Mitigation and Assessment

Top PDF Mitigation and Assessment:

Environmental Impact Assessment and their Mitigation measures of Irrigation Project

Environmental Impact Assessment and their Mitigation measures of Irrigation Project

important tool in achieving sustainable development. Environmental protection and economic development must thus be dealt with in an integrated manner. EIA process is necessary in providing an anticipatory and preventive mechanism for environmental management and protection in any development. Several developing countries are still at the infancy stage of operation alization of their EIA processes. The need for capacity building for quality EIA is also eminent in these countries. Despite these small setbacks, environmental impact assessment has become an integral part of project planning one, which is continually being improved for posterity Generally, the potential positive and negative impacts as well as the environmental mitigation measures of the irrigation project depend on: (a) nature and types of the proposed irrigation project,(b) environmental baseline condition of the project area i.e. the physical, biological and socio-cultural environment,(c)environmental health condition of the project area,(d) the technological option adopted,(e) the legal, institutional and policy framework ,and (f) the environmental condition of the downstream. Major positive and negative impacts of this project during construction and operation phases as well as possible mitigation measures are briefly included in this study. After assessing the environmental impact, the project is found to be environmentally non degradable, technically appropriate, economically viable and socially acceptable.

8 Read more

Integrated approach to the assessment of CO2e-mitigation measures for the road passenger transport sector in Bahrain

Integrated approach to the assessment of CO2e-mitigation measures for the road passenger transport sector in Bahrain

It is acknowledged that the adoption of economic measures and the preparation of mitigation policies might constitute challenging tasks for some countries. For example, countries with heavily subsidised fuel prices and highly energy-intensive economies might be required to implement radical changes and substantial reforms of their energy sectors. These countries could face challenges including the provision of required data, assessment of different measures, appropriate selection from among the wide range of available mitigation measures, and most importantly, canvassing public approval for the selected measures. The importance of the latter is acknowledged because mitigation measures would be highly likely to include some requirement for lifestyle changes, in addition to energy price reform and new taxation systems.

48 Read more

Simultaneous assessment of acidogenesis mitigation and specific bacterial growth inhibition by dentifrices

Simultaneous assessment of acidogenesis mitigation and specific bacterial growth inhibition by dentifrices

The control of dental plaque by the routine brushing with dentifrice can improve oral hygiene, reducing the incidence of oral disease [13,14]. Antimicrobials commonly-used as adjuncts to oral hygiene such as triclosan [15], zinc citrate and stannous fluoride [16] have shown marked activity against oral bacteria. Triclosan (2,4,4’-trichloro-2’-hydroxydiphenyl ether), a chlorinated bisphenol, can inhibit bacterial synthesis of fatty acids at bacteriostatic con- centrations by interacting with an NADH-dependent enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, FabI [17]. At higher concentrations bactericidal activity has been associated with direct effects on the bacterial cell membrane [18]. In oral pathogens such as Streptococcus mutans, which lack FabI, triclosan may also inhibit glycolysis, leading to a reduction in the production of harmful acids [19]. Zinc salts and stannous fluoride reportedly inhibit bacterial acid production by impairing glycolysis and carbohydrate fermentation [20,21]. These compounds have growth-inhibitory properties largely due to inhibitory effects on enzymes required for bacterial metabolism and growth [20, 21]. The pH of dental plaque is influenced by a variety of factors, most notably by bacterial acid production, which may be offset to some extent by the buffering effects of saliva [10]. The mitigation of acid production in saliva and plaque as well as the control of bacterial growth by dentifrices may therefore be advantageous in the maintenance of oral health.

11 Read more

Simultaneous assessment of acidogenesis mitigation and specific bacterial growth inhibition by dentifrices

Simultaneous assessment of acidogenesis mitigation and specific bacterial growth inhibition by dentifrices

Both SFD1 and SFD2 demonstrated lower values for MNC than MIC, particularly when incubated anaerobically. In addition to stannous fluoride, which has been shown to reduce acid production in cariogenic bacteria [30, 31], both of these formulations contain zinc, a known inhibitor of glycolysis providing a plausible explanation for the acidogenesis-mitigating capa- bilities of these formulations at sub-growth inhibitory concentrations for oral anaerobic bacte- ria. CINC values facilitated the comparison of the dentifrices on the basis of both their growth inhibitory effects and the inhibition of acidogenesis at sub-lethal concentrations. When com- bining the effects of growth-inhibition and acidogenesis-mitigation, TD demonstrated the highest combined inhibitory and neutralizing capacity (CINC). This is probably due to the bac- tericidal activity of triclosan, combined with inhibitory effects on bacterial glycolysis [27, 32]. This is a potentially beneficial characteristic of a dentifrice and may partly explain the clinical efficacy of triclosan-containing dentifrices in reducing plaque. Under aerobic conditions SFD2 demonstrated higher CINC activity than SFD1, due to its lower MNC value. This suggests that the addition of stannous chloride into dental formulations could increase the acidogenesis inhibitory activity in oral bacteria.

11 Read more

Us nuclear power industry seismic mitigation strategy assessment (msa) approach

Us nuclear power industry seismic mitigation strategy assessment (msa) approach

If the ground motion response spectrum (GMRS) is bounded by the safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) spectrum at frequencies 1 Hz and greater, then additional evaluation is unnecessary. For the purposes of determining if the GMRS is bounded by the SSE spectrum, both narrow band exceedances in 1 to 10 Hz range and certain GMRS exceedances in any frequency range above SSE accepted in the site- specific NTTF 2.1 final determination letter (Dean, 2015) can be considered to meet the Path 1 screening assessment criteria. The narrow band exceedances in 1 to 10 Hz range are acceptable provided they meet the criteria of Section 3.2.1 of EPRI 1025287 (2012). The narrow band exceedances are similar to exceedances found to be acceptable in industry standards, such as IEEE Std. 344-1987.

10 Read more

Assessment of Mitigation Measures in Preventing Bacterial Infections in Selected Public Health Centres in Akure, Ondo State

Assessment of Mitigation Measures in Preventing Bacterial Infections in Selected Public Health Centres in Akure, Ondo State

Other assessment of the equipment for hygienic purpose in the basic primary health centres showed that there was no hand washing basins in the toilets of five health centres except that of Aule whose own was in bad condition and not in use. Isolo health centre lack hand towel for hand cleaning. All the basic primary health centres however had hand sterilizer for staff after work. They all have good foot-mats at their entrance to reduce the carriage of dirty materials by shoes into the wards.

10 Read more

Assessment of carbon storage potential of trees and soil in the urban parks  A step towards climate change mitigation

Assessment of carbon storage potential of trees and soil in the urban parks A step towards climate change mitigation

Urbanization is widely presumed to degrade ecosystem services, but empirical evidence is now challenging these assumptions.Globally due to Industrial development and urban growth greenhouse gas emissions have increased considerably. ases from the atmosphere into sinks trees and soil) is one way of addressing climate change. In the wake of global efforts to address climate change, considerable interest has been generated about carbon storage tations are being considered as a mitigation option to reduce the increase in (Kraenzel et al., 2003). Soil organic carbon, being the largest terrestrial carbon pool plays a very significant role in global terrestrial ecosystem in carbon balance. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimated that the total soil carbon pool in top 1 m as 2011 Pg carbon. Trees have immense role in regulating the carbon dioxide budget in the atmosphere. However, this icular ecosystem service is poorly understood quantified although trees act as the major sink of carbon dioxide by fixing carbon during photosynthesis and storing carbon as biomass. Even the edaphic factors and soil management also influence

6 Read more

Aquaplaning assessment and mitigation in flat terrains

Aquaplaning assessment and mitigation in flat terrains

Although there are still difficulties associated with the construction of staggered roll-over superelevation development, it is simpler to lay than a diagonal crown (Oakden, 1977). The major drawback of this method is the additional development length required for full superelevation as a result of its staggered nature (Oakden, 1977). This method has been more widely used in Australia and internationally than the diagonal crown method and is generally the favoured of the two. Individual circumstances will however determine the most appropriate alternative. It is important to reassess the theoretical flow depth for a staggered roll-over development with the design rainfall event as although this method is likely to produce reduced water film thicknesses, it is possible that these depths will not be within the acceptable limits. Design guidelines in the United Kingdom have noted that this method of aquaplaning mitigation has the benefit of limiting traffic disruption as works can be conducted lane by lane. It is then stated however, that the complexity of construction will generally make their use “…undesirable unless all other options have been rejected.”

127 Read more

Conceptualising the technical relationship of animal disease surveillance to intervention and mitigation as a basis for economic analysis

Conceptualising the technical relationship of animal disease surveillance to intervention and mitigation as a basis for economic analysis

Economic analysis of a national mitigation programme will need to take into account the costs and benefits of all essential components of the system. For example, an economic assessment of HPAI H5N1 mitigation in Viet- nam would need to incorporate valuation of all eco- nomic consequences at national level due to the benefit losses from disease and the costs of its mitigation. These include the effects of morbidity and mortality in the human population, on-farm production losses due to mortality or culling of poultry, implications of move- ment restrictions for trade, consumption and resource use, and the financial costs of all surveillance and inter- vention activities (e.g. wage and salary payments, costs of test kits, sanitary measures, protective clothing, and vaccines). Upstream and downstream effects on busi- nesses, for example breeders and slaughterhouses, as well as spill-over impacts on other sectors such as tour- ism also should be evaluated. Problems of food security in the short term would also have to be considered in a resource-poor economy with a large agricultural sector. The benefits would accrue from the avoidance of the negative economic consequences of loss of output and capacity to produce, the personal and wider social and economic implications of human illness or premature death, the risk from replication of such effects by the spread of infection to other countries, and the attendant resource expenditures made in the attempt to constrain these sources of lost well-being. For a national or inter- national programme aimed at mitigating several differ- ent pathogens at once, identical principles apply.

10 Read more

Conceptualising the technical relationship of animal disease surveillance to intervention and mitigation as a basis for economic analysis

Conceptualising the technical relationship of animal disease surveillance to intervention and mitigation as a basis for economic analysis

Economic analysis of a national mitigation programme will need to take into account the costs and benefits of all essential components of the system. For example, an economic assessment of HPAI H5N1 mitigation in Viet- nam would need to incorporate valuation of all eco- nomic consequences at national level due to the benefit losses from disease and the costs of its mitigation. These include the effects of morbidity and mortality in the human population, on-farm production losses due to mortality or culling of poultry, implications of move- ment restrictions for trade, consumption and resource use, and the financial costs of all surveillance and inter- vention activities (e.g. wage and salary payments, costs of test kits, sanitary measures, protective clothing, and vaccines). Upstream and downstream effects on busi- nesses, for example breeders and slaughterhouses, as well as spill-over impacts on other sectors such as tour- ism also should be evaluated. Problems of food security in the short term would also have to be considered in a resource-poor economy with a large agricultural sector. The benefits would accrue from the avoidance of the negative economic consequences of loss of output and capacity to produce, the personal and wider social and economic implications of human illness or premature death, the risk from replication of such effects by the spread of infection to other countries, and the attendant resource expenditures made in the attempt to constrain these sources of lost well-being. For a national or inter- national programme aimed at mitigating several differ- ent pathogens at once, identical principles apply.

10 Read more

RESEARCH ON RISK MANAGEMENT OF A GY OFFICE PROJECT IN UAE

RESEARCH ON RISK MANAGEMENT OF A GY OFFICE PROJECT IN UAE

2. After determining the various risk factors in the construction phase of the GY office building project, establish a risk assessment index system. And using the AHP method to determine the weight of the five first-level indicators and 14 second-level indicators. The weight of each indicator can well reflect its importance to the risk status, and each indicator passed the consistency test can be in good agreement with the actual situation. After the criterion level is multiplied with the weight of the indicator level to obtain the second-level weight, the risk level of the indicator layer relative to the target level is determined, and the size of the risk value of each indicator is calculated. Finally, it can be concluded that the indicators with higher risks in the project construction process are: safety risks, quality risks, and design program change risks. 3. Through the above analysis, we can see that GY office building projects still have certain risks, that is, risk management is still not perfect. In the face of the absence of risk management, this paper scrutinizes risk response strategies based on risk identification and risk assessment. Strategies include risk aversion, risk mitigation, risk transfer, and risk retention. At the same time, detailed advice on risk management organizations and risk management systems is removed.

10 Read more

Dynamic Verifier Core: A Practical Solution to Mitigate the Risks of Software Risk Management Process

Dynamic Verifier Core: A Practical Solution to Mitigate the Risks of Software Risk Management Process

By considering the aforementioned issues, at the end of each phase of risk process like risk identification, measurement, assessment, and mitigation, the related experts should be the review committee key members. Involving independent experts who are neither the direct stakeholders of this project, nor have personal interest or prejudice in this projects activities is recommended. Although, this committee can make decisions, it is suggested that project manager and risk manager have permanent plenipotentiary representatives in the committee. The last advice is that the number of committee members should be odd to avoid getting into deadlocks in decision making process and voting. Figures 2 and 3 show the structure of DVC for different phases of software risk management. The word “Dynamic” in the core indicates the flexibility of the structure of the committee. Figure 2 includes risk identification, risk measurement and risk assessment phases of software risk management. These three steps are called analysis and assessment phases. While figure 3 presents risk mitigation and contingency plan phase (See Fig. 2 & 3).

5 Read more

LITERATURE REVIEW BASED ON RISK MANAGEMENT IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

LITERATURE REVIEW BASED ON RISK MANAGEMENT IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

Risk management constitutes identification,assessment and setting preference for risk mitigation. This may include a synchronized and cost effective way of using material and resources in order to minimize the hazards that may arise along with monitoring and controlling the unfortunate event that may occurs .Risk can happen due to uncertainty in financial market, accident, failure in the project, natural factors, legal issues, risk associated with credit etc. In the construction industry, risk is often referred by as the presence of potential or actual threats or opportunities that influence the objectives of project during construction, commissioning. or at the time of use. Risk is also defined as the exposure to the chances occurrences of event adversely or favourably project.

5 Read more

Review of the Research on Debris Flows in Taiwan during Past Thirty Years Huang Li-Jeng

Review of the Research on Debris Flows in Taiwan during Past Thirty Years Huang Li-Jeng

XI. C ASE S TUDIES O F D EBRIS -F LOWS H AZARDS Case studies of debris-flow hazards are sorrowful but valuable works for the researchers. Collecting in-site data for future study and disaster mitigation make researchers understand more on the occurrence, initiation, stoppage, deposition of the debris-flow and can conduct more study on prediction and assessment (Huang and Chiang, 1991). Taiwan is prone to occurrence of debris flow so that many case studies have been conducted: Feng-Chiu (Yu and Chen, 1987); Tung-Men (Yu, 1990); Chi-Nan Ravine (Chang, 1995); Hsu-Mei-Chi Creek (Huang, 1997, 1998); Central Taiwan (Chen, et al., 2004); Taipei City (Yu et al., 2006); Chai-Yi Feng-Shan watershed (Lien, et al. 2008).

10 Read more

Fostering Climate Resilience in Cities: An analysis of adaptive policy strategies to mitigate urban flooding by utilizing multifunctional systems

Fostering Climate Resilience in Cities: An analysis of adaptive policy strategies to mitigate urban flooding by utilizing multifunctional systems

For the effective implementation of an adaptive flood mitigation policy, urban water managers need to interact with varied target groups such as building planners. This will need recognition of and cooperation with sectors previously ignored. The city planners may need to use hydrological, geographical and meteorological data to formulate and implement adaptive policy. Thus simultaneously increasing aesthetic and economical values of a city’s commercial and residential areas (Niemczynowicz, 1999). This cooperation can be achieved if actors with varied characteristics interact in a process to formulate policy (Bressers and Klok, 1988; Bressers, 2004). A theory that explains the interaction process between actors is the Contextual Interaction Theory (CIT) (Bressers, 2009). The theory gives actor core characteristics as motivation, cognitions (information) and resources (power). These characteristics influence each other and are also influenced by external circumstances. This lends to the complexity of the interaction making the theory able to realistically predict result of relations between the core variables (motivation, cognitions and resources) and dependent variables (such as the governance context) in the actor interaction process (Mayntz, 1983; Bressers, 2004). This relationship is illustrated in figure 7. The assessment of flood management policy in the case-study cities is based on the interaction between actors using predictive models put forward by CIT. The predictive implementation models give an indication of ‘what works, where, when and how’ (Bressers, 2004 pp. 284).

117 Read more

Improving collaborative knowledge production for climate change mitigation: lessons from EU Horizon 2020 experiences

Improving collaborative knowledge production for climate change mitigation: lessons from EU Horizon 2020 experiences

Scientific knowledge is key to climate mitigation governance. However, effective exchange between science and policy is challenging. Science-policy theory suggests collaboration, stakeholder participation and iterative communication as key principles for improving the science-policy interface. The Horizon 2020 project “ Coordination and Assessment of Research and Innovation in Support of climate Mitigation Actions ” (CARISMA) attempted to implement these principles. To help other projects learn from CARISMA ’ s experiences, this Guideline article critically discusses how the CARISMA project fared. CARISMA ’ s activities included stakeholder engagement through feedback loops, interviews with Advisory Board members, and an information platform. Experiences were discussed in a workshop with science-policy practitioners. Theory and workshop participants ’ insights led to the identification of seven practical directions towards a more effective exchange between science and policy, aimed at policymakers, funding agencies and researchers: 1) Know the researcher ’ s role; 2) Work with policy dynamics; 3) Use alternative communication means; 4) Allow for flexibility in projects ’ deliverables and milestones; 5) Be realistic about the possibility of stakeholder engagement; 6) Adjust funding criteria; 7) Invest in stable knowledge infrastructures.

8 Read more

Enhancing capacities for disaster mitigation and reconstruction in the built environment: a case study
from Sri Lanka

Enhancing capacities for disaster mitigation and reconstruction in the built environment: a case study from Sri Lanka

and other facilities to reduce their susceptibilities (Nateghi-A, 2000). However, as Nateghi-A (2000) emphasises, building codes, land use policies or design standards are, unlikely to result in more resilient built environment unless the professionals in the built environment who have to implement the codes, standards and policies accept their importance and endorse its use, understand the code and the design criteria required of them and unless the code is fully enforced by authorities checking and penalising designs that do not comply. This highlights the importance of availability of proper human resources in the built environment for disaster mitigation and reconstruction. In this context, education and training are vital in developing necessary human resources. Bosher et al. (2007a) state that risk and hazard training should be systematically integrated into the professional training and professional development of architects, planners, engineers, developers, etc. and it is important to encourage cross disciplinary training for construction professionals and emergency managers (Bosher et al., 2007a). In particular, the following list demonstrates the property and construction skills that can contribute towards disaster mitigation and reconstruction in the built environment (Lloyd-Jones, 2006).

13 Read more

Bat Mitigation Guidelines for Ireland

Bat Mitigation Guidelines for Ireland

For consultants: In order to successfully resolve most bat issues, consultants should have a sound knowledge of, and experience with, the species. A thorough grounding in bat ecology can be crucial to good survey and mitigation planning. Although a derogation licence to disturb bats for scientific purposes is not essential for every type of survey, it is strongly recommended that consultants possess such a licence so they do not need to withdraw if bats are found at a site. Consultants are expected to apply population ecology principles so that the local circumstances relating to a particular development proposal can be interpreted using these generic guidelines. The outline mitigation plan structure (see 10. Presenting mitigation plans) should be used where appropriate. It is expected that consultants will provide advice to clients, and information to the National Parks and Wildlife Service, planners and others, in an impartial and accurate manner. Should cases come to light where consultants appear to have wilfully or negligently misrepresented a situation or site details, the NPWS will consider bringing its concerns to the attention of the relevant client and, if applicable, the professional body. The Irish Government has emphasised its obligations under international wildlife legislation by making it an offence under Section 69 of the Wildlife Act 1976 (& amendment 2000) to knowingly or recklessly make false statements for the purpose of obtaining a licence, whether for oneself or for another.

93 Read more

Non-Destructive Determination of Magnetic Audio Tape Degradation for Various Tape Chemistries Using Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

Non-Destructive Determination of Magnetic Audio Tape Degradation for Various Tape Chemistries Using Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

Notably, of the 13 people who died during Hurricane Hugo, five died while attempting to bring their boats inland (Bourque et al., 2006). Protecting boats is a serious concern during tropical cyclone events for boat owners, marina operators and crew, and insurance companies. For safety reasons, timing is critical following the issuance of a Hurricane Watch, as boats need to be either evacuated or heavily secured in time for the boat owners and marina crew to fortify their homes and evacuate themselves and their families (NOAA, 2002). While the hurricane evacuation literature is very comprehensive – covering topics such as evacuation logistics, evacuation timing, a household’s actual behavior compared to their predicted behavior given a hypothetical hurricane scenario, and the physical and social variables that affect a household’s probability of evacuating, the research addressing boat and marina mitigation practices is extremely limited. In particular, the literature has not examined the physical and social variables that affect an owner’s decision to take actions to mitigate their boat rather than abandoning it with the hope that their insurance will cover the losses. The research also does not address how boat and marina mitigation affects the ability of owners and marina crew to evacuate effectively. The purpose of this study is to fill the gap in the hurricane evacuation

109 Read more

Alternative scheme of inclusion of international aviation in EU ETS and Chinese strategy

Alternative scheme of inclusion of international aviation in EU ETS and Chinese strategy

For the three options of MBMs, many details were yet unclear: a) how to resolve the application of CBDR? Having references inserted considering the principle of CBDR in MBMs can be viewed as a success for the BRICs 3 , however it raises the new issue of confliction between the principle of CBDR and the principle of non-discrimination and equal and fair opportunities (Lyle, 2013). b) if offsetting options are to be implemented, what will be chosen as the standard for offsetting scheme? Certified Emissions Reduction credits (CERs) from the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), European Union Allowances (EUAs) of the EU ETS, Emissions Reduction Units (ERUs) of the Joint Implementation mechanism (JI), Voluntary Emissions Reduction credits (VERs), or other standards? If global emission trading is to be implemented, how can a cap be determined? Fixed or adjusted? c) various programs will eventually be implemented in the control right of the "aviation carbon emissions", then who is responsible for these programs? How to manage these programs? d) is the revenue generated from emissions allowance to be paid to a third party or ICAO to manage? e) how will it be guaranteed ensure that the revenue raised will be invested in environmental protection or will provide assistance to developing States for mitigation of GHG emissions from international aviation? f) How to balance the use of revenue in countries around the world to ensure fairness? h) How to balance the interests of all parties if a single, meaningful global agreement on MBMs to be achieved?

13 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...