Advanced Materials is one of the Key Enabling Technologies identified by the European Com- mission1. Together with Advanced Manufacturing it underpins almost all other Key Enabling and Industrial Technologies. The basic science and engineering research that results in the develop- ment of Advanced Materials lies within the field of MaterialsScience and Engineering (MSE). The transfer of knowledge from basic research into final products and applications in the field of MSE involves certain MSE-typical motifs and specific issues, as well as certain aspects that are special to Europe. In comparison with underlying traditional (or basic) disciplines such as physics, chemistry or biology, MSE involves a range of aspects that are more characteristic of applied science, where rel- evance has equal importance to curiosity in order to drive the research effort and justify expenditure – the defined goals often being a proven innovative technology or indeed a particular product. MSE and the related transfer of knowledge and technology includes consideration of factors such as materials and product life cycles, the abundance of materials, the technical, ecological and economic feasibility of materialsengineering and processing, as well as the multidisciplinarity of the ‘background’ knowledge and the efficiency of the academic effort involved. This is even more the case for situations that involve successful validation of technologies and effec- tive transfer of knowledge between academia and industry. The state of knowledge and technology transfer in Europe differs from that of other global players, such as the US, China or Japan. Europe’s cultural diversity gives rise to both positive and
The Review Panel welcomes and commends increasing interaction with industry as illustrated by the latest participation in meetings and discussions. This is also important for the future of materialsscience in Europe. The Review Panel regrets that the Technology and Knowledge Transfer report has not yet been produced as it addresses critical issues for the economic exploitation of materialsscience and engineering capacity. Comparison with other parts of the world will be instructive. However, it welcomes and strongly supports early recommendations presented by the Committee Chair: technology validation concept – a very innovative and valuable concept. The membership structure gives constraints, but
The main task of MatSEEC is to deliver strategic advice to PESC and ESF on issues related to materialsscience and engineering. It also gives independent expert opinion and policy advice on matters of concern to European national agencies and ministries, institutions of the European Commission and the European Strategic Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) as well as to the related scientific communities.
One of the most common mechanical stress–strain tests is performed in tension. As will be seen, the tension test can be used to ascertain several mechanical properties of materials that are important in design. A specimen is deformed, usually to fracture, with a gradually increasing tensile load that is applied uniaxially along the long axis of a specimen. A standard tensile specimen is shown in Figure 7.2. Normally, the cross section is circular, but rectangular specimens are also used. During testing, deformation is confined to the narrow center region, which has a uniform cross section along its length. The standard diameter is approximately 12.8 mm (0.5 in.), whereas the reduced section length should be at least four times this diameter; 60 mm (2 in.) is common. Gauge length is used in ductility computations, as discussed in Section 7.6; the standard value is 50 mm (2.0 in.). The specimen is mounted by its ends into the holding grips of the testing apparatus (Figure 7.3). The tensile testing machine is designed to elongate the specimen at a constant rate, and to continuously and simultaneously measure the instantaneous applied load (with a load cell) and the resulting elongations (using an extensometer). A stress–strain test typically takes several minutes to perform and is destructive; that is, the test specimen is permanently deformed and usually fractured.
Th e state of the art in metallic systems for turbine blades, aero engines and gas turbines is the use of Ni superalloys. Th e implementation of TiAl intermetallics in applications involving moderate temperatures is foreseen within the objective to decrease the weight by up to 50% (Figure 1). Th e challenges here are to increase the ductility of TiAl intermetallics at room temperature, to improve the creep properties at temperatures up to 700 °C, and to develop alloying through optimised heat treat- ments. Such an improvement requires insight into the fundamental properties of these materials on all length scales. In a longer time perspective, the chal- lenge is to develop processing routes which integrate recycling and reuse. At that point, another chal- lenge will be the determination and control (also involving non-destructive testing) of degradation and of failure mechanisms of such alloys, including corrosion (chemical, galvanic), mechanical, thermal, bio-fouling, irradiation, wear and especially combi- nations thereof. Processing of TiAl intermetallics is currently based on casting technologies, for which Europe has a leadership that should be retained for future developments. In the longer term, challenges are the use of TiAl intermetallics in hybrid and/or composite materials, safety and quality issues, and multiscale-multiphysics modelling.
emergence in materialsscience and engineering, which forms the basis for article presents a critical review of the literature on the influence of nano silica in concrete and its application for the development of sustainable materials in the construction industry and to study the flexural behavior towards improvement of mechanical properties and durability aspects. Thus, there is a scope for development of crack resisting concrete.Flexure test is conducted on the specimen, the flexural behaviour and the carck width are compared .
materials such as metals, ceramics, plastics, composites, and nanomaterials. When it comes to traditional engineering undergraduate programs such as civil, mechanical, electrical, or chemical engineering, their specific materialsscience educational needs are quite different. While civil engineers deal mostly with steel, concrete, timber, and soils, their mechanical engineering counterparts are interested in different alloys and composite materials. With rapid economic development and the scarcity of natural resources, the use of synthetic materials (e.g., polymers, composites), industrial by products (e.g., slag, fly ash), recycled materials and their combinations with tradi tional materials (e.g., concrete and soils) has recently become more prevalent in civil engineering projects. Hence, there is a gro\ving need for civil engineers to learn more about these advanced materials in addition to traditional materials.
at Durham, and we thank Dr David Apperley for his generous assistance in collection and interpretation of the results. The UK 850 MHz Solid- State NMR Facility used in this research ( 25 Mg, 39 K) was funded by EPSRC and BBSRC, as well as the University of Warwick including via part funding through Birmingham Science City Advanced Materials Pro- jects 1 and 2 supported by Advantage West Midlands (AWM) and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). The input of Dr Dinu Iuga in conducting the experiments and the assistance of Dr John V. Hanna in data interpretation at that facility are also gratefully acknowledged.
A VRFB single cell was fabricated by sandwiching the membrane between two pieces of carbon felt (thickness is 5 cm, Shenhe carbon fiber Materials Co., Ltd.) with effective reaction area of 30 cm 2 , which was served as the electrodes, and conductive plastic were used as the current collectors. 80 mL solutions of 2 M V 4+ in 3.0 M H 2 SO 4 serving as negative and 160 mL of MAS sample as
Due to the low reaction rate between nickel (Ni) and solder, a Ni layer has been widely electroplated onto the metallic pad surface as a diffusion barrier material [3, 4]. A gold (Au) layer as a surface finishing on the metallic pad has good wettability between the solder and substrate, and the anti-oxidation property for a substrate during the soldering process. It is usually coated onto the Ni layer surface to form the under bump metallization (UBM) structure in the ball grid array (BGA) and flip chip (FC) bonding technique [5-7]. Stainless steel has good anti-corrosive property and suitable coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) compatibility between the solder and Si. It is usually used as lead-frame materials in the electronic component.
material has been accomplished, and a high quality crack-free thick film has been achieved for thermoelectric (TE) applications. TE generators (TEG) can convert waste heat into electricity, which can potentially solve global warming problems. However, TEG is expensive due to the high cost of materials, as well as the complex and expensive manufacturing process. EPD is a simple and cost- effective method which has been used recently for advanced applications. In EPD, when a DC electric field is applied to the charged powder particles suspended in a suspension, they are attracted and deposited on the substrate with the opposite charge. In this study, it has been shown that it is possible to prepare a TE film using the EPD method and potentially achieve high TE properties at low cost. The relationship between the deposition weight and the EPD-related process parameters, such as applied voltage and time, has been investigated and a linear dependence has been observed, which is in good agreement with the theoretical principles of EPD. A stable EPD suspension of p-type Bi 2 Te 3 was prepared in a mixture of
to manufacture TE generators (TEG) which can convert waste heat into electricity targeting the global warming issue. However, the high cost of the manufacturing process of TEGs keeps them expensive and out of reach for commercialization. Therefore, utilizing EPD as a simple and cost-effective method will open new opportunities for TEG’s commercialization. This method has been recently used for advanced materials such as microelectronics and has attracted a lot of attention from both scientists and industry. In this study, the effect of media of suspensions has been investigated on the quality of the deposited films as well as their microstructure. In summary, finding an appropriate suspension is a critical step for a successful EPD process and has an important effect on both the film’s quality and its future properties.
Numbers of materials are available in the market which are bio-degradable and are accepted as implants in a human body . Materials are also accepted by the human body and thus replacement of bone has become a less tedious process. Polymer materials are widely used for the manufacturing of scaffolds because of their durability, bio degradability and ease of processing. The polymer materials are classified into Natural and Synthetic materials, which is not different for biodegradable polymers. The synthetic polymer that are mostly used are Poly lactic Acid (PLA) , Polyglycolic Acid (PGA), Polycaprolactone (PCL) , Polypropylene fumarate (PPF), Polyhydoxyalkanotes(PHA), Polyorthoesters, etc. The synthetic polymers can be ring chained or linear polymers. Each polymer has a different characteristic pertaining to its crystallization, melting point, acidity, mechanical properties, etc. The polymers are specifically used for a specific purpose .
Most of the alloys like titanium, steel, brass, copper, etc., are used in engineering applications like automobile, aero- space, marine etc., consist of two or more phases. If a material consists of two or more phases or components it is very difficult to predict the properties like mechanical and other properties based on simple laws such as rule of mixtures. Titanium alloys are capable of producing different microstructures when it subjected to heat treatments, so much of money and time are squandering to study the effect of microstructure on mechanical properties of titanium alloys. This squandering can be reduced with the help of modeling and optimization techniques. There are many modeling tech- niques like Finite element method, Mat lab, Mathematical modeling etc. are available. But Finite element method is widely used for prediction because of capable of producing distributions of stresses and strains at any different loads. From the literature it is observed that there is a good agreement between the calculated and measured stress strain curves. This review paper describes the effect of volume fraction and grain size of alpha phase on the stress strain curve of the titanium alloys. It also can predict the effect of strength ratio on stress strain curve by using FEM. This informa- tion will be of great use in designing and selecting the titanium alloys for various engineering applications.
Photochromic materials have attracted much attention from both a fundamental as well as a practical point of view, because of their potential for applications in optoelectronic devices such as optical memories, photo-switches and wave- guides, etc (Du¨rr & Bouas-Laurent, 1990). Among all photo- chromic systems, diarylethene derivatives are regarded as the best candidates because of the good thermal stability of the two isomers, high sensitivity, fast response, and high fatigue resistance (Irie, 2000; Tian & Yang, 2004).
Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut or enlarge a hole of circular cross-section in solid materials. The drill bit is a rotary cutting tool, often multipoint. The bit is pressed against the work piece and rotated at rates from hundreds to thousands of revolutions per minute. This forces the cutting edge against the work piece, cutting off chips from what will become the hole being drilled.
This research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science 共 OS 兲 , Office of Basic Energy Sci- ences 共 BES 兲 , and Materials Sciences Division. Ames Labo- ratory is operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Iowa State University under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-82.
molecular electronics, synthetic bio molecular motors, DNA-based self-assembly, and manipulation of individual atoms via a scanning tunneling microscope, nanotechnology has become the principal focus of a growing cadre of scientists and engineers and has captured the attention and imagination of the general public. This field is defined primarily by a unit of length, the nanometer at which lies the ultimate control over the form and function of matter. Indeed, since the types of atoms and their fundamental properties are limited by the laws of quantum physics, the smallest scale at which we have the freedom to exercise our creativity is in the combination of different numbers and types of atoms used to fabricate new forms of matter. This is the arena of nanotechnology: to build materials and devices with control down to the level of individual atoms and molecules. Such capabilities result in properties and performance far superior to conventional technologies and, in some cases, allow access to entirely new phenomena only available at such scales[ 1, 2].The rapid growth of the field in the past two decades has been enabled by the sustained advances in the fabrication and characterization of increasingly smaller structures.
Fig. 5(b) presents the fracture surface of the C/C– ZrC composites after the three- point bending test. The fracture surface of the C/C–ZrC composites is coarse with lots of pulled-out carbon fibers and fiber bundles, which is consistent with the typical pseudo-plastic fracture mode from the flexural stress-strain curve. Many holes exist on the fracture surface due to the pulled-out carbon fibers from matrix (Fig. 5(c)). The fractures surface presents a stepped shape. The pulled-out fibers were rough and adhered matrix materials, indicating moderate interface bond strength between fibers and matrix. The carbon layer deposited on carbon fiber not only hinders the damage of carbon fibers during the carbothermal reduction but also serves as interface layer improve the interface bonding. Moreover, interface debonding can be found on the fracture surface, which can dissipate fracture energy during the loading process, avoiding a brittle fracture behavior. Therefore, fiber pull-out, interfacial debonding, and fibers fracture leads to a typical pseudo-plastic fracture behavior of the C/C–ZrC composites.
the conducting layers. This effect coming from substitution at different crystallographic sites has been suggested to contribute to the electron-hole asymmetry in a phase diagram of iron-based superconductors . From materials design point of view, an ideal material for the study of electron-hole asymmetry should meet the following criteria: (1) substitution takes place at only one crystallographic site, (2) the material can be tuned from electron-doped to hole-doped by varying the ratio between the substitutional and substituted atoms, and (3) the substitutional and substituted atoms should have similar size to minimize the steric effect. Unfortunately, none of the presently studied materials meets the above requirements.