7 depression (Burns & Rapee, 2006; Kelly, Jorm & Rodgers, 2006) and less than a quarter recognised psychosis (Wright, McGorry, Harris, et al., 2006). Research indicates a gradual improvement in the recognition of mentalhealth difficulties following public health initiatives targeting MHL (Jorm, Christensen & Griffiths, 2006a). However, the evidence base for mentalhealth education based interventions to enhance MHL and to reduce stigma of young people is limited. Promising findings for improving MHL and help-seeking have been demonstrated (e.g. Pinto-Foltz, Logsdon & Myers, 2011), however, these studies have a number of limitations including small sample sizes and lack of follow up. A recent randomised control trial found that a classroom based intervention, “HeadStrong”, improved adolescent’ MHL for depression with a moderate to large effect immediately after the intervention (d=.60) but that this declined at the 6 month follow up (d=.37) (Perry, Petrie, Buckley, et al., 2014). Furthermore, although the intervention reduced stigma it did not significantly impact upon participants’ attitudes towards help-seeking (Perry, et al., 2014). This is perhaps indicative of the promise of classroom based interventions but also of the need to refine these with a greater understanding of the components that affect levels of MHL in order to achieve sustainable gains.
In building on its work to date SW London and St George’s MentalHealth Trust has implemented a framework that requires all directorates to systematically assess for any adverse impact in service delivery and workforce on people from different racial groups. The emphasis is on developing local ownership of issues, critical appraisal, action planning, and implementation and reporting. Directorates are supported with guidance, developed in line with CRE good practice, which highlights the areas that need to be taken into account within their review. Each directorate is invited to discuss their plans with the RES steering group where they also present progress after six months. A RES logo has been developed as a means of helping to highlight RES developments. In addition, information on progress including good practices from directorates e.g,. Child and Adolescent Directorate model for integrating race equality into core business, is incorporated into the Trust wide magazine which is received by every employee. The framework has been supported by a series of road shows that have been carried out around the Trust which has helped to further raise awareness about the RES developments and been a useful mechanism for obtaining valuable feedback.
Among the study participants who had not yet returned to work at the time of the research interviews, some people who were still on IB felt that, at the present time, they were not ready for work and needed to spend longer addressing their mentalhealth problem. However, almost everybody hoped to return to work at some point in the future. Only a very small of people number were in a position where their ongoing experiences of mental ill health made it difficult to think about work at all. Rather, most people talked in some detail about their plans and ideas for work in the future. As with people who had returned to work, a number of people talked about plans to take up or return to education, in order to improve their prospects or work towards long-term career goals. Some people, not only younger members of the study group, were already engaged in vocational or basic skills training, either initiated independently or with support from Jobcentre Plus. Moreover, some of the people who had moved onto JSA, and indeed some people still on IB, said that they were feeling much better or at least well enough to return to work. Reasons underpinning such feelings included effective medical treatment, improvements in the personal circumstances that had triggered mentalhealth conditions, time to overcome traumatic events, or the passing of a low ebb in a fluctuating condition. Thus, the current positions of these people closely reflect the accounts of feeling ready for work that were given by study participants who had already returned to employment.
Some individuals described feelings of relief at the point of leaving work, but others would have liked to have stayed with their employer. When asked what might have been done to enable them to retain their job, people suggested: quicker access to mentalhealth services and treatments; more contact with their employer while off sick; addressing workplace problems that were contributing to mental ill health, for example, bullying or job stress; and supportive responses to personal life circumstances that were affecting mentalhealth.
The prophetic lifestyle is a sum of applications applied during lifetime on a daily basis. Thereby, it directs the personal conduct and behaviour and affects the person and the people around him / her. It produces a climate of comprehension, understanding, cooperation, mutual support, compassion, love, peace and happiness. Prophetic lifestyle promotes balance between physical, psychological, and spiritual needs and responsibilities toward the Creator and creations. This article discusses the practices of the prophetic iconic modules in the positive development of psychological and cognitive well-being as according to Quran. The article found that the prophetic mentalhealth is also essential for setting priorities, solving problems, refining conduct and leading an overall healthy relation with one‟s surrounding. It is important to note that mental and cognitive wellbeing require constant maintenance to ensure stability and progression only if the prophetic iconic modules is constantly practiced and applied in daily life.
The Credit Services Association works for the benefit of those UK companies active in relation to unpaid credit accounts. Debt recovery agencies, tracing and allied professional services also have a code of practice which makes reference to people with mentalhealth problems (Credit Services Association, 2006). This code indicates that CSA members need to pay “due regard and deal sensitively with people where evidence has been given, or is apparent, that the individual is incapacitated by mental or physical disability.” The Banking Code sets out minimum standards in relation to dealing with customers, with which Code subscribers (including all the major banks) are expected to comply. Following a 2008 review of the Code, the British Bankers’ Association has indicated that it intends to meet with the Money Advice Liaison Group (MALG), which has produced new guidelines on working with customers
The provision of services by voluntary and community groups funded by government typifies the new public management culture of purchaser/provider split coupled with the view that governance by partnership is more effective in assisting the vulnerable and disadvantaged. In the current climate of partnership approach we see the ‘enabling state’ in many areas of social policy- in local initiatives under the umbrella of community development which are in keeping the wider aspirations of social policy are provided by the voluntary and community sector on behalf of the state with an increased focus of social inclusion measures shifting to community regeneration and the building of social capital (Millar, 2006). The publication of Green and White Paper on the Community and Voluntary Sector and its Relationship with the State signalled the States recognition of the voluntary and community sector as having a significant role in the promotion of social cohesion and as active partners in this process (McCashin, O’Sullivan and Brennan 2002, 266). As such from a social policy perspective there is the potential to utilise a community development approach to improving mentalhealth as part of a broader social inclusion strategy.
Table 4.2 presents a series of regression estimates in which the dependent variable is the extent to which mothers’ reports are higher than fathers’ reports. In Model 1, fathers’ education is negatively correlated with mothers’ overreports MGF differences appear to be less pronounced in families where fathers have higher education. There is also an age and gender interaction with mothers and fathers being more likely to disagree on their reports when the children are younger girls. In Model 2, parents’ experience of trauma in their childhood does not contribute to MGF reports of their children’s mentalhealth. Traumatic events experienced by mothers in their adult years (Model 3) as well as maternal and paternal chronic strains (Model 4) are significantly associated with MGF reports. Mothers’ experiences of adulthood trauma are positively associated with their tendency to report higher levels of children’s mentalhealth problems. Mothers were also more likely to report higher levels of problematic when they experienced higher levels of chronic strains. In Model 5, no association is found for either parent’s experiences of stressful life events. Comparatively, chronic strains explain the most variance in MGF reports. It accounts for an additional 4.9% of the variance in MGF reports. When all the stress dimensions are simultaneously included in Model 6, mothers’ traumatic experiences in adulthood and mothers’ chronic strains are significantly related to mothers reporting greater symptoms than fathers. . Taken together, stressors reported by parents account for an additional 5.4 percent of the explained variance beyond that accounted by the structural variables (see Model 1).
The starting point of the discussions was to explore how the concept of mentalhealth is viewed and what the term means to people. What emerged first of all is that this can be a topic which people are quite uncomfortable talking about – this was evident mainly in the group of male employees, women taking a more pragmatic approach. But it is clearly something which is not commonly discussed, particularly in the workplace, to the extent that few people have any real frame of reference in which to situate such a discourse. For example, respondents at groups would seek clarification from those leading the group ‘What do you mean by mentalhealth?’ and could only start to address the matter when given specific examples, such as depression, anxiety or schizophrenia.
Finally, we examine whether characteristics associated with mental illness under-reporting also predict health-seeking behavior. Appendix Table B.2 shows that males, individu- als without university degree, and those from Asian, African, or Middle Eastern eth- nic backgrounds are significantly more likely to under-report mental illness. We first identify individuals who are deemed to be in “need” of mentalhealth treatment accord- ing to the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), as explained in Appendix A.2 (n = 1, 620). We then use the results from Appendix Table B.2 to predict the proba- bilities of under-reporting mental illness diagnosis and mentalhealth drug use for these individuals. In the final step, we examine whether these predicted probabilities are cor- related with treatment-seeking behavior in the subsequent 12 months. 6 Table 3 presents
The findings and recommendations of the HHS Women’s MentalHealth Initiative underscore the con- tinued importance of key cross-cutting themes from the 1999 Surgeon General’s report on mentalhealth, starting with the persistent need to combat stigma and the associated prejudice and discrimination that affect individuals with mental illnesses and their families. The report also highlighted the need to expand cultural competence across mentalhealth research, training, and services; reduce disparities in mentalhealth access and treatment; and encourage treatment. In addition, a number of new issues have emerged regarding the burden of mental illnesses: the importance of gender-based differences; effects of trauma, violence, and abuse; the mentalhealth of female veterans; lifespan and intergenerational issues; and the need to include patients as active participants in their own treatment and recovery plans. These themes and issues constitute the rationale for action described below.
The importance of speech and language is further emphasised by the redefi nition of some mentalhealth categories that is currently underway. This preface is written a few weeks before the introduction of DSM-S, the fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). It is currently assumed that Aspergers will not be part of this edition, which will be published in May 2013. DSM-S will introduce a new category, Social Communication Disorder (SCD), which is a language disorder and as such different from AutismSpectrum Disorder (ASD) as defined in DSM-S. While the exact criteria for SCD are still unavailable at this point in time, it is assumed that this disorder will focus on a "qualitative impairment in social interaction" . This moves the pragmatic aspect of language-the use in social interactions-to centre stage. Hence, the analysis of social interactions by come putational methods will be essential for research on SCD and the development of ... psychological tests.
two-stage cluster random sampling technique. An appro- priate statistical analytical approach has been used to adjust for the effect of cluster sampling. The use of a standardised and validated assessment instrument for mentalhealth lit- eracy and psychological distress minimised some measure- ment biases for both the exposure and outcome variables. Some potential limitations have also been identified in this study. For example, a cross-sectional study could be consid- ered as an appropriate design for exploring potential risk factors for a condition or disease. However, the evidence provided from such a study can only be considered as asso- ciative and is insufficient to draw any causal inference . This study can be considered as an exploratory study to identify the potential association between mentalhealth literacy and depression among adolescents. Furthermore, some important risk factors of depression among young people, such recent stressful life event and familial problems, were not included as potential confounder in the analysis. This may have caused a biased estimation of the strength of association between the exposure and outcome variables. Future studies could be conducted with a better design, such as a longitudinal cohort study, and to include the important potential confounding factors to elucidate whether the association is of a causal nature.
The Dual-Factor Model of MentalHealth emphasizes that mentalhealth is a complete state, which is to overcome the clinical deficiencies in traditional mentalhealth PTH. It changes the one-dimensional model (there is/there is no mental illness) and is a self-improvement in the mentalhealth research field. Present empirical research among teenagers and adults has proved the existence of this model and that it can effectively classify people into different groups. This model not only em- phasizes the important role of SWB in mentalhealth, but also advocates PTH indicator. It further emphasizes the unsubsti- tutability and indispensability of the two indicators (Green- spoon, & Saklofske, 2001; Keyes, 2007; Suldo, & Shaffer, 2008; Doll, 2008). This also provides theoretical support for positive mental illness prevention and treatment (Seligman, 2008) and positive mentalhealth education (Meng, 2008). That is to say, mentalhealth services must include cultivation of such positive factors as SWB (Weissberg, Kumpfer, & Selig- man, 2003; Weisz, Sandler, Durlak, & Anton, 2005), and ob- taining positive strengths is the necessary precondition for indi- viduals to obtain optimal academic (or working) achievement and optimal physical and mentalhealth (Keyes, 2007; Suldo, & Shaffer, 2008).
Results: In the quantitative phase, according to secondary data, 1144 individuals (560 females and 584 males) were selected, of whom 41 percent had impaired mentalhealth based on General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) (P<0.05). According to the qualitative phase, the first mentalhealth priority in socioeconomic level was lack of insurance for unattended families, it was unemployment in differential exposure level and it was lack of knowledge and skills related to dealing with stress in the differential vulnerability level; in differential outcome and consequence levels, the priorities were lack of free counseling centers in the study area and lack of facilities for mentalhealth rehabilitation. Conclusion: Providing training courses to improve the skills to deal with stress is considered one of the most important interventions for mentalhealth promotion in women.
Participants in the present study focused their attention on the role of attitudes and beliefs towards stigma in the society. Public opinion towards mentalhealth problems is associated with fear and labels. This point of view will be transferred to children through media and people. Thus, the mentality of children towards mental illness will be negative and degrading (33) Even some mentalhealth providers who have worked in the field of mentalhealth for many years are affected by these negative attitudes. The therapeutic team, policymakers, and authorities have intensified the negative consequences of stigma (34). Another recommendation of participants was changing the available therapeutic structure to reduce stigma. The new structures would give importance to mentally ill patients, financial needs, relationship among therapeutic team, and therapeutic alliance. Aviram et al. (35) also emphasized the interpersonal relationship between patients and therapists.
The MentalHealth Standards of Practice follow soon after the Māori Caucus Te Ao Māramatanga (TAM) biennial wānanga held in Rotorua March 2012. At this wānanga mentalhealth nurses across the lifespan, at different stages of their nursing careers and from the many fields within mentalhealth reflected upon ‘Cultural and Clinical excellence’, in being ‘in service’ to people. The collective knowledge and experiences of the mentalhealth nurses at this hui, externally and from the past, continue to carry Te Ao Māramatanga New Zealand College of MentalHealth Nurses forward as a progressive professional body. Māori Caucus acknowledges the enduring collegiality within Te Ao Māramatanga.
realised it will be essential to strengthen capacity in coun- tries to conduct rigorous monitoring and evaluation of system development projects and to demonstrate sus- tained benefit to populations. Failure to sustain long-term gains from even well designed and implemented commu- nity mentalhealth system development projects is a source of serious concern and is all too common. In a fol- low-up of one such project , of the 185 patients fol- lowed up, 15% had continued treatment, 35% had stopped treatment, 21% had died, 12% had wandered away from home and 17% were untraceable. Of the patients who had discontinued treatment 25% were asymptomatic while 75% were acutely psychotic. The les- sons learned from such a failure of sustainability must be widely disseminated and incorporated into planning of future development projects.
In the 1980s a number of econometric analyses made use of cross sectional surveys to investigate the magnitude of demand response for ambulatory mentalhealth services, the services thought to be most responsive to cost sharing (McGuire, 1981; Horgan, 1986; Taube, Kessler and Burns, 1986; Watts, Scheffler and Jewell, 1986). 12 This first generation of econometric models focused on estimating the demand response of ambulatory mentalhealth care use to differences in the cost-sharing provisions across private insurance plans. The empirical models of demand were built on simple assumptions about the price schedule and consumer expectations (Manning and Frank, 1992). Annual number of visits (or dollars) were assumed to be the relevant decision unit, consumers were assumed to face a constant price. Consumers formulated their demand at the beginning of the annual decision-period. Insurance coverage for mentalhealth is rarely described by a single price block, such as constant 50% coinsurance. Much more frequently there are two or even three blocks. Figure 4 shows a three-block schedule that would result from a deductible, a covered region and a limit on coverage. Empirical studies during the 1980s used an “average” price, and related this to quantity used. The block structure of pricing builds in a relation between use and average price unrelated to demand response (e.g., with a declining block price, average price and use are negatively correlated). In principle, instrumental variables might deal with this, but this is a highly imperfect way to address this measurement issue.
o If the recommendation is accepted, assist in creating a plan to schedule an appointment, and follow up with the student in a timely manner. You may call the mentalhealth provider with the student-athlete. If you call with them, you will know that an attempt to schedule has been made as well as when the student-athlete’s appointment is which can assist you in follow-up