This was followed in order by those containing respectively 15%, 10% and 5% maize flour (mass basis). It took longer exposure time, up to 144h, for observing the same degree of softening for groundnut patties resulting from the pure seeds cake (0%). In addition, one could also observe that moisture content values of all the patties’ variants were relatively higher than those adopted in the Groundnuts Export Standard Codex 200-1995: 8% for nude seeds and 10% for seeds in pods. In view of estimating the true sustainability for patties conservation status, we could notice that, virtually no data exist on the moisture content value. However, the effects of water activity of many food products compelled us predicting water content values of less than 6% for a better sustainable conservation of studied groundnut patties. The obtained patties moisture values, from 8.74 to 13.55%, were thus higher and consequently hindered a need of extending the drying stage of produced patties as suitable frying outcome. As we knew it, the latter was itself another kind of drying process. For effectively realizing this extension drying step, hot air technique was chosen. The fried patties were then treated in moderately soft operating conditions in a D6060-L400 MEMMERT oven drier setting to temperature of 45°C, at air velocity of 2.2 ms -1 , relative humidity of 35±3%, for at least 8 hours. The selected conditions were those already successful proved in the drying of other foods (yams and cassava chips, pineapple, beans) before package-sealing for sustainable preservation. The same running conditions have allowed us to experimentally reducing the patties moisture content and achieving the attained good results.
The main aim of this work was to develop gluten free noodles from Buckwheat flour, maize flour and food grade potato starch powder. From the present study it was concluded the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of noodles decreased with increase in temperature, at constant equilibrium relative humidity (%ERH). All isotherms had a shape characteristic i.e. type II, with low equilibrium moisture contents at water activity below 0.7 afterwards sharply increased equilibrium moisture contents at higher water activity. Among the applied models, the GAB monolayer model was found to describe the moisture sorption isotherms of noodles. The net isosteric heat of sorption for noodles varied between 6.86 to 7.89 kJ/mol at moisture levels of 10 to 12% (d.b.). Heat of vaporization of noodles increased as the moisture
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The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the maize grain size on the physicochemical properties of isolated starch, crude maize flours, and nixtamalized flours using two different hybrids, one from CIMMyT-Mexico and one commercial Puma from Monsanto. The chemical proximate analysis was used to de- termine the protein, fiber, and fat content. Amylose and total starch were determined using Megazyme kit. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was carried out to determine calcium content in nixtamalized samples obtained from small, medium, and large maize grains. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the starch mor- phology; X-ray diffraction analysis was carried out to identify crystalline structures such as amylose and amy- lopectin in isolated starch. Differential scanning calorimetric was used to study the gelatinization of starch; ap- parent viscosity was conducted to analyze the pasting properties of isolated, crude maize flour, and nixtamalized maize flours.
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Table 2 shows the total viable, enterobacteriaceae and fungal counts of the biscuits produced and that of the control. The total viable count of all the samples ranged from 0.2 x 10 4 to 2.8 x 10 4 CFU/g, the 70:30 (wheat: quality protein maize flour) biscuit had the lowest viable count (0.2 x 10 4 ) compared with the control (0.8 x 10 4 ). It was noted that 30:70 (wheat: quality protein maize flour) biscuits had the highest enterobacteriaceae count (2.5 x 10 4 ) as compared to 70:30 (wheat: quality protein maize flour) which had 0.2 x 10 4 . Food production cannot be 100% free from microorganisms but can be controlled and minimized. Microbial evaluation of the samples was carried out and the microorganisms identified were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris. Microorganisms have great importance and impact on our lives; they are fundamental for obtaining some food products like yogurt, cheese etc. However, they are also the main cause of food and cultivar deterioration. There are many factors that contribute to the presence of microorganisms in foods; the endogenous presence and cross contaminations being the most important (Adams and Moss, 1995). Microorganisms isolated often get into food through poor and non- hygienic handling of equipments and materials used in food production, for example, contaminations through wrapping and packaging (FSA, 2013). The distribution of the isolates in the flour samples and the biscuits produced from different wheat and quality protein maize flour blends is shown in Table 3. Bacillus subtilis was found to be the most occurring bacteria species in both the flour and the biscuit samples.
The high dependence on maize as a staple food in Tropical Africa, coupled with its low nutritive value necessitate investigation on how to improve the nutritional value of maize based foods. The present study was aimed at assessing the effect of supplementing nixtamalized maize flour with sprouted soy bean flour on the proximate composition, mineral content, amino acid profile and anti- nutritional factors in the blends. Nixtamalized maize flour was prepared by cooking maize grains in 1% unripe plantain peel ash solution (pH 10.2), steeped in the cooked solution for 15 h, washed, dried and milled into flour. The flour was supplemented with 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% sprouted soy flour and analyzed for the aforementioned parameters. The results showed that protein, fat, ash, crude fibre and caloric value increased with increase in soy flour supplementation ranging from 9.26–22.57%, 4.51–10.53%, 1.38–2.06%, 2.14–2.39% and 408.47–434.85 kcal/100 g respectively while carbohydrate decreased from 82.71 – 62.45%. Potassium, calcium, magnesium and zinc contents increased from 267.58 – 286.35mg/100g, 126.93 – 161.03 mg/100 g, 135.71 – 163.81 mg/100 g and 4.52 – 4.85 mg/100 g respectively with soy flour addition. The total amino acids and total essential amino acids increased from 70.55 g/100 g protein and 30.54 g/100 g protein for the control to 87.97 g/100 g protein and 38.98 g/100 g protein for the 40% soy flour supplemented blends respectively. Limiting essential amino acids in both flours were significantly (P = 0.5) improved as a result of soy flour supplementation. Majority of essential amino acid chemical scores were above 100% except for lysine (51.03–66.38%), tryptophan (67.27–95.46%) and threonine
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This study aims to evaluate the nutritional evaluation of maize- oat- tulsi- leaves and their blend flours. The blend flour prepared with maize, oat and tulsi leaves. Six types of blend flour were prepared. Type 1, Type-II, Type III blend flour was prepared from maize: oat in ratio 85:15, 70:30 and 55:45 (W/W) and Type IV, Type V, Type VI blend flour was prepared from maize: oat: tulsi in ratio of 80:15:5, 65:30:5 and 50:45:5(W/W). Whole flours of QPM (QPM mixture), oat (HJ-8), tulsi leaves and different types of blend flours were studied for their proximate composition, sugars and starch. Oat flour had significantly (p≤0.05) higher crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber and ash contents than maize. Tulsi leaves powder was found to have significantly (p≤0.05) higher crude fiber and ash than oat and maize flour. In term of sugars, total soluble sugars and non- reducing sugars was significantly higher in maize flour than oats and tulsi leaves. Study revealed that crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber and ash content was significantly higher in Type-III (Maize:Oat 55:45) and Type-IV (Maize:Oat:Tulsi 50:45:5) blend flour as compared to other Types. Crude fiber content of blend flours ranged from 2.54 to 3.58 percent which increased significantly (P<0.05) upon supplementation of tulsi leaves and increased level of oat flour. Whereas total carbohydrate content was significantly higher in Type-I (80.29%) and Type-IV (79.63%) blend flours. There was significant difference (P > 0.05) recorded for sugars and starch content of different blend flours with or without addition of tulsi leaves. Total soluble sugar and starch content was higher in Type-I and Type- IV blend flour whereas reducing sugar content was significantly higher in Type-III and Type-VI blend flour.
Abstract Mycotoxins are toxins produced by aspergillus, a type of fungus that can be found virtually everywhere and their toxicity occurs at very low concentrations. For good storage condition of the post-harvest grains, the sensitive and reliable methods for detecting mycotoxins are required for long-term sustainability of animals ingesting excessive amounts of the toxin from chronic health problem to death. The aspergillus grows rapidly in the air with high relative humidity contrast to the air with low relative humidity. In this study, the samples of maize were randomly collected in three sectors: Nyamata, Gakenke and Mahembe. Using selective media and biochemical tests, the three strains; A. flavus, capable of producing both B- and G-type aflatoxin and A. pseudotamarii which has not previously detected in our region and A. parasiticus, isolated from the collected maize and the total aflatoxin (AFT) in maize flour was evaluated by Reveal Q+; the mean concentrations of AFT were 52.3±3.93 CFU/ml for Mahembe sector, 49.5±0.98 CFU/ml for Gakenke sector and 43.7±2.15 CFU/ml for Nyamata sector. The level of AFT contamination in a, b, c sectors was higher than the maximum tolerable limit of aflatoxins recommended by the United States Food and Drug Administration guidelines for aflatoxin in animal feeds and human foods at 20 parts per billion (20 ppb).
unleavened flat bread baked on conventional hot plate tawa or in conventional ovens tandoor (Kent, 1984). Chapatties are least expensive and utilize almost 90% of the total wheat produced in this region (Siddique, 1989) during the last three years. In spite of good crop, Pakistan had to resort to wheat import for avoiding food shortages. About 3-10% of the domestic requirements (on an average 2 million tons) are meeting through imports. In order to lessen he load on wheat as staple food, and to fill in the annual short fall it is possible to substitute wheat with different cereals and pulses for making chapatti. Maize ranks as the second most widely produced cereal crop worldwide. Because of the high productivity, corn is by far the most economical cereal to produce. By substituting part of the wheat flour with maize flour the lowering of the costs can be achieved (Păucean & Simona, 2013). Flours Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Protein content of the samples ranges from (9.09±0.14-13.73±0.08). The values shows that 90% of malted sorghum flour blended with 10% of soaked yellow maize flour has the lowest protein content of 0.09± 0.14 which was due to the fat that malted sorghum flour has a the high moisture content, and moisture content has an influence on the protein content. The protein content increases with the addition of soaked yellow maize flour to the malted sorghum flour. Protein is needed for growth and development by replacing worn – out tissues. When this is insufficient, it leads to malnutrition and death may occur when not treated. Therefore, the moisture content of any food composition must be dried to nearest minimum.
Traditional processing of fermented maize (“ogi”), a popular weaning food in the West African sub-region, results in considerable nutrient losses. Several attempts at improving its nutritional and sensory properties have focused on forti- fication with plant and animal products. Banana flour, rich in micronutrients and vitamins, could increase the micronu- trient and vitamin contents of ogi. This study aimed at evaluating the physicochemical properties and sensory attributes of ogi as influenced by banana flour supplementation. Fermented maize flour was substituted with ripe Cardaba banana flour at levels of 10% - 50% and the flour mixes subjected to chemical, rheological and sensory evaluation. Crude pro- tein decreased from 1.59% to 1.43% as banana flour substitution increased, while ash, total sugar (3.64% to 4.97%), carbohydrate and acidity increased. However, diastatic activity, crude fibre and fat were not significantly (p ≤ 0.05) affected. Results of functional properties revealed the following: 86.49 - 83.63 g/ml, 0.41 - 0.44 g/cm 3 , 6.44 - 7.46 g/ml, 3.30 - 4.50 g/ml, and 10.40 - 10.80 g/ml for water absorption capacity, bulk density, gel consistency, syneresis and swelling capacity, respectively. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) variations were observed in the pasting viscosities of the flours. The 50:50 maize-banana flour mix was the most preferred in terms of aroma, taste, colour and general acceptability. The addition of Cardaba banana flour to ogi may enhance its micronutrient content as evidenced by increased ash con- tent, sensory, functional and pasting properties, thereby making it a potential substitute for complementary feeding of infants.
Sample preparation. The sample of common wheat flour (CWF) T-400 was taken from an in- dustrial blend of wheat harvested in the year 2005, and it was used as a regular raw material for the commercial pasta production. Commercial soybean lecithin powder Leciflow 60 (L), defatted soy flour (S), maize flour (M), and extruded maize flour (E) were purchased on the local market. Microbiologi- cally examined wheat straw (WS) was milled in a laboratory mill “Simple” (Tecator). The common wheat flour sample contained 13.65% of particles < 100 µm, 79.23% of particles between 100 and 250 µm, and 7.12% of particles > 250 µm. 35.60% of the milled wheat straw particles were < 100 µm, 51.08% ranged between 100 and 250 µm, and 13.32% were > 250 µm. All other supplements contained 95% of particles smaller than 100 µm.
evaluate the effectiveness of these seeds using a different route of delivery. Porridge made from maize flour is one of the most prevalent traditional school meal snacks in developing countries. Because of its low cost and popu- larity in schools, the World Food Program has adopted it as a component in school meals and it is often pre- pared and given as a snack at break time . The idea of the current study was to integrate deworming and micronutrient supplementation, into the school feeding program through the porridge snack so as to offer an af- fordable, sustainable and home-grown strategy to reduce infestation by intestinal worms while at the same time addressing the issue of malnutrition which is rampant in these resource poor settings . A cross-sectional sur- vey conducted in an urban slum in Kenya demonstrated a relationship between STH infections with iron and Vitamin A deficiency in pre-school children . Micro- nutrients have also been linked to reduced parasite in- festation and re-infection in endemic areas [19, 20].
Tables 7, 8 and 9 show the blending ratio of millet with gelatinized rice flour, maize flour with the chaff and maize flour without the chaff respectively. The values are 60%, 50% and 60% respectively. The decrease of 10% of reducing sugar production of the gelatinized maize with the chaff compared to the one without the chaff could be due to the fact that chaff of the seeds contain some lignified materials such as proteins fats and fibre, which are found in the outer seed coat of the grains and could constitute hindrance to enzyme activity.
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maize patties added of hulled soy-grains which density dropped with soy content increasing. It's rather thought obtaining a higher volume expansion rate. It has not been the case, probably due to another mechanism favoured by the soy-grains dandruffs. It's known that soy proteins have the particularity to gel and form adsorbed layers (Gosal et Ross-Murphy, 2000; Damodaran, 2004; Goldfein and Slavin, 2015), probably even better in interactions with these polysaccharides contained in soy-grains dandruffs (Kruif and Tuinier, 2001). The functional properties of soy proteins (concentrated in cotyledons) are such that a disruption in their native structure, made using a high heat supply (roasting or frying), may cause change in configuration and a new conformational equilibrium (Bauer et al., 2010). Moreover, crunchiness is deeply related to the development of air cells in resulting solid products of cooking process, cells essentially determined by starch’s gelatinization. Only that, when added oil content, during manufacture of the solid products, increases, the used water amount by starch for gelatinization decreases and consequently, less the produced patties are alveolated (Zghal et al., 2005; Lassoued, 2005; Wagner, 2005; Qiang et Guelph, 2006). Moreover, in the process of trituration - extraction of soya oil, the seeds are usually stripped of their pellicles (Nihad, 2008). This proves that soy-grains dandruffs contain only very little oil, or not at all. Therefore, such a thing has oriented our explanation, relative to crustiness of the made patties using soy-grains not freed-of-dandruffs, towards this displayed elasticity behavior, undoubtedly derived from constitutive substances of their dandruffs. These results appear consistent and justify the superiority in recorded crustiness for witness patties variant, from previously reported various tests. Here again, mechanical testing results come confirming the obtained ones from sensory testing, in particular regarding crustiness of the formulated patties. It should also be underlined that similar behaviors have already been noticed in a conducted study on peanut patties incorporated of raw dry maize flour (Guédou, 2010; Sanya et al., 2015).
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Flour WAC plays a significant role in the food process preparation because it predicts the capacity of the flour to absorb water under conditions where water is limited. Besides, WAC is an index of the maximum amount of water that flour can absorb or retain . The WAC of the studied flours is 66.63%, 152.69%, 96.74%, and 121.02% respectively for wheat, soy, millet and maize. A high capacity makes it possible to add more water to the paste, thus improving its workability. Moreover, WAC is an essential property of the pastes and the bakery products because it allows the thickening and the increase in food viscosity . Soy has a WAC more raised than that of wheat, millet, maize and is lower compared to voandzou flour WAC which is 190.36% obtained by . A high WAC makes it possible to add more water to the paste, thus improving its handiness and the maintenance of freshness in bread . With a high WAC, soya, millet and maize flour can be used in the manufacture of bakery products. OAC is great importance, since fat acts as flavor retainer and also increases soft texture to mouth feel of foods, especially bread and other baked foods [33, 34]. They are also important because of their storage stability and particularly in the rancidity development . The soy flour OAC value is 110.4% and is higher than those of wheat flour (87.59%), soy flour (101.84%) and millet flour (100%). Our studied flour OAC (from 87.59% to 110.4%) range between those
+= Positive results, -= Negative Results, L= Lactobacillus, XY= D-xylose, GL=D-Glucose, LC= Lactose, FR=Fructose, GAL=Galactose, RH= Rhamnose, CL= Cellobiose, MN= Mannitol, MA= Mannose, AR= L-arabinose. S= Sodium Chloride, MOT= Motility, GR= Gram staining, CAT= Catalase, L.= Lactobacillus, A=Isolates from Busaa, B= Isolates from overnight soaked, C=Isolates from roasted dough (Mkarango), D= Isolates from fermented cooked porridge and E= isolates from maize flour.
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Abstract: This research work was carried out, to find the importance of computerized analysis on spoilage of maize (Zea mays L), before harvest and storage in Osun State, Nigeria. 4 Local governments, namely: (Ife East, Ife South, Ife Central and Ife North), local government areas were sampled. 4,000 open questionnaires were distributed to the 4 Local Governments, out of which 1000 was used for farmers, in each local government. A total of 40 different locations were visited in all the four Local Governments, out of which 100 questionnaires were used for farmers in each location. It was gathered that above 70% of the farmers from the four local governments, supported the importance of computerized analysis on spoilage of maize (Zea mays L), before harvest and storage in Osun State, Nigeria, while below 30% of the people could not even understand whether there was any needy, on the importance of computerized analysis on spoilage of maize (Zea mays L), before harvest and storage in Osun State, Nigeria or not. The results from the questionnaires when using Pearson two-tailed correlation coefficient revealed that there was a significant difference from the summary data collected from the farmers within the four local government areas visited and sampled, (p > 0.05) table 5. This shows a strong positive correlation, which implying that, the importance of computerized analysis on spoilage of maize before harvest and storage in Osun State, Nigeria. is strongly influenced and enhanced the farmers and people’s support, and, had therefore, made this research work to become a reality, (p > 0.05), table 5. The reasons may be due to the fact that, maize (Zea mays L), is not only rich in dietary D and calories which are a good source of energy to our body, it is however served as the most productive grain crops in the middle and northern belts of Nigeria where sunshine is adaptable and rainfall is moderate. And as a basic raw materials to thousands of industrial products that may includes: alcoholic, beverages, pharmaceutical, food sweeteners, food cereals, cosmetic and films, gums, package, textile, paper industries and so on., it is one of African’s dominant food crop, that can be consumed in varied forms, such as: maize flour for confectionaries, semo (for swallow with soup), as corn beef, mill (for animals feeding), as roaster corn, it can be boiled or prepared as porridge. Pie chart was used to depict the summary data of each of the local government areas sampled in Ile – Ife Kingdom, of Osun State Nigeria.
In vivo glycemic index using maize and kidney bean composite flour was carried out by applying cut- off value of greater than seventy (>70) to denote a high glycemic foods, 55-69 indicating medium glycemic foods and (<55) and below indicating low glycemic foods. Maize and kidney bean flours were obtained using the ratios A= (100 maize flour as control), B= (90 MF and 10% KBF), C= (85 % MF and 15% KBF), D= (80% MF and 20% KBF) and E= (75 % MF and 25% KBF). Products were analyzed for glycemic index using albino rats, full Amino acid profile, mineral and vitamin analysis. The glycemic analysis showed a decreased in the fortified samples against the control as the level of kidney bean flour substitution increased over time. There was also a considerable increase in the chemical analysis as the level of kidney bean flour increased. The chemical analysis showed increment in their respective ratios as the level of substitution increased. Results reviewed the problem of poor malnutrition in developing countries and provide a balanced meal.
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This exploratory research work X-ray how maize semolina fortified with bambara groundnut flour can be produced. The comparative analysis on the mineral compositions which include magnesium (mg), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), phosphorus (P), and zinc (Zn) was determined. Furthermore, the functional properties of the product such as oil absorption capacity, water absorption capacity, emulsion capacity, gelation capacity, foam capacity, and bulk density were effectively determined. Consequently, the proximate compositions of maize semolina fortified with bambara groundnut were determined which include moisture content, ash content, crude fiber, crude fats, and crude protein. Thus, the results elucidated that the nutrients in the product are higher in relation to ordinary flour devoid of bambara nut flour, especially on protein and carbohydrate basis . Hence, this high protein may be due to essential amino acid composition of bambara groundnut used for the fortification.
The result of the sensory qualities of AYB-maize kokoro stored (at temperature, 24°C and relative humidity, 61%) for twelve weeks is shown in Table 1. The quality attributes of the snack samples were judged based on the hedonic scale ranking for sensory evaluation. The hedonic scale ranking ranged from 1 (dislike extremely) to 9 (like extremely) with higher ranking representing better sensory qualities. Higher scores were obtained for freshly prepared samples than the stored samples. The scores obtained for the samples decreased with storage time. This implies that sensory quality attributes of the snack decreased with increase in the period of storage. This is expected because freshly prepared food samples always tastes better than stored food samples. However, there were no significant differences (p≥0.05) among