sclerotiniasclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary

Essential oils of Zingiberofficinale , Laurus nobilis , Artemisia vulgaris , Eucalyptus Citriodora , Thymus vulgaris , Citrus latifolia , Cyperusarticulatus , Cymbopogoncitratu[r]

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Zoospore encystment in Phytophthora infestans (Mont) De Bary

Zoospore encystment in Phytophthora infestans (Mont) De Bary

Transverse section through the anterior portion of a zoospore in the swimmer stage, Mote nucleus M» pocket Pk, lipoidal vacuoles LVi lipid L, mitochondria M, uncharacterized "bodies U, k[r]

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The Potato Late Blight Caused by Phytophthora infestans Mont de Bary as Selection Factor of Phurejas Potatoes (Solanum phureja Juz et Buk) in Endemic Areas of the Bolivian Andes

The Potato Late Blight Caused by Phytophthora infestans Mont de Bary as Selection Factor of Phurejas Potatoes (Solanum phureja Juz et Buk) in Endemic Areas of the Bolivian Andes

Phurejas potatoes (Solanum phureja Juz et Buk) are cultivated in very restricted areas of the Bolivian Andes. Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans is a destructive, endemic disease that affects the survival and cultivation of this crop. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance characteristics of phurejas potato varieties to P. infestans in a tra- ditional area of cultivation. An experimental plot was prepared in the locality of Chojchoni (3200 m) and planted with different phurejas varieties: 1) Chojllu Phureja (Sste); 2) Phureja Amarilla (Sphu); 3) Polo Phureja (Sphu); 4) Phureja Roja (Sphu); 5) Phureja Negra (Sphu) and 6) Waych’a Paceña (Sadg), a susceptible control. Severity was assessed ac- cording to the criteria of the Centro Internacional de la Papa, determining the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC). Regression analysis (log N disease severity against time) was performed using the logistic model [ln(y/1 − y)]
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Sensitivity to fungicides in the isolates of Phytophthora infestans (Mont ) de Bary in the Czech Republic from 2003 to 2008

Sensitivity to fungicides in the isolates of Phytophthora infestans (Mont ) de Bary in the Czech Republic from 2003 to 2008

In the growing seasons from 2003 to 2008, 547 isolates of Phytophthora infestans from five regions in the Czech Republic were collected and examined for their sensitivity to the active i[r]

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Biosynthesis of cobalamin (vitamin B12) in Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus megaterium de Bary; Characterisation of the anaerobic pathway

Biosynthesis of cobalamin (vitamin B12) in Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus megaterium de Bary; Characterisation of the anaerobic pathway

denitrificans. To achieve this, a range of classic and m o d ern technologies including genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, chem istry and biophysics were em ployed. The research required the concerted action of three labs, those of Rhone-Poulenc Rorer in France, Sir A. Battersby in England and Prof. A. I. Scott in the U. S. A. The choice of organism proved to be critical since, and despite great efforts, no progress in the p ath w ay betw een precorrin-3 and cobyrinic acid from other bacteria had been achieved d u rin g the sam e time [Blanche et al. 1995]. It is only recently that cobalt precorrin-4 has been isolated from P. shermanii [Scott et al. 1996]. The d eterm in atio n of the cobalam in pathw ay in P. denitrificans not only confirmed the complexity of the synthesis, it also highlighted that one step requires m olecular oxygen and th at cobalt is added at a late stage, after the completion of the ring contraction process. The results w ith P. denitrificans were such that it became apparent that other bacteria such as S. typhim urium , P. shermanii and the m ethanogens m ust em ploy an alternative w ay to synthesise their cobalamin. Indeed these bacteria are able to m ake B 1 2 de novo in the absence of oxygen and experim ents w ith radio-labelled
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Integrated Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Late Blight (Phytophthora Infestans) Disease Management in Ethiopia

Integrated Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Late Blight (Phytophthora Infestans) Disease Management in Ethiopia

Integrated Management of Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L.) Late Blight [Phytophthora Infestans (Mont.) De Bary] through Host Plant Resistance and Fungicide Application in Gamo [r]

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Time resolved spectroscopy of the pulsating CV GW Lib

Time resolved spectroscopy of the pulsating CV GW Lib

GW Lib is one of the few CVs that have been followed through the outburst spectroscopically. For comparison, the spectral evolution of SS Cyg (figure 5 in Hessman et al. 1984) showed broad, double-peaked emission lines that are gradually being overtaken by the rising continuum, followed by the formation of line wings in absorption. This quali- tative behaviour is expected as the accretion disc makes a rapid change from a low ˙ M optically thin configuration to a high ˙ M optically thick flow at the onset of the outburst. Near maximum light, SS Cyg shows on top of the absorp- tion from the accretion disc, narrow emission cores which decay again after outburst. These are very similar to the spectral changes presented here for GW Lib, though no dy- namical properties are available to compare the components quantitatively. Unfortunately, the very low binary inclina- tion of GW Lib makes it difficult to study the accretion disc dynamics during the main outburst period. The absorption dominated disc lines are unsuitable for Doppler tomogra- phy and we therefore cannot search for disc asymmetries such as the tidal spirals seen in other DNe (e.g. IP Peg: Steegs, Harlaftis & Horne 1997; U Gem: Groot 2001). When disc emission returns, little structure can be detected in its marginally double-peaked lines.
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Interscience Implementing Voice Over IP eBook LiB pdf

Interscience Implementing Voice Over IP eBook LiB pdf

See VoIP service evaluation testbed Test call model, VoIP service evaluation, 172 Virtual private network VPN, teleworkers and, VoIP enterprise deployment, 77–79 Voice coding, processing[r]

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The emergence of a lumpen consumerate : the aesthetics of consumption and violence in the English riots of 2011

The emergence of a lumpen consumerate : the aesthetics of consumption and violence in the English riots of 2011

Relaties, Fantasies and Industry’ in Youth in Crisis?: Gangs, Territoriality and Violence Goldson, Bary, ed., London: Routledge, 2011 Kellner, Douglas “The dark Side of Spectacle: Terror[r]

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