To study the dynamics of sperm motility param- eters, sperm of 4 spermiating males (total length 198–214 mm, body weight 89–117 g) with initial motility higher than > 80% were used. In the case of monthly variations of semen characteristics, twelve spermiating males of P. fluviatilis with total length ranging between 14 and 19 mm and weight of 49 to 83 g were randomly selected from a pond at the be- ginning of November and then transferred and kept in a tank in indoor conditions. These individuals were electronically tagged for use in this study. The tank of broodfish received a water flow of 10 l per min, and environmental conditions were controlled at: water temperature 21.5 ± 0.5°C, oxygen 6.8 ± 0.3 mg O 2 /l and pH 6.8 ± 0.3. Semen was collected 4 times (29 th November 2005, 10 th January 2006,
Abstract: Soil erosion is a global problem that tends to become more extreme on the background of climate change. Rainfall is one the main drivers of soil erosion. One of the best indicators of the potential erosion risks is the rainfall-runoff erosivity factor (R) of the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE). Shida Kartli is one of the main agrarian regions in the country and research on soil erosion has the great importance. The purpose of this study is to assess monthly variations of rainfall erosivity in Shida Kartli region from the RUSLE R-factor, based on the best available datasets. The rainfall erosivity index for a rainfall event, EI 30 , is calculated from the total kinetic energy and maximum 30 min intensity of individual events. However,
Abstract Vertical profiles of physical (temperature and salinity) and chemical (ammonium, phosphate and silicate) properties were monthly obtained in seven oceanographic stations located in Santos Bay and in Santos channel, as part of a project which aims to determine the influence of the Santos estuarine system on the adjacent continental shelf. The fieldwork was carried out during the spring tides, from November/2004 until December/2005. Hydrographic measurements were made by a CTD and data were interpolated at 0.5 m depth intervals. Hydrographic structure was analyzed by the vertical profiles and T-S Diagram. Nutrients were sampled at surface, midwater and close to the bottom. The time-space variation of the average values obtained at each station was analyzed based on the hydrographic data. The channel waters represented an important source of nutrients to the bay. Whatever the hydrographic structure, these inputs occurs through the channel plume along the whole year, enhanced by rainfall events.
The aim of this study was to investigate metabolic adaptation to monthly variations in sea bream reared in Mediterranean off-shore tanks. For this purpose, each month (from October 2010 until June 2011), on 25 Sparus aurata always randomly captured by the same batches in Sicilian farm, fork length, body weight and visceral weight were measured and blood samples were collected. Using biometric data condition factor, viscero-somatic index were calculated and on blood samples biochemical profile was assessed. The application of one way ANOVA showed a significant effect of seasons on all biometric and biochemical parameters studied (P<0.0001). Seasonality do not compromise the welfare status of sea bream that have a good acclimation capacity to environmental variations. Our results could represent a further support to better understand the effect of seasonality on the growth and metabolic profile in fish. Such information could be important in aquaculture in order to optimize husbandry practices carrying out them when physiological status of fish is seasonally less efficient.
High nitrate levels can have significant negative health consequences . The WHO guidelines indicate a maximum nitrate level of 50 mgL -1 for drinking water; however while the authorities in Jordan recognize a per- missible target level of 50 mgL -1 , the national standards allow for a concentration of up to 70 mgL -1 , . The maximum and minimum nitrate levels for the 11 wells in the Amman, Zarqa and Balqa regions investigated ranged from <0.16 mgL -1 to 75.88 mgL -1 , respectively. The re- sults of the investigation into the 11 wells found that only two of the wells (AL3505, AL3506) did not have year round dangerous nitrate levels making the water fit for consumption in WHO terms, with one other well (AL1318) being safe for only one month. However, the Jordan maximum permissible level for nitrate was only exceeded significantly in areas of irrigation (AL1254). Notwith- standing, the urban areas also contain significantly high levels of nitrates in the immediate wells. Figure 5 illu- strates the nitrate level on a monthly basis for each of the wells investigated. The results indicate that there was a
10 Read more
Samples were collected monthly from Five different sampling stations namely A, B, C, D, and E for one year (June 2011 to May 2012). The samples were collected at 11 am -1pm during second week of each month. Under qualitative analysis of planktonic communities the identification was done; as for as possible to species level. Sample was collected for planktonic population net in each month. Microphotography, camera Lucida diagrams etc. were the main tools for this taxonomy study of the planktonic species.
To study the physico-chemical parameters of Keenjhar lake, regular trips were made on a monthly basis. Sample collection was made during 5 am to 10 am. Samples were examined and fixed at the spot. Temperature of air and water and pH were recorded on the spot. For dissolved oxygen Winkler’s method was used (Welch 1948). Salinity of the water was estimated by Mohar’s method. Total alkalinity was analyzed according to APHA (1998) method. Acidity, sulphate, phosphate, and nitrate were estimated by using Hanna Kit HI.3820, Hi-38000, Hi-3833 and Hi-3874 respectively. Mean and Standard Deviations were taken out for physico-chemical factors. ANOVA was performed to find out the significance of these parameters.
Abstract: An ecological study was conducted on species composition, vertical distribution and monthly variations of marine macro algae along the Visakhapatnam coast, Bay of Bengal, India between May 2013 and April 2014. A total of 48 species was recorded, 18 species belonging to phylum Chlorophyta, nine species to Phaeophyta and 21 species to Rhodophyta. The phylum Rhodophyta was the most dominant group with the highest number of species composition (44.0%) followed by Chlorophyta (37.0%) and Phaeophyta (19.0%). Monthly seaweed distribution data showed the dominance of Rhodophyta members (43.75%) during November to February, when compared to that of Chlorophyta and Phaeophyta members. In addition, the data also revealed that the months from June to August contributed favourable conditions for the growth of Chlorophyta members (29.16%) when compared to that of other months. The present study has recorded two new species (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis). Thirty-five species once recorded are absent from the Visakhapatnam coast. These changes are attributed to the impact of marine water pollution and climate change.
12 Read more
Ikipi and Okey (2010), estimated the sex ratio of African Carp, Labeocoubie, Cross River, Nigeria.The sex ratio of the fish showed highly significant monthly variations from the expected male: female ratio. The pooled observations for the overall sex ratio also varied significantly from the expected ratio P>0.001. A total of 123 males and 205 females were observed. Within the months, males were dominant only in September (1:0.67) and November (1:0.83).Montchowuiet.al., (2010) reported in the fish Labeosenegalensisthe sex ratio (1:0.96) was not significantly different from unity.
DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104562 7 Open Access Library Journal 50 - 75 m depth salinity (0.48), however salinity over upper layer above 50 m re- vealing lower correlation (0.34 with 0 m, 0.32 with 10 m, 0.42 with 20 m depth) with SST. This relation between SST and salinity reveals when higher SST, salin- ity increase leading to higher density. The higher density water moves to lower layers, so that stratification of sea water. As it is mentioned in the previous sec- tions, salinity variations are seasonal; the annual variations may be normalizing the variations. Seasonal relation between SST and salinity at different depths are given in Table 1. There is a clear relation during winter and autumn, which are indicating higher correlation. In the winter season, except at 10 m depth, the correlation coefficients are more than 0.5, which clearly indicates that increase in salinity during the winter, as the SST decreases. When there is a cold wind pass- ing through the ocean, the temperatures will decrease and begin to condensa- tion, which leads to increase in salinity. In the spring, SST doesn’t have a signifi- cant relation with salinity. However, SST and Salinity at different depths the correlation coefficients becoming higher with increase in depth. In the summer season, the air temperatures will be higher which increases SST. However there is no significant relation found in summer. Salinity at the depth of 50m has rela- tion with SST. This indicates when higher temperatures increased the salinity, higher density waters are moving down to become stratification of water with respect to density.
11 Read more
The present study concerns monthly variations of phytoplankton species composition, population density, species diversity during September 2012 to March 2013 in Ukkadam, Kuruchi and The total of 20 (Ukkadam Lake), 34 (Kuruchi Lake) and 26 genera (Siganallur Lake) were identified under phytoplankton diversity in studied three ecies composition of Chlorophyceae (15 species), Bacillariophyceae (12 species) and Euglenophyceae (6 species) were recorded at Kuruchi Lake. When compared genera wise, Euglenophyceae group were rarely found in both Ukkadam Lake and the study period, it was indicated that these lakes were polluted by organic components. The present baseline information of the phytoplankton distribution and abundance would form a useful tool for further ecological assessment and monitoring of these lakes of
In the solar energy potential assessment at the Sahelian band, only a few stu- dies have been really conducted. We can cite the study conducted by B. Ould Bi- lal et al. (2007) on the study and modeling of the solar potential of the Nouak- chott and Dakar sites. The results that authors obtained show that, at each site, the solar radiation measured and calculated has the same allure. A comparative study conducted by the authors has led a fairly good correspondence between the solar radiation of Dakar and Nouakchott. The evaluation of available solar energy shows that the worst months are December for Nouakchott and February for Dakar, with respective irradiations of 4.9 kWh/m² and 4.37 kW/m² . The second study to emphasize is that of M. Dankassoua et al. (2017) where the au- thors studied the global solar radiation in Niamey from the pre-monsoon and the monsoon period of the year 2013 (May to October). In this study, it appears from the analysis of the results a good correlation between the measured results of global solar radiation and these’s calculated with the models. It also implies that Niamey area has a good insolation . The last study is for Abdoulatif Bonkaney et al. (2017). In this paper, authors studied the impacts of cloud cover and dust on the performance of photovoltaic module in Niamey. Results show that dust accumulation has a great effect on decreasing the daily energy yield of the unclean module . But this effect is a long-term effect. For the cloud cover, the effect is immediate. All of these studies show that the Sahelian band has good potential, but all of these studies are done over a very short period. This does not confirm the reliability of the results obtained and also know the contours of their daily, monthly, annual and seasonal variations.
18 Read more
2003-2007, the P. falciparum prevalence decreased dra- matically from 78.4% to 24.0% in the lowland commu- nity, and from 24.7% to 6.5% in the highland community, respectively. Likewise, the incidence of feb- rile malaria episodes in the two communities decreased by almost 85% during the same period. Temporal changes in mosquito vector densities were not assessed by the authors and specific reasons for the observed decline in P. falciparum infections and related morbidity could not be identified. When considering the proximity to the communities included in the present study, the results suggest that it is likely that the decline in malaria infection and disease burden in those communities could have been a result of a decline in the Anopheline population of perhaps a similar magnitude as observed in the present study. If this assumption is correct, the findings suggest that at least in some areas in Africa, the decline in prevalence of human P. falciparum infections and malaria-related disease is driven by a natural decline in the occurrence of mosquito vectors. In tropical Africa, where mosquito abundance often follows the rainy season, precipitation can be regarded as the pri- mary climatic determinant for variation in Anopheline population size. However, the results suggest that this linkage to rainfall may be related in a complex fashion to the patterns of rainfall experienced in a location as well as the population dynamics and breeding habits of the vector species in question. Thus, while declines in An. gambiae numbers in Masaika were related to a declining trend in mean monthly rainfall, variations in none of the Kirare mosquito populations appeared to be related to changes in mean monthly rainfall. The pre- sent analysis has highlighted that one intriguing possibi- lity that may underlie the decrease in An. gambiae populations in particular may arise as an outcome of the change from a regular seasonal rainfall pattern as observed in period 1 (Masaika) to a more noisy or vari- able temporal pattern observed in Kirare. This suggests that climate change leading to the disruption of stable seasonal rainfall in a location could result in highly dynamic vector population dynamics that might increase the probability of mosquito extinction .
Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is a general biophysical parameter that correlates with photosynthetic activity of vegetation and provides an indication of the ‘greenness’ of the vegetation . It is calculated as NDVI = (CH2−CH1) / (CH2+CH1) usually, where CH1 and CH2 represent radiances from channels 1 (0.58– 0.68 mm) and 2 (0.725–1.10 mm) of the AVHRR, respectively. NDVI does not provide land cover type directly. However, a time series of NDVI values can separate different land cover types based on their phenology, or seasonal signals . Time series of continuous Earth Observation (EO) based estimates of vegetation have significantly improved our understanding of intra and inter-annual variations in vegetation from a regional to global scale . Different global coverage products based on AVHRR data have been used for numerous regional to global scale vegetation studies. For example, lots of studies analyse the AVHRR NDVI time series from regional to global scale [4-5] and changes in vegetation phenology [6-7] based on NDVI. Furthermore, long term time series analysis of AVHRR NDVI have been intercompared with other climatic variables like rainfall and air temperature to reveal geo-biophysical causes for observed changes in vegetation greenness or NPP [8-9]. Other geophysical parameters like albedo have been derived from Meteosat data  to
As a consequence of analysis, daily and monthly variations of PM10 concentration of three air quality station was interpreted. Also histogram, seasonal boxplots were plotted, seasonal distribution of the two years has been shown. Monthly and daily variations of Kagithane, seem different from other two stations. Acoording to hypothesis testing, daily PM10 concentration levels differs from each other. But Kagithane station is exactly differs from Besiktas and Sariyer stations.
13 Read more
structural variations of existing types, for example variations in substituent, especially on the side chains of the coupling components. The use of heterocyclic coupling component and diazo components inthe synthesis of azo dyes is well established, and the resultant dyes exhibit brighter hues than those derived from aniline - based components. Most of acid dyestuffs are sulphonic acid derivatives of azo dyes. The freeform acid dyes are difficult to isolate and are hydroscopic in nature making it difficult to pack and store them. Now-a-days acid dyes are invariably isolated as sodium salts. In the present study deals with the acid azo dyes based on mono azo disperse dyes of 2-amino 4-(4’-chlorophenyl) 1, 3-thiazole; which were further diazotized and coupled with naphthalene based acid derivatives and their application on nylon fabric.
10 Read more
(The part associated with) The Middle East monthly temperature data are extracted from the HadCRUT3 world surface temperatures database which contains 3780 world data files. The Middle East region is defined in this work as the geographical region enclosed within the rectangle defined by latitudes and longitudes 20-40 North, and 35-52 East. This area includes regions from the east cost of Mediterranean Sea reaching the west of Iran, southern parts of Turkey to the Gulf. The over all number of data files related to this region contained in the HadCRUT3 data base belong to 72 weather stations. These were converted to Matlab data files. However, the analysis presented in this work is based on data from 33 stations only. Stations with temperature data covering less than 50 years are not included in the analysis.
The Comparison of Figures 2 and 4 implies that the effective de-striping of the GRACE monthly solutions cannot be carried out using the 2DWT, as the best result of the wavelet-based de-striping of GRACE maps is very similar to those of applying the Gaussian filter with radius of 100km, in which the striping errors are not completely removed. The lower inefficiency of the wavelet-based method may be associated with: a) the possible number of transformation levels or b) the effect of the strips on the 2DWT components other than the vertical details at each level. According to Figure (1) and the number of possible levels for wavelet transform which is affected by the resolution of the GRACE level-2 data, the first factor is not relevant to the above mentioned inefficiency and it seems that the second factor is the reason for the failure of the wavelet transform in this particular case.
An effective medicines quantification process seeks to ensure the availability of the right medicines in the right quantities, at reasonable prices, and at recognized standards of quality. This prospective study was carried out for a period of one year, from January 2013 to January 2014 to evaluate various medicines quantification practices prevalent at various public health facilities of District Srinagar, the summer capital of J&K state. One super speciality children’s tertiary care hospital, one Govt. Medical College Hospital, one District Hospital , one Sub District Hospital and one Primary Health Centre were selected for the study. A set of 27 qualitative and 05 quantitative indicators were developed, validated and used to study the availability of quantification data for forecasting needs, various quantification procedures/methods adopted and financial transactions involved in drug quantification practices. Indicator based assessment showed that, Average monthly consumption, distribution data, seasonal variations, stock in hand and purchase orders were used for assessment of quantification and forecasting of drug needs at study health facilities. Only Children’s Hospital was found to have records for actual drug needs, however, current medicine usage records including daily patient visits and monthly work done reports were found to be available and accurate at every health facility surveyed. Average monthly consumption was used as a standard method for quantification in all facilities where as maximum and minimum stock levels were not defined including delayed payments resulting into frequent stock outs except at Children’s Hospital. Quantitative assessment found the actual lead time of 30 days at Medical College Hospital followed by 25 days at District Hospital and 15 Days at Children’s Hospital .
The variations of surface-air temperature and precipitation are of vital social and economic importance (Watson et al., 2001). However, there is uncertainty in the question how cli- matic systems evolve. One of the ways to solve this problem is a study of the interconnections between above-listed pa- rameters and numerous teleconnection indices, which were revealed by many researchers in different times (Bell and Halpert, 1995). From studies (Barnston and Livizey, 1987; King et al., 1998; Thompson and Wallace, 2000) we know that the different teleconnection indices can reflect the ma- jor part of multi-scale variability of the atmospheric dynam- ics. After that, many investigators showed that variations in the teleconnection indices involve surface air temperature and precipitation (Thompson et al., 2000; Cavazos, 2000; Rodriguez-Puebla et al., 2001).
11 Read more