A 50 years old male (Figure 1) presented in the OPD of ENT department in Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar central railway hospital with complaints of left nasal obstruction since four years, which was insidious in onset and gradually progressive in nature. Later it progresses towards right side. It was associated with anosmia. There was no diurnal variation. Following which patient developed left side proptosis. It was insidious in onset and gradually progressive. It was associated with dryness of eyes, blurring of vision and headache. Patient later developed epiphora about ten days ago. There was no history of epistaxis, headache or decreased vision, nasal trauma or any facial pain. The consent of the patient was taken before clinical examination and taking photograph. On examination, a polypoidal growth was found in left middle meatus which did not bleed on probing. Small polypoidal growth was also seen on right side of nasalcavity. On cold spatula test, frosting was decreased on right side. Bilateral pupils were normal reacting to light.
A case of inverted papillomas presented in 55 year old male with nasal obstruction, mass and epistaxis. Microscopically, they were composed of invaginations of squamous epithelium into the underlying stroma. (Fig.no.5A&B) Angiofibromas was seen in 15 years old male with the microscopy of intricate mixture of blood vessels and fibrous stroma. A case of nasal glioma was seen in a 2 year old female child presenting with a firm, non-compressible polypoidal mass in nasalcavity. Microscopically, this mass was composed of astrocytic neuroglial tissue, interlacing with fibrous and vascular connective tissue, which is lined by respiratory mucosa. Other benign lesions, lobular capillary hemangioma seen in 18 year male with characteristic microscopic picture. Among 05 malignant cases, squamous cell carcinoma constituted majority of two cases (40.00%) followed by one case each of transitional cell carcinoma (20.00%), adenocarcinoma (20.00%) and undifferentiated carcinoma (20.00%), Squamous
reported onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 7 weeks, with a mean of 37 weeks and range of 3 to 240 weeks. The site and extent of disease varied considerably. None of the 16 patients had distant metastases. Aggres- sive local extension and destruction was, however, present in all but 1 patient. In these 15 patients, disease primarily arising within the nasalcavity was found on intraoperative examination and/or imaging to extend to the nasopharynx, ethmoid, maxillary, or sphenoid si- nuses; parapharyngeal space; pterygopalatine fossa; in- fratemporal fossa; orbit; base of skull; cavernous sinus; and anterior cranial fossa. The extent of disease did not correlate with the time from symptom onset to diagnosis or with the cancer type. Patients who presented with nonspecific complaints such as nasal obstruction, head- ache, and fatigue were diagnosed, on average, later (74 weeks) than those presenting with focal signs and symp- toms such as proptosis, vision loss, epistaxis, and anos- mia (14 weeks).
Nasalcavity is one of the organs in the human respiration system. Nasalcavity acts as the air flow passage for human ventilation and respiration. The unique geometry of nasalcavity can change the flow behaviour and the flow pattern of air throughout the nasalcavity. This project use to understand the effect and behaviour of air inside the nasalcavity. The project used three inhale breathing condition which is passive, moderate and active breathing. To get the simulation result, the study use an actual human 3D model of the nasalcavity and been added with several boundary conditions into the Engineering Fluid Dynamic (EFD) software. The mesh size that has been used in this study is 0.001m. Before the simulation and analyse process was started, the actual human 3D model of nasalcavity has been validated. The 3D model been compare with the previous study data to make sure that the data that have obtain are valid to use for further study. The results gained from this study are, the geometry have influence the value of velocity and pressure of air that flow inside the nasalcavity. For passive and moderate breathing the air inside the nasalcavity were at laminar state all the time. For active breathing the first half of the nasalcavity the air was at turbulent state, then for the last half of the nasalcavity the air was in the laminar state.
The patient was shifted to the emergency operation theatre with the premedication of atropine and anterior nasal packing with 4% lignocaine with xylometazoline [LA]. Using 0˚ 2.7 mm Hopkins rod, the foreign body was visualized and it was found along the floor of the nasalcavity piercing the posterior end of bony septum. The adjoining area of the septum was edematous with minimal bleeding and so the endoscope was introduced into the right nasalcavity to visualize the pierced end, where the foreign body was pushed backwards and post- eriorly in order to release it from the anchored tissues and was pushed into the left nasalcavity where it was previously inserted by the patient and then it was removed successfully with very minimal manipulations (Figure 4). Post operatively the patient was given intravenous antibiotics and anterior nasal packing was done which was removed after 2 hours. The patient was given saline nasal wash to remove the iron rusts and to pre- vent synechiae. 3% saline nasal drops were given to reduce edema. With all the above measure the postoperative period was uneventful. The patient was sent to the psychiatrist who suggested for counseling and he was dis- charged.
A differential diagnosis of a hypervascular mass of the nasalcavity in patients with nasal obstruction and/or epistaxis might include juvenile angiofibroma, angiomatous polyp, hemangioma, hemangiopericytoma, paraganglioma, angio- sarcoma, and hypervascular metastases, particularly from kid- ney, thyroid, lung, or breast. None of these lesions have been reported to have an iso- or hypoattenuating cap of variable thickness around the intensely enhancing lobular mass in the literature. Accordingly, an intensely enhancing lobular mass and an iso- or hypoattenuating cap themselves are sufficient for suggesting the diagnosis of LCHNC, though a tailored pro- spective assessment with a large number of cases is anticipated.
Bacterial communities play important roles in the health of their hosts, including roles in immune system devel- opment , nutrition , and resistance to infection . In this study, we compared the nasalcavity microbiota and the oral cavity microbiota from healthy adult humans. Until recently, the bacterial community of the healthy human nasalcavity had not been characterized by culture-independent methods [4,5]. However, many studies have characterized the microbiota of the healthy human nares [6-11], which are adjacent and anterior to the nasalcavity. Staphylococcus aureus carriage in the nares is linked to increased risk of S. aureus infection in other body sites [12,13]. Further, antagonism by and competition with other members of the nares microbiota seem to influence S. aureus nares carriage . Al- though adjacent to the nares, the nasalcavity is distinct from the nares with a different type of epithelium, a
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the structural variations of nasalcavity in reference to fre- quency and types at the key area i.e. the ostiomeatal complex. Materials and Methods: Computed tomography of Paranasal sinuses of 50 patients was studied for clinical suspicion of various sinonasal pathologies. Results: The most commonly encountered anatomical variations in this study were Deviated Nasal Septum in 78% (39 patients), followed by Concha Bullosa in 36% (18 patients), Agger Nasi cell in 18% (nine patients), Pneumatised septum in 12% (six pa- tients), Paradoxical Middle Turbinate and Septated Maxillary Sinus in 10% (five patients each) and Pneumatised Unci- nate Process 6% (three patients). In quite a few patients we witnessed more than one variation. Conclusion: The ana- tomical variations in the nose and ostiomeatal complex are not uncommon, with the most frequent ones involving the nasal septum and the middle turbinate.
The nasalcavity (NC) is the first part of the respira- tory system. It opens posteriorly into the nasopharynx through the choanae and the anterior openings are na- res. The NC is divided into 2 parts with a compartment which is called the nasal septum. Conchae are prominent bony structures on both lateral walls of the NC, which are covered with mucosa. Also, the conchae are dynamic structures because the area where they are located has the thickest mucous membrane of the NC and intense vascularization. The dynamic nature of the conchae allows the air flow rate and the amount of air to be adjusted. 6,26,27
IHC. Infected and mock-infected hamsters were anesthetized with isoflu- rane and perfused transcardially with 50 ml of 0.01 M Dulbecco phosphate buffered saline, followed by 75 ml of McLean’s paraformaldehyde-lysine- periodate fixative in preparation for IHC to identify the prion protein. The following tissues were immediately dissected and placed into paraformaldehyde-lysine-perio- date for 4 to 5 h at room temperature: nasalcavity, the lymph nodes that drain the nasalcavity (submandibular and deep cervical lymph nodes ), the mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, Peyer’s patches from the proximal jejunum, and the tongue. The tissues, except for the nasalcavity, were embedded in paraffin, cut at 7 m on a rotary microtome, and mounted onto glass slides. The nasalcavity was placed in decalcifying solution at room temperature for 3 to 4 weeks prior to being embedded and cut at 5 m. Infected and mock- infected tissues for each time point were processed at the same time, using the same reagents. All tissue sections were deparaffinized and subjected to antigen retrieval in formic acid (minimum 95%) for 10 min at room temper- ature. All of the following steps were carried out at room temperature, and all incubations were separated by two to three rinses with 0.05% Tween in Tris-buffered saline. Endogenous peroxidase and nonspecific antibody bind- ing were blocked by incubating the tissue sections in 0.3% H 2 O 2 -methanol for
Giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG) is a rare, benign tumour that mostly involves the maxilla and mandible. It is rare in the nasalcavity and paranasal sinuses. Here we report a case of GCRG of nasalcavity in 24-year-old man who came with unilateral nasal obstruction, epistaxis and prop- tosis. CT scan showed soft tissue hypodensity lesion of left nasalcavity. Endoscopic surgical exci- sion and biopsy were done. The pathology was consistent with GCRG. There was no recurrence seen on follow-up for 2 years. A short literature review about diagnosis, clinical behavior, radio- logical findings and treatment of this tumor entity are given.
leukocytes/l) with 50.5% segmented neutro- phils, 42.0% lymphocytes, 4.0% monocytes and 3.5% eosinophils. Fibrinogen concentration was increased (8 g/l, normal 3–5 g/l) and serological testing for enzootic bovine leukosis was negative. Endoscopic examination of the left nasalcavity yielded normal findings, but examination of the right nasalcavity was impeded by a mass located a few cen- timetres caudal to the right nasal opening. There was a trace of blood on the ventral aspect of the right nasal open- ing. Radiography revealed a large space-occupying mass in the right nasalcavity and right maxillary sinus (Figure 3), and the nasal septum was slightly displaced to the left. The wall of the maxillary sinus was thinner than normal and had undergone partial osteolysis rostrally. The dental alveoli of the first and second molars were partially disintegrated. A tentative diagnosis of neoplasia of the right nasalcavity was made.
geted drug delivery is inefficient [2,3]. The atomisation of the drug formulation produces a mean droplet size of 50μm  which exhibits high inertia. This leads to a large proportion of particles impacting in the anterior regions of the nasalcavity. Most drug formulations have close to unit density as they are suspensions in aqueous solutions. Lighter porous drug particles have been de- veloped for pulmonary delivery , where the drug par- ticle sizes are in the low micron to sub-micron range and deposition is targeted at the pulmonary airways that ex- hibit much smaller spaces such as the airway branches in the lungs. Another alternative is the use of engineered nanoparticles which exhibit a large surface area to size ratio leading to greater biologic activity. This increased biologic activity can be exploited for targeted drug and gene delivery, tissue engineering, cell tracking and bio- separation [6,7]. One advantage for nasal drug delivery is its extremely small size which would allow the parti- cles to deposit through diffusion rather than inertial im- paction. Thus an opportunity exists for the development of new porous-based particles and/or nano-sized parti- cles for nasal drug delivery.
We report a rare case of leiomyosarcoma arising in the nasalcavity. A 45-year-old woman visited our hospital because of recurrent epistaxis in 1998. A biopsy was performed on a mass in the posterior area of the left nasalcavity, and a histological diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma was made. Although the nasal tumor was resected via left lateral rhinotomy, tumor recurrence was detected. In addition, multiple metastatic tumors were detected in both lungs. Therefore, CyberKnife therapy was performed for the recurrent tumor and radiofrequency ablation for a large tumor among the metastatic lung tumors. Although the patient died of multiple metastasis of the whole body in 2007, tumors in the lungs and the primary site, which were treated with radiofrequency ablation and CyberKnife therapy, did not increase. Leiomyosarcoma has a poor prognosis, and when recurrence or distant metastasis occurs, radical cure is even more difficult. In this patient, CyberKnife therapy and radiofrequency ablation were effective for treating local recurrent and metastatic lesions. Even in patients in whom a radical cure is difficult due to recurrence or distant metastasis, CyberKnife therapy and radiofrequency ablation can relieve symptoms and prolong survival.
This is mainly because the cost and time constraint that had to be consider by most of the researcher. Therefore, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software will reduce these constraints with a better result. By using CFD, there are two types of model that being used in the study of human nasalcavity. It is either an actual three dimensional (3D) model or a simplified 3D model. A simplified model is a model constructed based on the actual 3D model without the specific detail. According to Zubair et al, a simplified model is constructed based on several actual models [Zubair (2010)].
Foreign bodies in the PNS are not common. They are usually traumatic and in some cases iatrogenic. In most of the case reports pertaining to the foreign body infratemporal fossa the foreign body had found its way into the region following trauma and the main clinical symptom being trismus  . Keeping in view the other impor- tant organs like eye and brain in the immediate vicinity of the space and its potential communicating portals with these organs via the anatomical foraminas, the foreign body in such a location with its potential to cause in- flammatory reaction and tendency to migrate is always a potential threat for causing serious complications like proptosis with threat to vision and various intracranial complication . Here we have a foreign body lodged in nasalcavity left maxillary sinus and left infratemporal fossa.
The dermoplasty would have 2 disadvantages,the first would be longer time needed(about one hour )than the usual sinuscope,the second would be a delay in the previous activities of the patients due to the leg wound. 10 Anastasopoulos et al stated that in a female case had Churg-Strauss syndrome with recurrant nasal polyposis. Patient would be undergone modified nasal dermoplasty (NDRP) that was an excellent in management of recurrent nasal polyposis, even with established tendency to nasal polyposis formation. Some sort of modifications of in the original report about the size of needed graft, and the management after the surgery. The main complication was foul odour due to graft keratin debris infection, so NDRP was the only technique that might prevent the recurrence of nasal polyposis. 11
Background. LCH is a benign vascular growth of the skin and mucous membranes commonly aﬀecting the head and neck. Since it was first described in the nineteenth century, this entity has been variously known as “human botryomycosis” and “pyogenic granuloma.” The shifting nomenclature reflects an evolving understanding of the underlying pathogenesis. We review the histopathology of and current epidemiological data pertaining to LCH which suggests that the development of these lesions may involve a hyperactive inflammatory response influenced by endocrine factors. We report two new cases of pediatric lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH) of the nasalcavity and review current theories regarding the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of nasal LCH. Methods. Retrospective case series. Case Series. Two adolescent females presented with symptoms of recurrent epistaxis, nasal obstruction, and epiphora. Both patients underwent computed tomography imaging and biopsy of their intranasal mass. The tumors were excised using image-guided transnasal endoscopic technique. Seven other cases of nasal LCH have been reported to date in the pediatric population. Conclusion. Nasal LCH is a rare cause of an intranasal mass and is associated with unilateral epistaxis, nasal obstruction, and epiphora. We advocate for image-guided endoscopic excision of LCH in the adolescent population.
Extranodal natural killer/T cell (NK/T cell) lymphoma, nasal type, is a rare non-Hodgkin lymphoma originating in the nasalcavity or in the paranasal sinuses. It is strongly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infec- tion. Its prevalence is higher in countries in South-East Asia and in Central and South America than in Europe and in North America; it occurs in middle-aged persons and affects males more frequently than females [1-5]. Most cases arise from natural killer cells, only a few from cytotoxic T-cells [6,7].
Odorizzi et al performed an epidemiological research on asymptomatic carriers of S. aureus in the nasalcavity among Xerente indigenous ethnic group in the city of Tocantínia, Province of Tocantins, Brazil. 16 The researchers analyzed 122 samples from nasal cavities. Bacteria isolation and identification were performed by conventional methods. Among the 122 individuals examined, 15 (12.3%) were colonized by S. aureus. The authors did not found multidrug-resistant strains and all samples presented good sensitivity to most of the tested antibiotics, except for nalidixic acid, which had 100% resistance. Similar to our results, the strains found in the Xerente population were susceptible to most antibiotics, coinciding in the resistance to nalidixic acid, which strains had 100% resistance both in Xerente and Toba Qom population groups.