mercuric chloride

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“Sodium Selenite Pretreatment Ameliorates Aspects of the Nephropathy Induced by Mercuric Chloride in the Ratte Albinos Wistar” by Youcef Necib, Ahlem Bahi, Sakina Zerizer, Cherif Abdennour, Mohamed Salah Boulakoud, Algeria.

“Sodium Selenite Pretreatment Ameliorates Aspects of the Nephropathy Induced by Mercuric Chloride in the Ratte Albinos Wistar” by Youcef Necib, Ahlem Bahi, Sakina Zerizer, Cherif Abdennour, Mohamed Salah Boulakoud, Algeria.

The histological changes in Kidney are presented in Fig.3. Mercuric chloride induced various pathological alterations in kidney of rats. These alterations were characterized by renal tubular damage, indicating by tubular necrosis (Fig. 3C). In combination group were sodium selenite was administration with mercuric chloride showed reparative changes. Kidney showed prominent recovery in the form of normal renal tubular and very less tubular necrosis (Fig. 3D). kidney of the control group had a regular histological structure (Fig.3A). Furthermore, no histological alterations were observed in the kidney of sodium selenite treated group (Fig. 3B).
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THE STUDIES ON PROTEIN CHANGES IN LIVER AND MUSCLE OF THE CATFISH, CLARIUS GARIEPINUS (BURCHELL, 1822) EXPOSED TO SUB LETHAL CONCENTRATION OF MERCURIC CHLORIDE

THE STUDIES ON PROTEIN CHANGES IN LIVER AND MUSCLE OF THE CATFISH, CLARIUS GARIEPINUS (BURCHELL, 1822) EXPOSED TO SUB LETHAL CONCENTRATION OF MERCURIC CHLORIDE

When an animal is under toxic stress, diversification of energy occurs to accomplish the impending energy demands and hence the protein level is depleted [24]. A significant decrease was reported in muscle and liver protein in Channa striatus exposed to mercury, cadmium and lead for a period of 30 days [25]. Depletion of protein content has been observed in the muscle, intestine and brain of Catla catla as a result of mercuric chloride toxicity. The depletion of total protein content may be due to the breakdown of protein into free amino acid under the effect of mercuric chloride at the lower exposure period [26]. The rapid depletion in total protein content due to active degradation of proteins under stress is dependent on the development of resistance towards the pollutant stress. The decrease of total protein might be attributed to the destruction or necrosis of cells and consequent impairment in protein synthetic machinery [27].
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Prenatal Mercuric Chloride Exposure Causes Developmental Deficits in Rat Cortex

Prenatal Mercuric Chloride Exposure Causes Developmental Deficits in Rat Cortex

To assess the effects of prenatal exposure to Mercuric Chlorideonmorphometric characteristics of telencephal- ic cortex,the treated and control groups’ telencephalic cortex were compared with each other. Results showed a significant difference between the groups (Figure 1). Post hock analysis showed an increase in the diameter of cortex in all mercuric chloride in treated group espe- cially in Exp-2 group( 9th day of gestation) [p˂0.05]. Also, the mean of cortical cell density between groups showed a significant difference (p˂0.05);LSD post hock analysis showed a decrease in cell density of tel- encephalic cortex in all experimental groups compared with the control group (Figure 1).
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Mercuric Chloride Induced Cell Death in Spinal Cord of Embryo in Rat

Mercuric Chloride Induced Cell Death in Spinal Cord of Embryo in Rat

effects on neural tube development in rat. as shown above, mercuric chloride reduced the diameter of spi- nal cord in all it layers (mantle zone and marginal zone) except ventricular zone. There were also some signs of cell death probably due to an apoptotic process in neural tube (increased mitosis in ventricular zone, cellular and nuclear irregularity and disorientation, and increased ex- tracellular space). Apoptosis is a type of cell death that occurs normally (Kerr, Wyllie, & Currie, 1972) in brain during development, and has an important role in the pruning of dendrites and synapses in the way to making well defined circuits in the brain. However, this process is under the tight control of cells. Abnormal apoptosis can be induced in some devastating circumstances such as ischemia and hemostatic imbalance in cell environ- ment. It can also be induced by agents that interfere with function of critical intracellular enzymes. It has been shown that mercury compounds can initiate this lethal process in cells of different organs (Peter, Delma, R., & D., 1999; Shenker, Guo, & Shapiro, 1998; Sken- ker, Datar, Mansfield, & Shapiro, 1997). In one study, mercuric chloride, induced apoptosis and cell death in vitro, that by increase in time and concentration expo- sure, number of necrotic cells were also increased and the result was a mixture of necrotic and apoptotic cells 'XQFDQ˶$F-RQHV0)&DUWHU /DLUG
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“Effect of Argan Oil (Argania spinosa. L) on Kidney Function Impairment and Oxidative Stress Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rats” by Youcef Necib, Ahlem Bahi, Sakina Zerizer, Cherif Abdennour, Mohamed Salah Boulakoud, Chettoum Aziez, Hallas Abdelkader, A

“Effect of Argan Oil (Argania spinosa. L) on Kidney Function Impairment and Oxidative Stress Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rats” by Youcef Necib, Ahlem Bahi, Sakina Zerizer, Cherif Abdennour, Mohamed Salah Boulakoud, Chettoum Aziez, Hallas Abdelkader, Algeria.

All chemicals used in this work were purchased from sigma chemical company. Laboratory animals, Albino Wistar male rats, were brought from the Algiers Pasteur institute at the age of 8 weeks, with an average live weight of 200g. They were located in a room with an ambient temperature of 21±1°C and up to 12h of light daily. The rats were divided into four experimental groups; each consists of eight rats. The first group was served as the control. The second group was given argan oil at a dose of 5 ml/kg body weight, while the third group (HgCl 2 ) was intraperitoneally given mercuric chloride at a
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“Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous Extract of Cyperus rotundus Rhizome Against Mercuric Chloride Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats” by Youcef Necib, Ahlem Bahi, Algeria.

“Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous Extract of Cyperus rotundus Rhizome Against Mercuric Chloride Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats” by Youcef Necib, Ahlem Bahi, Algeria.

facilitated the conjugation reaction of xenobiotics metabolism and may have increased the availability of non-critical nucleophile for inactivation of electrophiles and therefore might be playing a major role in metalloprotection. The C. Rotundus is a traditional herbal medicine used widely as antibacterial, antimalarial, sedative, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and relieve diarrhea 14,15,32 . Previous studies have been showed that C. roduntus and its ingredient compounds inhibit the free radical generation and act as antioxidant and free radical scavengers and its has also been demonstrated that treatment with C. rotundus inhibits the generation of superoxide radicals 33,11,34 and recent evidence suggested that GSH-PX and GST play a significant role in the elimination of H2O2 and lipid peroxidative stress in rats 35 . Thus, inhibition this enzymes may results in the accumulation of the H2O2 with subsequent oxidation of lipids. The present study has showed that MDA levels were significantly increased and the GSH-PX, GST activities were decreased with treated both dose of CR in mercuric chloride groups when compared with control groups which conformed with the histopathological evaluation of liver tissue. Flavonoids are the major component in the volatile oil of CR which are able to inhibit the oxidants and to protect the cell membrane by the restoration of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) when compared treatment with dose of C.Rotundus. This study assess the effects of oxygen free radical scavengers, both mercuric chloride injury and increase of TBA-reactive substance were inhibited by the treatment of free radical scavengers. C.R extract is an effective free radical scavenger showing antioxidant activity against reactive oxygen production and protecting the damage caused by free radicals 36 . This result is supported with biochemical and histopathological findings which the effect of CR on mercuric chloride induced oxidative stress in rats. The hepatoprotective effect of CR could be attributed to the improvement of antioxidant status of the animals of the presence of free radical scavenging substances such as flavonoid oil 37 .
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Critical Toxicity Bioassays of Mercuric Chloride on the freshwater fish Clarius gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)

Critical Toxicity Bioassays of Mercuric Chloride on the freshwater fish Clarius gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)

into different groups each containing ten fishes for the experiment. Mercuric chloride weighed accurately as per requirement and dissolved in water before the transfer of fishes into the aquarium. Dead fish number were also recorded simultaneously and removed immediately.

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Influence of s allyl cysteine against mercuric chloride induced
nephrotoxicity in albino rats

Influence of s allyl cysteine against mercuric chloride induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats

The animals were treated with sub-leathal dose of mercuric chloride (1.23 mg/kg body wt) for 7 days. After scheduled treatetment the animals were decapitated and whole kidney tissue was used for the determination of biochemical and bioenzymological assays like lipid peroxidation (LPO) glutathione (GSH), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Catalase(CAT), and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. During the mercuric chloride treatment the level of LPO content was significantly increased and simultaneously the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Catalase (CAT), and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were decreased. The results revealed that HgCl 2 induced oxidative stress and cell damage. During the recovery period, S-Allyl cysteine (5 mg/kg body wt)
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PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF WHITE TEA EXTRACT AGAINST MERCURIC CHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MICE

PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF WHITE TEA EXTRACT AGAINST MERCURIC CHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MICE

Mercury is used widely in agriculture as the anti- fungual agent, in medicine as a topical purificator, disinfectant and insecticide for parasites 5 . The most frequent chemical form to which humans and animals are exposed to mercury is elemental mercury vapor, mercury salts as mercuric chloride and organic mercury compounds such as methyl mercury. Poisoning can result from inhalation, ingestion, or absorption through the skin 7 .

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ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT OF AJUGA IVA (L) AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN MERCURIC CHLORIDE INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN RATS

ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT OF AJUGA IVA (L) AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN MERCURIC CHLORIDE INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN RATS

The present investigation revealed that mercuric chloride intoxication causes significant increase in lipid peroxidation and glucose, billirubin levels, AST, ALT and ALP activities, and significant decrease in reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-s- transferase in liver. The principal toxic effects of mercury involve interaction with a large number of cellular processes, including the formation of complexes with free thiols and protein thiol groups, which may lead to oxidative stress [23] . Due to its sulfhydryl group binding capability, HgCl 2 can also inhibit the activities of many enzymes, especially those
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The effect of mercuric chloride treatment as biocide for herbaria on the indoor air quality

The effect of mercuric chloride treatment as biocide for herbaria on the indoor air quality

uptake of mercury by the mount paper, however based on our work we suggest that it is mainly due to the pres- ence of paper deterioration products, because mercuric chloride was found as particles on the specimen (Fig. 8). Some fallen leaves from the tested materials were put under a scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). In this example white spots on the leaf could be clearly observed by means of a backscattered electrons detec- tor. The EDX analysis indicated the presence of both

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Amelorative action of different solvent extractions of Tribulus terrestris (Linn.) extract on blood transaminase activities of mercuric chloride poisoned mice, Mus musculus (Linn.)

Amelorative action of different solvent extractions of Tribulus terrestris (Linn.) extract on blood transaminase activities of mercuric chloride poisoned mice, Mus musculus (Linn.)

Haematological parameters are considered as promising indicators of the physiological status of the animal. The present study was carried out on the influence of different solvent extractions of Tribulus terrestris extract on mercuric chloride (1.2 mg/kg body weight) intoxicated mice. An enhanced level of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) activities and bilirubin content were noticed in mercury intoxicated animal. The increased in the enzymatic activity may be due to the damage to the cells of liver caused by the heavy metal. But, the mercury intoxicated mice were treated with different solvent extraction of Tribulus terrestris showed the restoration of haematological parameters.
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“Effect of Green Tea Extract on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Activity on Mercuric Chloride Induced Toxicity in Rats” by M. Saravana Kumari, R. Anuradha, India.

“Effect of Green Tea Extract on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Activity on Mercuric Chloride Induced Toxicity in Rats” by M. Saravana Kumari, R. Anuradha, India.

Lipidperoxidative and antioxidative efficacy of Camellia sinensis was investigated against mercuric chloride induced toxicity in Wistar rats. Toxicity was induced in Wistar rats by daily intraperitoneal injections of a freshly prepared solution of mercuric chloride at a dose of 1.25mg/kg body weight for 45 days. Levels of lipid peroxidation were assessed by estimating TBARS and lipid hydroperoxide and the antioxidant levels were assessed by estimating the levels of GSH, SOD, CAT and GPx. Significant increase was observed in the levels of TBARS, hydroperoxide in HgCl 2 treated rats. These levels were significantly decreased in HgCl 2 and Green Tea Extract
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A Mechanistic Approach on the Solvolysis of Cinnamoyl Chloride in the Presence and Absence of Mercuric Chloride Catalyst

A Mechanistic Approach on the Solvolysis of Cinnamoyl Chloride in the Presence and Absence of Mercuric Chloride Catalyst

acetonitrie solution.. The extent of solvation of HgCl 2 in solution alters its extent of interaction with the substrate and the stabilization effect in the initial and the transition state. The initial state being the loose complex between the nucleophile and substrate, its charge transfer will be favoured by less solvated catalyst. In aqueous acetonitrile due to greater polarity of the medium the extent of solvation of mercuric chloride may be lesser compared to solvation in aqueous acetone, which leads to greater extent of transition state stabilisation and greater decrease in the activation parameters compared to that in aqueous acetone. Similarly both in aqueous acetone and aqueous acetonitrile with decrease in water content of the medium the catalytic activity is found increase. Increases in water content increases the polarity of the medium which may increase the transition state stabilization and hence the increase in transition stabilization by the catalyst will be diminished which accounts for the decrease in rate increase. All these increase in rate can be accounted by the decrease in free energy whose main contribution is from the decrease in the enthalpy of activation. The entropy of activation does not show considerable variation in presence of mercuric chloride.
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Antioxidant effect of Arabic gum against mercuric chloride-induced nephrotoxicity

Antioxidant effect of Arabic gum against mercuric chloride-induced nephrotoxicity

Abstract: The effects of Arabic gum (AG) against nephrotoxicity of mercury (Hg), an oxidative- stress inducing substance, in rats were investigated. A single dose of mercuric chloride (5 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection) induced renal toxicity, manifested biochemically by a significant increase in serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and total nitrate/nitrite production in kidney tissues. In addition, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase enzymes in renal tissues were significantly decreased. Pretreatment of rats with AG (7.5 g/kg/day per oral administration), starting 5 days before mercuric chloride injection and continuing through the experimental period, resulted in a complete reversal of Hg-induced increase in creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and total nitrate/nitrite to control values. Histopathologic examination of kidney tissues confirmed the biochemical data; pretreatment of AG prevented Hg-induced degenerative changes of kidney tissues. These results indicate that AG is an efficient cytoprotective agent against Hg-induced nephrotoxicity by a mechanism related at least in part to its ability to decrease oxidative and nitrosative stress and preserve the activity of antioxidant enzymes in kidney tissues.
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The Poisoning of Marinogammarus Marinus by Cupric Sulphate and Mercuric Chloride

The Poisoning of Marinogammarus Marinus by Cupric Sulphate and Mercuric Chloride

Mean Activity Times in various volumes, of poison solutions Volume of solution of copper in distilled water.. Concentration of Cu mg./l.:.[r]

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The effect of formaldehyde and mercuric chloride on tobacco mosaic virus

The effect of formaldehyde and mercuric chloride on tobacco mosaic virus

Ross & Stanley (1938) reported that tobacco mosaic virus treated with formaldehyde at pH 7 could be partially reactivated by dialyzing at.. pH 3, that groups reacting with Folin's re[r]

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Influence of s allyl cysteine against mercuric chloride induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats

Influence of s allyl cysteine against mercuric chloride induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats

Test for Tannins and Phenolic Compounds: Small quantities of various extracts were taken separately in water and tested for presence of phenolic compounds and treated with 1 Dilute ferri[r]

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Technical note: Could benzalkonium chloride be a suitable alternative to mercuric chloride for preservation of seawater samples?

Technical note: Could benzalkonium chloride be a suitable alternative to mercuric chloride for preservation of seawater samples?

tinely used for such preservation, but its handling and subse- quent disposal incur environmental risks and significant ex- pense. There is therefore a strong motivation to find less haz- ardous alternatives. Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) has been used previously as microbial inhibitor for freshwater sam- ples. Here, we assess the use of BAC for marine samples prior to the measurement of oxygen-to-argon (O 2 / Ar) ra-

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Acute Mercury Poisoning After Polyvinyl Alcohol Preservative Ingestion

Acute Mercury Poisoning After Polyvinyl Alcohol Preservative Ingestion

tinely in the laboratory for collection of specimens for examination for ova and parasites.’’ PVA, pres- ently used at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, con- tains: 4.5% mercuric chloride, 5% [r]

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