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Social Dimensions of Musculoskeletal Pain Experiences among the Elderly in Southwestern Nigeria

Social Dimensions of Musculoskeletal Pain Experiences among the Elderly in Southwestern Nigeria

The risk of musculoskeletal pain is affected by demographic factors such as sex, income, education, ethnic group, urban or rural living and age group [8]. Some other factors that contribute to pain may include prolonged sitting, poor postures, exposure to whole-body vibration, long driving time, heavy lifting, manual materials handling, poor diet [9] [10], obesity, and lack of physical activ- ity [11]. Musculoskeletal pain has no age-restriction, hence, children, teenagers, adults as well as pregnant women also experience pains, however, it is more in- tense among the elderly. Epidemiologically, about 21% of the population below age 60 face challenges of chronic pain globally [1] [12]. Evidence has however shown that musculoskeletal pain grows with age and about 75% of elderly people globally experience persistent pain [13].
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Clinical course and prognosis of musculoskeletal pain in patients referred for physiotherapy: does pain site matter?

Clinical course and prognosis of musculoskeletal pain in patients referred for physiotherapy: does pain site matter?

The distribution of gender, age, duration of symptoms and primary pain site diagnoses in our study, is similar to that found in a previous Danish study of patients referred to physiotherapy [5], as well as cohorts of musculoskeletal physiotherapy patients from other countries [55]. The over- all improvement on the outcomes of pain intensity, disabil- ity and sick leave (temporary health-related income support) was similar in size to those previously observed in musculoskeletal conditions such as low back pain [53] and exceeded a common threshold of clinically relevant import- ant change (i.e. > 30% improvement from baseline) [56]. However, the design of the current study does not allow any judgments to be made about the effectiveness of physiotherapy treatment, as considerable improvement in musculoskeletal pain has been observed without any treat- ment [57]. Only half of the patients rated their symptoms as acceptable at 6 months, which is in accordance with pre- vious findings in general practice - reporting pain and dis- ability to persist in up to 60% in cohorts of primary care patients with low back, shoulder, and upper extremity pain [58–60]. Thus, despite the physiotherapy treatment in our study, which almost always included active treatment strat- egies, this relatively moderate success rate suggests either that there is potential for improvement in treatment and/or that musculoskeletal pain conditions are inherently difficult to treat. Contemporary evidence would suggest that shifting from a more traditional physiotherapy pain-centred treat- ment paradigm to a more function-centred treatment ap- proach focusing on improving function, teaching patients to understand and cope with the episodic nature and fluc- tuating pattern of musculoskeletal pain, may be key ele- ments to improving the perception of a satisfactory outcome in musculoskeletal physiotherapy patients.
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Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Nonspecific Musculoskeletal Pain

Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Nonspecific Musculoskeletal Pain

This cross-sectional study included 438 patients with nonspecific musculoskeletal pain who were seen at the orthopedic surgery clinic of Shahid Mohammadi hospi- tal, affiliated with Hormozgan university of medical sci- ences in Bandar Abbas, Iran, from March to October 2014. This study was approved by ethic committee of our uni- versity. These patients did not respond to usual treatment modes such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or physiotherapy. We used “vitamin D” to refer to vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) (Figure 1). 25 hydroxy vitamin D and 1, 25 dihydroxy vitamin D in- clude vitamin D2 and D3 metabolites (19).
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Effectiveness of Acupuncture and Infrared Therapies for Reducing Musculoskeletal Pain in the Elderly

Effectiveness of Acupuncture and Infrared Therapies for Reducing Musculoskeletal Pain in the Elderly

Subjects and Method: This was an experiment study with randomized controlled trials design. The study was conducted at theelderly integrated health post Klodran, Karanganyar, Central Java, in May, 2016. A total sample of 60 elderlies was selected for this study using random sampling technique. This sample was randomized into 4 groups, each consisting of 15 study subjects: (1) acupressure; (2) acupuncture; (3) infrared; (4) acupuncture and infrared. The dependent variable was musculoskeletal pain. The independent variable was type of pain relief therapy.The data was analyzed by Kruskall Wallis Test, and post-hoc test using Mann-Whitney.
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Pain Hypersensitivity: A Bio Psychological Explanation of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain and Underpinning Theory

Pain Hypersensitivity: A Bio Psychological Explanation of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain and Underpinning Theory

The good role of pain hypersensitivity is that it helps healing after an injury by minimizing contact or movement of the injured tissue until repair is complete (an adaptive response of the healing process). On the other hand, the bad role is that it may persist after the healing process of injury or even in the absence of any injury. In this case, pain provides us with no benefits (neither protective nor healing). It is a manifestation of pathological change in the nervous system and clinically it is known as chronic pain (a disease of the nervous system itself) [2] [7]. This article discusses a mechanism based bio-psychological pain model (i.e. pain hypersensitivity/sensitization) to ex- plain chronic musculoskeletal pain.
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Mechanistic experimental pain assessment in computer users with and without chronic musculoskeletal pain

Mechanistic experimental pain assessment in computer users with and without chronic musculoskeletal pain

Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) is used to test the efficiency of descending pain control by utilizing two simultaneously applied painful stimuli (the ‘pain inhibits pain’ paradigm) [8]. CPM can be used to address the complex balance between the descending inhibition and descending facilitation on nociceptive processing. An impairment of the descending pain control has implica- tions along the entire neuroaxis and can cause widespread hyperalgesia. In recent years the role of descending pain control has been studied intensely as it may be an import- ant factor for the transition from acute to chronic pain [9]. The efficiency of CPM is reduced in many different chronic pain conditions including chronic musculoskeletal pain where widespread hyperalgesia is detected [10]. To document the existence of widespread muscle hyperalgesia pressure pain threshold mapping (PPT mapping) has been used to describe mechanical pain sensitivity in large body areas covering a muscle or several muscles [11,12]. Like- wise, dynamic pressure algometry has recently been devel- oped as a technique to assess muscle hyperalgesia where the dynamic aspects are included in the evaluation as a roller with a pre-defined pressure applied across or along a muscle structure [13]. Quantitative sensory
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Risk Factors of Musculoskeletal Pain in Brazilian Dental Students

Risk Factors of Musculoskeletal Pain in Brazilian Dental Students

Musculoskeletal pain is commonly reported in dentists and can start from their training period and continue throughout their practice if preventive or corrective measures are not implemented. To evaluate the perception of dental students in relation to the risk factors that may contribute to the musculoskeletal pain, and verify how the existence of painful symptoms influences the perception of risk factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 241 dental students at public university of São Paulo, Brazil in 2016. The data were collected through interviews, using the Standardized Nordic Questionnaire for Musculoskeletal Symptom and the Work-Related Activities that May Contribute to Job-Related Pain Questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 21.0. Painful symptoms were observed in 199 participants (83.0%). Most students had their perception classified as minimal to moderate (86.3%). A statistically significant association (P=0.005) was found when the test of association between the perception of risk factors and the presence of painful symptoms was performed. The highest averages were found in the issues related to repetition of movement, followed by work-related factors and finally the risks to external factors. There are statistically significant differences in the average perception when comparing the group with and without pain for each question of the instrument when comparing the body areas. Undergraduate students are aware of the factors that contribute to health issues and development of musculoskeletal pain, and in particular, there is a greater perception among those who may have had any symptoms.
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Psychiatric Symptoms in Preadolescents With Musculoskeletal Pain and Fibromyalgia

Psychiatric Symptoms in Preadolescents With Musculoskeletal Pain and Fibromyalgia

Pick-up Procedure of Children With Musculoskeletal Pain The study took place in Lahti, a town in southern Finland with 94 827 inhabitants (1995). All 21 primary schools were asked to take part in the study, but 2 schools refused. The Steiner school, the hospital school, and the schools for the hearing disabled, physically disabled, and the mentally handicapped were excluded because the methods used in this study were not suitable. All pupils from the third and fifth grades completed a pain question- naire, except those who were not at school on the day of the study. 30

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Functional resonance magnetic imaging (fMRI) in adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain: a paradigm of experimental pain

Functional resonance magnetic imaging (fMRI) in adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain: a paradigm of experimental pain

In an attempt to expand the research about the brain mechanisms of pain processing in recent years, studies have been conducted with the aid of refined neuroimag- ing techniques and paradigms of experimental pain in patients with musculoskeletal pain syndromes, such as fibromyalgia and complex regional pain [11, 16, 19–26]. These studies, performed using functional magnetic res- onance imaging (fMRI), demonstrated that adult patients with fibromyalgia (FM), a subclassification of IMP syn- dromes, tolerate a smaller amount of pressure (pain) and showed differences in brain activation patterns in cortical and subcortical areas related to pain, especially in the cortex of the cingulate, insula, S1 and S2, as well as brain volume changes, when compared to healthy controls, i.e. without complaints of chronic pain [11, 27, 28]. Studies with fMRI in adults that evaluated the aging effect on the brain showed changes in the pattern of gray and white matter in accordance with the age of patients with fibromyalgia, as well as a strong correlation between smaller amount of gray and white matter with greater sen- sitivity to pain [21]. Lebel et al. suggest that changes resulting from chronic pain occurring at a time of intense development and neuroplasticity may modify the pain
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<p>How does reduction in pain lead to reduction in disability in patients with musculoskeletal pain?</p>

<p>How does reduction in pain lead to reduction in disability in patients with musculoskeletal pain?</p>

It is important to mention some of the limitations of our study. First, there was no control group in the current study. Thus, it is not possible to de fi nitely determine whether the observed results were the effect of treatment. Nevertheless, as Maric argues, a single-group design can still contribute to an understanding of mediation processes, and this is indicated by several recent investigations of mediation in single-treatment groups. 31,70 Another limita- tion of the study lies in the inclusion of a sample of middle-older aged patients from only a single clinic and, thus, prevents generalization. Assessing psychological variables based only on self-report questionnaires might endanger our fi ndings. 71 Furthermore, we used a shortened version of the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire and only one subscale of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (sub- scale “ helplessness ” ), perhaps undermining the utility of the instruments and thereby limiting the conclusions which can be drawn from the results. More research with stronger methodological quality and longer follow-up periods is needed in order to provide high-quality evidence of the effectiveness of multidisciplinary pain treatment for the management of chronic musculoskeletal pain.
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Frequency of Musculoskeletal Pain and Associated Factors among Undergraduate Students

Frequency of Musculoskeletal Pain and Associated Factors among Undergraduate Students

DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2018.72011 133 Case Reports in Clinical Medicine common among female undergraduate students [20]. The research in Northern Queensland showed the frequency of low back pain was high among many oc- cupational therapy students [21]. In Delhi, India, high mental pressure, depres- sion and continuous workload were found higher among medical students with low back pain [22]. A research in Uttar showed that the frequency of neck pain among undergraduate medical students was much great [23]. A study conducted in Karachi, Pakistan, concluded that medical students has increased prevalence of low back pain associated with factors such as smoking and more usage of computer [24]. Low back pain, neck pain and shoulders pain appeared to be highest among health care professionals [21]. There are many possible factors contributing to increase frequency of musculoskeletal pain among medical stu- dents however not a single major factor has been identified.
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A strong association between non musculoskeletal symptoms and musculoskeletal pain symptoms: results from a population study

A strong association between non musculoskeletal symptoms and musculoskeletal pain symptoms: results from a population study

We used the validated Standardised Nordic Question- naire (SNQ) [23] to record musculoskeletal symptoms. Respondents were asked to report whether they had experienced pain or discomfort in any of ten different body regions during the last 7 days: head, neck, shoulder, elbow, hand/wrist, upper back, lower back, hip, knee, and ankle/foot. Response categories were restricted to ‘no’ and ‘yes’. A body manikin was sup- plied to illustrate the location of the body regions. We constructed a simple sum score by counting the num- ber of musculoskeletal pain sites (NPS), ranging from 0 to 10.
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Words that describe chronic musculoskeletal pain: implications for assessing pain quality across cultures

Words that describe chronic musculoskeletal pain: implications for assessing pain quality across cultures

on average, than people from the USA, which may influence the expression of pain. Moreover, even though one of the US samples had primarily musculoskeletal pain (specifically, low back pain), as did the current Nepalese sample, the US studies also included individuals with primarily neuropathic pain and other pain conditions (eg, spinal cord injury and neuropathic pain, and multiple sclerosis and chronic pain, fibromyalgia, and headache). These other non-cultural differences in the US and Nepalese samples may have explained some of the differences found in the rates of descriptors chosen – although we think it unlikely that they explain the very high rates of metaphors used in the Nepalese sample relative to the US sample, as well as the use of state descriptors in the Nepal- ese sample only, given the lack of equivalent state words in the English language. Still, research that directly compares individuals from the USA who match a Nepalese sample in terms of demographics (education level, salary) and pain type would help to identify those differences that are primarily due to cultural differences.
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Assessment and Management of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain Syndrome in Children: A Review

Assessment and Management of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain Syndrome in Children: A Review

Musculoskeletal pain is a frequent complaint of children, is the most common presenting problem of children referred to pediatric rheumatology clinics. Chronic musculoskeletal (MSK) pain in children is responsible for substantial personal impacts and societal costs, but it has not been intensively or systematically researched. The majority of musculoskeletal pain complaints in children are benign in nature and attributable to trauma, overuse, and normal variations in skeletal growth. There is a subset of children in whom chronic pain complaints develop that persist in the absence of physical and laboratory abnormalities including growing Pain, juvenile fibromyalgia, complex regional pain syndrome. During recent years studies of the epidemiology, etiology and rehabilitation of pain and pain-associated disability in children have revealed a large prevalence of clinically relevant pain, and have emphasized the need for early recognition and intervention.
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Original Article Musculoskeletal pain and deformities in Parkinson’s disease

Original Article Musculoskeletal pain and deformities in Parkinson’s disease

Of the 112 PD patients, 66 patients (58.9%) and 51 out of 120 (42.5%) participants in the control group had had musculoskeletal pain for at least 3 months at the time of the interview. The PD group had a significantly higher rate of musculoskeletal pain compared to the control group (P=0.012). In the PD group the areas of pain were distributed as follows; the low- er back (46.4%), knees (21.4%), shoulders (21.4%). In the control group, the most com- monly affected parts were; the lower back (26.7%), knees (20.0%), foot-ankle (11.7%). The PD group had a significantly higher rate of lower back and shoulder pain than in the con- trol group (P=0.002, P=0.016 respectively). However, there were no significant differences between the PD and control groups in terms of neck, wrist, hip and foot-ankle pain (P>0.05). There was no difference concerning the severi- ty of musculoskeletal pain assessed by VAS between the PD and control groups (P=0.944). Additionally, 6 (5.4%) patients had camptocor- mia, 6 (5.4%) patients had PISA syndrome, 3 (3.3%) patients had striatal hand deformity and 2 (2.2%) patients had striatal foot deformities in the PD group. The frequency and characteris- tics of musculoskeletal pain and deformities are given in Tables 2 and 3.
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Gait in children and adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain

Gait in children and adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain

Wassmer et al. [13] evaluated 103 children with gait disorders; in eight there was no apparent cause for this disorder. In these cases, pain was significant, as there was functional impairment and school absenteeism. Thus, it is known that in a considerable number of chil- dren without apparent locomotor disorders, they present impairment in quality of life. In our non-inflammatory musculoskeletal pain outpatient clinic, we observed that many patients present changes in posture and sedentary lifestyle. We know that walking may be altered in these cases, but there are no studies specifically conducted in children with IMSP.
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Patient Satisfaction with private Physiotherapy for musculoskeletal Pain

Patient Satisfaction with private Physiotherapy for musculoskeletal Pain

A literature review was undertaken by three of the researchers (SCF, MP and FD) to identify a suitable ques- tionnaire to measure patient satisfaction with physiother- apy for musculoskeletal pain. The clinical research databases PubMed, Cinahl, BMJ Journals, BioMedCentral, Embase, PsycInfo, PEDro and MEDLINE were searched between January and March 2007. The search terms 'Patient Satisfaction; Patient Satisfaction AND Physiother- apy; Patient Satisfaction AND low back pain; Patient Sat- isfaction AND musculoskeletal pain' were used in these databases, which identified numerous articles. Review articles or those which were part of symposia relating to the measurement of patient satisfaction were ordered according to publication date, and review of these articles provided a framework of criteria to guide the researcher in the identification of a suitable questionnaire (Table 1). [6,17-19,29] Thereafter, articles that measured "patient satisfaction with physiotherapy" in patients with LBP or musculoskeletal pain were deemed highly relevant, and those which measured patient satisfaction with physio- therapy in other patient populations were deemed rele- vant. These articles provided numerous questionnaires that measured patient satisfaction with physiotherapy. These questionnaires were evaluated to determine how well they adhered to the guidelines for a well developed questionnaire provided from the initial literature review (Table 1). Thus based on the recommendations of several authors [6,8,17,18,29], and considering the populations and locations in which they were developed and tested, The Physical Therapy Outpatient Satisfaction survey (PTOPS) [24], which had undergone multiphase psycho- metric testing to confirm it's validity and reliability, was finally selected as the survey instrument.
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<p>Multidisciplinary pain management program for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain in Japan: a cohort study</p>

<p>Multidisciplinary pain management program for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain in Japan: a cohort study</p>

6-month follow-up results. Our pain management team included orthopedic surgeons, psychiatrists, nurses, physical therapists, clinical psychologists, pharmacists, and alnutrition- ists. The 3-week inpatient pain management program involved exercise therapy, psychotherapy, and patient education. We evaluated patients using the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), Pain Disability-Assessment Scale (PDAS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Pain Self-Ef fi cacy Questionnaire (PSEQ), EuroQol Five Dimensions (EQ-5D), and physical examinations ( fl exibility, muscle endurance, walking ability, and physical fi tness). We analyzed results for 23 patients before and immediately after the program. There were statistically signi fi cant improvements in all measures immediately after the program. Eight patients were also assessed 3 and 6 months after the program. PCS (rumination and helplessness) scores and fl exibility showed signi fi cant improvement at 3 and 6 months. Signi fi cant improvement was seen in PDAS and HADS (anxiety) scores and muscle endurance at 6 months, and in PSEQ scores immediately and at 3 and 6 months. Our inpatient pain man- agement program improves patients ’ physical function and ability to cope with chronic musculoskeletal pain, supporting improved quality of life. Our program is currently being expanded to better assist patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain.
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Topical NSAIDs for chronic musculoskeletal pain in adults

Topical NSAIDs for chronic musculoskeletal pain in adults

Tugwell 2004), celecoxib (Conaghan 2013; Roth 2004), and ibuprofen (Dickson 1991; Zacher 2001), all in tablet form. Studies recruited male and female adults, most with a diagnosis of primary osteoarthritis of the knee or hand, with independent radi- ological confirmation of osteoarthritis within three to six months before trial commencement. Some studies included other types of chronic pain and used less precise descriptions of diagnosis, such as “soft tissue rheumatism” (Burgos 2001), “cervical and lumbar back pain” (Hohmeister 1983), and “musculoskeletal pain of at least 3 months duration” (McCleane 2000). The mean age in in- dividual studies, where reported, ranged from 59 to 65 years, and all studies included both men and women. Participants were gen- erally excluded for pregnancy or lactation, sensitivity to NSAIDs, concomitant skin disease or damage at the application site, sec- ondary osteoarthritis, or systemic inflammatory disease. Participants were treated for at least two weeks (an inclusion cri- terion) and for different durations up to 12 weeks. Most studies lasted two to three weeks, but the majority of participants were in the longer duration (6 to 12 week) studies, which were more recent, larger, and tended to be of higher reporting quality. Par- ticipants were usually assessed in clinic at intervals during treat- ment and sometimes also over the phone. Compliance to study medication, where reported, was measured by weighing bottles at the start of each clinic visit. Rescue medication in the form of oral paracetamol was allowed by most trials, except during 24 hours, or in some cases 48 hours, preceding the assessments. Some studies specified limits on the total amount of paracetamol allowed with- out being classified as a treatment failure; for example, 2 grams daily on three consecutive days. Aspirin at low dose was permitted for cardiovascular prophylaxis.
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Validation of the Hanyang Pain Scale for clerical workers with musculoskeletal pain

Validation of the Hanyang Pain Scale for clerical workers with musculoskeletal pain

Purpose: The visual analog scale (VAS) is the most widely used scale for pain assessment. However, its reflection of time-, sleep-, work-, psychological-, and reward-related pain charac- teristics is limited. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a new pain scale, the Hanyang Pain Scale (HPS), evaluate its reliability, and assess its agreement with currently used scales. Subjects and methods: The HPS comprises a 10 cm long visual vertical bar, similar to the VAS, with eleven simple evaluation sentences related to pain frequency, work, and sleep. We selected 1,037 clerical workers as study subjects and conducted medical examinations through interviews, physical examinations, and musculoskeletal pain assessments tools including the VAS, HPS, and McGill pain questionnaire (MPQ). The reliability of the HPS and its agreement with VAS and MPQ were statistically analyzed.
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