In an early study, Miles (1952) noted that the pre- development groundwater levels along the mountain front of the AP basin were reflective of unconfined conditions, and that the subsurface materials in this zone were favourable to stream infiltration. In addition, Miles (1952) already anal- ysed the groundwater salinity distribution. He observed that salinity contours were forming fan-shaped zones of low- salinity “mushrooming” outwards from streams, with such patterns being visible up to more than 100 m below the ground surface. He concluded that stream infiltration in the mountain-front zone was a major recharge mechanism for the basin aquifers. Later, in a study of the NAP aquifers, Shep- herd (1975) arrived at the same conclusion, partly using sim- ilar arguments and further noting that (i) groundwater hydro- graphs in the Quaternary aquifers were each year showing a rapid rise in water level shortly after Gawler River and Lit- tle Para River started to flow, and (ii) the vertical head gradi- ent and vertical hydraulic conductivity were indicative of sig- nificant downward flow from the Quaternary to the Tertiary aquifers. Additionally, a number of studies directly measured groundwater gains and losses using differential flow-gauging along streams entering the AP basin (Hutton, 1977; Green et al., 2010; Cranswick and Cook, 2015). All found that sev- eral streams were losing a significant amount of water in the mountain-front zone. Finally, Zulfic et al. (2010) found that bore yield based on air-lift testing conducted at the time of drilling (e.g. Williams et al., 2004) in the Mount Lofty Ranges did not increase beyond 100 m depth for most geol- ogy types. This finding can be interpreted as showing that hydraulic conductivity is relatively low beyond that depth. This would promote local groundwater flow systems in the mountain instead of deep flow towards the basin, in line with the current analysis.
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Abstract. The Mountain Front Flexure marks a dominant to- pographic step in the frontal part of the Zagros Fold–Thrust Belt. It is characterized by numerous active anticlines atop of a basement fault. So far, little is known about the relative activity of the anticlines, about their evolution, or about how crustal deformation migrates over time. We assessed the rela- tive landscape maturity of three along-strike anticlines (from SE to NW: Harir, Perat, and Akre) located on the hanging wall of the Mountain Front Flexure in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq to identify the most active structures and to gain in- sights into the evolution of the fold–thrust belt. Landscape maturity was evaluated using geomorphic indices such as hypsometric curves, hypsometric integral, surface roughness, and surface index. Subsequently, numerical landscape evo- lution models were run to estimate the relative time differ- ence between the onset of growth of the anticlines, using the present-day topography of the Harir Anticline as a base model. A stream power equation was used to introduce flu- vial erosion, and a hillslope diffusion equation was applied to account for colluvial sediment transport. For different time steps of model evolution, we calculated the geomorphic in- dices generated from the base model. While Akre Anticline shows deeply incised valleys and advanced erosion, Harir and Perat anticlines have relatively smoother surfaces and are supposedly younger than the Akre Anticline. The landscape maturity level decreases from NW to SE. A comparison of the geomorphic indices of the model output to those of the present-day topography of Perat and Akre anticlines revealed that it would take the Harir Anticline about 80–100 and 160– 200 kyr to reach the maturity level of the Perat and Akre an- ticlines, respectively, assuming erosion under constant con-
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A recent assessment that quantified potential impacts of solar energy development on water re- sources in the southwestern United States necessitated the development of a methodology to iden- tify locations of mountain front recharge (MFR) in order to guide land development decisions. A spatially explicit, slope-based algorithm was created to delineate MFR zones in 17 arid, moun- tainous watersheds using elevation and land cover data. Slopes were calculated from elevation data and grouped into 100 classes using iterative self-organizing classification. Candidate MFR zones were identified based on slope classes that were consistent with MFR. Land cover types that were inconsistent with groundwater recharge were excluded from the candidate areas to deter- mine the final MFR zones. No MFR reference maps exist for comparison with the study’s results, so the reliability of the resulting MFR zone maps was evaluated qualitatively using slope, surficial ge- ology, soil, and land cover datasets. MFR zones ranged from 74 km 2 to 1547 km 2 and accounted for
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In the area, by using GIS and remote sensing data (DEM and imagery), these indices can be used as a reconnaissance tool to notice the geomorphic anomalies that are related to tectonic activity. Where relatively little work on active tecton- ics based on absolute dating is available, (e.g. when there as limitation in field investigation such as Military Areas (some part of eat Tehran) or high mountain range to climb (some part of north Tehran)), this method becomes extremely valuable. In this research, three significant morphometric indices were analyzed: drainage basin asymmetry (Af), drainage basin shape (Bs) and mountain front sinuosity (Smf). These indices were assigned in different tectonic classes based upon the range of values of individual geomorphic indices. These classes are then summed and averaged and arbitrarily divided into an index of relative ac- tive tectonics (IRAT) over the entire study area. For evaluation of Drainage Ba- sin Asymmetry factor and Drainage Basin Shape Index, A Drainage network map was produced by using of digital elevation model (DEM) and different in- dices were analyzed in 13 sub-basins. The Drainage Basin Asymmetry factor (AF) were changed from 2 (sub-basin 4) to 16 (sub-basin 9) and them were di- vided into three classes: Sub-basin 1, 3, 8, 9, 12 and 13 are categorized in class 1, sub-basin 2, 6, 10 and 11 in class 2 and sub-basin 4, 5 and 7 in class 3 (Figure 3). The Drainage Basin Shape Index (Bs) were changed from 1.4 (sub-basin 4) till 5.5 (sub-basin 12) and them were divided in three class: sub-basin 8, 9, 12 and 13 are categorized in class 1, sub-basin 1 and 3 in class 2 and sub-basin 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10 and 11 in class 3 (Figure 4). For Mountain Front Sinuosity (Smf) 11 area were selected (Figure 5). This factor were changed from 1.4 (Mountain front no.6, 10 and 11) till 2.6 (Mountain front no 2) and them were divided in 2 class: Mountain front no. 6, 10 and 12 categorized in class 12 and Mountain front no. 1 till 5 and 7 till 9 are classified in class 2 (Table 3 and Table 4).
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Vf and V shaped valleys with relatively low values. High values of Vf are associated with low uplift rates. Low values of Vf reflects deep valleys with streams that are actively incising commonly associated uplift. The index was developed by Bull and Mc Fadden, 1977 and Keller, 1986 and by Keller and Printe, 1999 and Reha, 1993. In the present work the Vf index were estimated for five mountain front localities (table 2) and their value range between 0.8 to 0.54 suggesting both low values, deep valleys, active incision as well as high values and broad valleys showing tectonic activity associated with low as well as actively incision associated with uplift. However, combination of two indices i.e. Smf and Vf has been used for gathering semi quantitative information of tectonic activity of the interested studied fronts (figure 6). The plot of Smf values against Vf values forms one cluster values.
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The first part of the project is an assessment of the geother- mal potential of three Upper Devonian aquifer systems within the Alberta Basin. One is the Southesk-Cairn Car- bonate Complex (SCCC), a carbonate platform that straddles the boundary between the Rocky Mountains and its fore- land basin. The western part of the complex is exposed in several thrust sheets of the Rocky Mountain Front Ranges, while the eastern part is buried deeply in the foreland basin (Fig. 1) where it hosts a series of oil and gas reservoirs in reefs that sit on top of a platform. The second is the Rimbey- Meadowbrook Reef Trend (RMRT), which is a series of reefs sitting on top of and along the western margin of another un- derlying carbonate platform, entirely located in the subsur- face of south-central Alberta and stretching for several hun- dred kilometres (Fig. 1). Most of our work is on these two aquifers. In addition, for comparison we also investigated a small part of a third Devonian aquifer, the Nisku Reef Trend in west-central Alberta.
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Underground and surface water harvesting systems in alluvial megafans were the core basis and the very important environmental control on urban growths in drylands. Flood-water harvesting and its hazard management on desert piedmonts and their alluvial fans are particularly challenging. Desert piedmonts host a variety of complex ephemeral flow networks that convey high velocity flows through steep, alluvial channels and across steep, hydraulically and morphologically complex alluvial fan systems. Piedmont is the descriptive term for a relatively broad, generally low relief area at the base of the mountain front that slopes toward the center of the basin. Piedmonts are composed mostly of alluvial sediment (gravel-sand and mud) shed from adjacent highlands by streamflows or debris flows, but they often include complex mixtures of eroded bedrock and various types of surficial geologic deposits and landforms. Alluvial fans are the most common geological and geomorphological features on desert piedmonts and are usually the focus of piedmont flood-water harvesting and flood hazard management. Alluvial fans often resemble extended fans, or conic segments when viewed on maps or aerial photographs. However, the gross planimetric geometry of fans can range from relatively ideal, or classic, fan shapes to more irregular forms bounded laterally by adjacent fans, bedrock outcrops, and relict fan surfaces, among other possibilities.
Burkh Anticline having a length of 50 km and a width of 9 km is located 40 km to the north of Bas- tak City in Internal Fars zone along folded-thrust belt of Zagros. In order to assess the active tec- tonics in the area of study, morphotectonical indices such as valley index (V), ratio of valley floor to valley height (V f ), channel sinuosity index (S), mountain front faceting index (F%) and mountain
Key site — surroundings of Gakhany settlement, northwestward from Irkutsk (Figure 1/3). According to geobotanical zoning , the vegetation at this key site, contact zone of light coniferous taiga and extrazonal steppes, is related to Irkutsk-Cheremkhovo province of pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) and larch ( Larix si- birica Ledeb.)-pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) forests of Upper Angara subtaiga-steppe (birch-pine) district. Forest vegetation consists of Central Siberian formations of pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) and larch ( Larix sibirica Ledeb.)-pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) subtaiga (submountain) forests with rhododendron ( Rhododendron dauri- cum L.), cowberry ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) and motley grasses, often steppifi- cated at the boundary with forests of Central Siberia taiga area of Lena-Angara mountain taiga province of Anga mountain-taiga dwarf birch-larch district. In this studied area, basic forests consist of pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) and larch ( La- rix sibirica Ledeb.)-pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) trees species. The studies were per- formed directly on the territory of forest transition into extrazonal steppe, for- mation of which, in turn, is due to mainly anthropogenic impact-cutting with subsequent ploughing up of large territories for cereals. This was especially typi- cal for the beginning and middle part of the 20 th century. During last decades,
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Gravity waves (GWs) have been known for many years to play major roles in the dynamics and structure of the atmosphere from the Earth ’ s surface into the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). A key role is the transport and deposition of momentum from sources at lower altitudes to regions of dissipation at higher altitudes. Momentum ﬂ ux (MF) divergence causes ﬂ ow accelerations in the direction of horizontal GW propagation, and the cumulative effects in the MLT are decelerations and even reversals of the zonal ﬂ ow in both hemispheres and an induced residual circulation from the summer to winter hemisphere near the mesopause (Fritts & Alexander, 2003; Garcia & Solomon, 1985; Holton, 1982, 1984). Orography is a major source of GW generation, and orographic GWs are a key component in parameterizations used in global circulation and climate models (Alexander et al., 2010; Kim et al., 2003). Multiple satellite observations have demonstrated GW hot spot regions in the stratosphere over major orography, suggesting the signi ﬁ cant role that mountain waves (MWs) play at these higher altitudes (Eckermann & Preusse, 1999; Gong et al., 2012; Hoffmann et al., 2013; Jiang et al., 2005; McLandress et al., 2000; Wu et al., 2006).
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The calculated geomorphic indices are suitable for assessment of tectonic activity of the study area. The seven geomorphic indices: stream-gradient index (Sl), valley floor width-valley height ratio (Vf) and mountain-front sinuosity (Smf), drainage basin asymmetry (Af), hypsometric integral (Hi), drainage basin shape (Bs) and transverse topographic symmetry factor (T) have calculated in Kashaf rud river.
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Light green areas; abundant sun, fresh air and free movements, they have positive, refreshing and beneficial effects on human health and play an active role in the formation and development of a healthy society. Compressed into geometric tructions, people gradually reduce their relations with nature and imprison them in the dirty loud and mountain areas where recreational activities and activities are held increasingly aintain their relations with nature. Plateaus and mountain tourism are very important in terms of working and resting in the gardens, walking in the light green area or playing sports, admiring the beauty of nature, providing intellectual relief, making use of "happy mountain tourism", in other words, the benefits of highland tourism can be summarized as follows:
BDG ： Ba daogou Mountain; HJG: Hao jiagou Mountain; HHG: Hou huigou Mountain; JMLC: Jie miaolinchang; PQG: Pang quangou Mountain; QLY: Qi liyu Mountain; XTS: Xing tangsi Mountain; YDS: Yunding Mountain; BJ: Beijing; MLG: Mai ligeng Mountain; BYS: Bai yunshan Mountain; LJS: Lao junshan Mountain; LJL: Lao jieling Mountain; LTG: Long tangou Mountain; TTZ: Tian tangzai Mountain; FZL: Fu ziling Mountain.; WCLC: Wochuanglingchang; TBD: Tai baiding Mountain; TBS: Tong baishan Mountain.
Shahriar plain is located between Alborz and Central Iran tectonic zones. Present condition and topographic characteristics of study area in south of Central Alborz mountain has been resulted from tectonic processes and the three main river alluvial fans during time, as illus- trated in the geological map (Figure 3). The study area is bounded between Alborz mountain and some small con- glomerate hills to north and height of different lithology to the south. Central and southern smooth parts of plain form main aquifer and originate from the filling of a tec- tonic depression with quaternary alluvial. The oldest formation in the area outcrop on the Alborz mountain and southern height and are represented by tuff, andesitic and pyroclastic rocks (Eocene) [13,14]. These rocks which has deposited during the Laramian (laramid) oro- genic phase are called Karaj Formation. In the Miocene epoch, there was a marine regression and a change to continental condition, mainly lacustrine, with the deposi- tion of high-colored marls, gypsum, conglomerate and sandstone.
The calculated geomorphic indices are suitable for assessment of tectonic activity of the study area. The geo- morphic indices such as: stream-gradient index (Sl), valley floor width-valley height ratio (Vƒ), mountain-front sinuosity (Smf), drainage basin asymmetry (Aƒ), hypsometric integral (Hi) and drainage basin shape (Bs) are calculated in Kangavararea by using of topographic data and DEM (Figure 2 and Figure 3). On the other hand, the area was divided into 24 sub-basins, and for each one, above indices were calculated, then all of the indices were combined to obtain index of active tectonics (Iat) by new method . Therefore, sub-basins can be compared
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The evolution of the vertical velocity and isentropic fields in the idealized T-REX IOP 6 mountain wave is shown in Fig. 4.18. The idealized terrain, coupled with the steady- state boundary forcing, has clearly exaggerated the non-linear response in the model, as vertical velocities by t =90 min (Fig. 4.18b) have exceeded +25 ms -1 in the lee of the Inyo range and by t = 180 min (Fig. 4.18c) fully-enclosed isentropes are seen from the surface to 14 km AGL. Time-lapse animation of this case clearly shows the development of deep rotors being shed downstream. Nevertheless, the presence of overturning and enclosed isentropes is indicative of wave-breaking in the 10 to 14 km layer in which the HIAPER was flying when it encountered such an event during the actual IOP 6. More evidence of the potential for turbulence due to wave breaking is shown in Fig. 4.19, which shows the u-component of the horizontal wind for the IOP 6 simulation. At initialization time (Fig.4.19a), jet maxima at 9.5 km AGL and 12 km AGL are apparent. Fig. 4.19b shows the development of a downslope wind in the lee of the Sierra by t = 90 min, with several regions of flow reversal in the stratosphere. The flow is reversed at over 30 ms -1 upstream (representing a difference of over 70 ms -1 from the base state flow) between 8 and 12 km AGL at t = 180 and 240 min (Fig. 19c,d). Such a wave-induced flow reversal represents a critical level which would support resonant amplification of the mountain wave (Clark and Peltier 1984).
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The Vishav drainage basin covering an area of 1060.329 square kilometers is placed in the south-eastern part of Kashmir Valley (Fig 1), positioned between 33°39'N to 33°65' N latitude and 74°35'E to75°11' E longitudes. The Vishav stream is the critical left bank tributary of the Jhelum stream having its source the basin is Kounsarnag located at an altitude of about 3,840 meters above MSL on the gentler northern side of the PirPanjal range of Kashmir Himalayas. In a Zig-zag pattern it first moves in a north direction, then take a southeasterly direction and finally flows gently in north-westerly direction till it empeties in Jhelum at Niayun, Visually. The Vishav stream stems from a glacier fed stream near the foot of Kounsarnag called Teri, which then joins the blind stream supposed to originate from Kounsarnag 2 km downstream at Mahinag, drooping steeply north-northeast to reach the main strike Valley (Raza, 1978). The study area possesses an elongated shape with diverse topography. The soils of the Vishav basin pertain to the groups of brown forest and mountain soils, Karewa and alluvial soils. The valley possesses idiosyncratic climatic character- istics because of its high altitudnal location, being surrounded on all sides by high mountain ranges.
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The calculated geomorphic indices are suitable for assessment of tectonic activity of the study area. The geo- morphic indices such as: stream-gradient index (Sl), valley floor width-valley height ratio (Vƒ), mountain-front sinuosity (Smf), drainage basin asymmetry (Aƒ), hypsometric integral (Hi) and drainage basin shape (Bs) are calculated in Boroujerd area by using of topographic data and DEM (Figure 2). On the other hand, the area was divided to four sub-basins tructural and for each one, indices were calculated, then all of the indices were com- bined to obtain index of active tectonics (Iat) by new method . Therefore, sub-basins can be compared to- gether. The study area is located between longitudes E48˚30' - 49˚ and latitudes N33˚45' - 34˚ in the Louristan province, south west Iran. Based on previous work on the salt diapirism - and neotectonics regime in Iran -, Zagros in south Iran is the most active zone -. Then, Alborz - and Central Iran - have been situated in the next orders.
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One of the main ways in which financial pressures affected families was in the quality of their living arrangements. A lack of space at home impacted on parents and children in two main ways. First, parents said that homes can become pressurised when there are too many people living in too small a place. Space was an issue for Ronald as the family’s flat was small, sparsely decorated and rather dark. The sense of being ‘shut away’ was emphasised by the fact that Ronald locked the front door even when the family was in the house, saying ‘you never know [what might happen]’ (Ronald, 27 July 2010). Ronald paid £850 per month for the two-bed flat but said he wanted to move to a three-bed house with a garden, as there is insufficient enough room to accommodate his family, which included his brother Benji, who had recently moved to the UK from Ghana. Since Benji moved in, Ronald’s son Ryan had been sleeping on a bed placed in the living room. Marco and Kate also spoke of a lack of space, saying that unnecessary or avoidable tensions arise because of the pressure that builds up because they have insuffic- ient time away from the children, as a couple and individually.
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