Neck Pain

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EFFECT OF THE CERVICAL ENDURANCE TRAINING PROGRAMME IN MECHANICAL NECK PAIN

EFFECT OF THE CERVICAL ENDURANCE TRAINING PROGRAMME IN MECHANICAL NECK PAIN

The endurance training programme for cervical muscle had significantly increases the endurance of the deep cervical muscle apart from which pain and disability also decreases in the subjects. The subjects getting cervical isometric exercise does not have any significant difference in endurance, pain and disability though the cervical muscle power increases in the subjects getting resistive isometric exercises. So our study concluded that in our daily clinical practice along with the conventional physiotherapy we may also concentrate on prescription of the progressive endurance training programme for better outcome of patients with Mechanical neck pain.
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Efficacy of strengthening exercises and endurance exercises for neck muscles in reducing pain and disability in patients with mechanical neck pain – A Comparative Study.

Efficacy of strengthening exercises and endurance exercises for neck muscles in reducing pain and disability in patients with mechanical neck pain – A Comparative Study.

This questionnaire is designed to enable us to understand how much your neck pain has affected your ability to manage in everyday life. Please answer every section and mark in each section only the one circle, which applies to you. We realize you may consider that two of the statements in any section may relate to you, but please just mark the circle, which most closely described your probe.

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Unravelling the complexity ofmuscle impairment in chronic neck pain

Unravelling the complexity ofmuscle impairment in chronic neck pain

neck flexor muscles. With this protocol, patients per- form and hold progressively inner ranges of C-CF while trying to minimize activation ofthe superficial flexors. This exercise approach is based on biomechanical evidence ofthe f unctional interplay ofthe deep and superficial neck muscles and on physiological and clinical evidence ofimpairments in these muscles in neck pain patients. The efficacy of this emphasis on re- training the C-CF action in association with similar exercises for the shoulder girdle was tested recently in a randomized controlled clinical trial ofphysiotherapy management for cervicogenic headache (Jull et al., 2002). The results indicated that the specific exercise program significantly reduced the frequency of headache and neck pain and results were maintained in the long term at the 12-month follow-up. General strengthening exercises are not recommended in the early stages in this exercise approach as it is considered that general exercise will not necessarily address the dysfunction between the deep and superficial muscles (Jull, 2000). Thus specific emphasis is first placed on reeducating the deep and postural muscles and general strengthening exercises are only introduced once the imbalance between the deep and superficial neck synergists has been addressed.
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Efficacy of Oral Habit Amendment in Neck Pain Treatment

Efficacy of Oral Habit Amendment in Neck Pain Treatment

The present study was a before-and-after clinical trial (IRCT201410091559). During 2012-2014, 320 patients presenting to the Oral Medicine Department of the School of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences with maxillofacial pains (other than odontogenic pain) were examined, out of which, 275 were diagnosed with TMDs together with parafunctional habits according to the Helkimo’s index [25]. Also, the patients and their companions were questioned about parafunctional habits such as bruxism and clenching. Of 275 patients, 226 also had neck pain according to the neck pain disability index (NPDI) [26]. Patients were asked about the history of using analgesics. Those with a history of neck trauma or under regular pharmaceutical therapy were excluded. Subjects with TMDs, parafunctional habits, and neck pain were chosen. The study protocol was thoroughly explained to the patients, and those willing to participate signed a written informed consent form.
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Tapentadol extended release for the management of chronic neck pain

Tapentadol extended release for the management of chronic neck pain

patients with chronic moderate–severe neck pain. Tapentadol ER is usually associated with better analgesia compared with traditional opioids in chronic mixed pain, with a better toler- ability profile, due to its lower affinity for the μ-opioid receptor. In this study, tapentadol ER at a mean dosage of 200 mg/day was associated with a significant reduction in pain intensity from baseline to final evaluation in patients with moderate– severe chronic neck pain, 90% of whom were opioid-naïve. This dosage was lower than that documented (about 300 mg/ day) in other clinical trials on tapentadol ER for patients with chronic LBP, with or without a neuropathic pain component. 39
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Reproducibility of cervical range of motion in patients with neck pain

Reproducibility of cervical range of motion in patients with neck pain

Neck pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder. The point prevalence for neck pain in the general population of the Netherlands varies between 9% and 22% [1,2], and approximately one-third of all adults will experience neck pain during the course of 1 year [3]. Patients usually receive conservative treatment such as physical therapy or continued care by a General Practitioner (GP) [4]. A phys- ical evaluation is often used for both the diagnosis and the evaluation of treatment success in patients with neck pain [5]. One aspect for the physical assessment of the cervical spine is the evaluation of active Range Of Motion (ROM). Active cervical ROM is difficult to measure because of compensatory movements, and it is influenced by aging and systemic disorders [6]. Several non-invasive methods for assessing the ROM have been available, such as visual estimation, two-arm goniometry, inclinometry, compass technology, video technology, electromagnetic technol-
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Translation of the Neck Disability Index and validation of the Greek version in a sample of neck pain patients

Translation of the Neck Disability Index and validation of the Greek version in a sample of neck pain patients

The psychometric properties of the NDI were explored in a sample population with main characteristics: older age, low educational level, chronic neck pain (the majority of patients had previous episodes). The large amount of missing responses for 'driving' (44.6%) was not a transla- tion issue since that finding is consistent with other stud- ies [28]. Additionally, 6 patients (9.2%) who did not answer to the 'reading'item had previously stated to be illiterate, thus providing for the lack of translation prob- lems. Finally, 7 patients (10.8%) who stated that they have difficulties in lifting due to their low back pain were considered as not answering this question. It is interesting that some patients mark an answer without mentioning the real cause of disability. Feedback with the GPs was determinative to avoid such biased answers. Perhaps, in
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Workplace interventions for neck pain in workers (Review)

Workplace interventions for neck pain in workers (Review)

There seems to be quite a range of interventions, from studies testing a single modification to the physical environment to those having four-component interventions targeting mental and phys- ical body functions, activities and environmental changes. Hence, when trying to conduct analyses regarding the effect of interven- tions on specific outcomes, most of the results were based on single studies. When the number of trials increases in future updates of this review, meta-analysis will more likely be an option. This review shows infrequent effects in favour of the experimen- tal group, on a few outcomes, in only some studies. However, a systematic pattern was neither found across studies nor over time, i.e. a significant effect found at one point in time was non-exis- tent at another follow-up. This may have to do with a number of factors. The first is that studies that look at reasonably effec- tive interventions have not yet been carried out. Another reason may be that the interventions examined in the studies included in this review were not appropriate for the goal to alleviate neck pain. This involves the methodology of interventions, intensity or duration of the means, but it may also have to do with the fact that at least some of the neck pain may have different causes than work postures or physical environmental factors, as confirmed in several studies documenting that risk factors for neck pain are also psychosocial (Aas 2011; Ariens 2000; Côté 2008; Linton 2000 ).
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A Knowledge Based System for Neck Pain Diagnosis

A Knowledge Based System for Neck Pain Diagnosis

Neck supports the weight of the head and is highly flexible, allowing the head to turn and flex. Neck is the part of the body between the head and the shoulder also it connects the head with the body. The neck is very important for human. Neck pain, based on Orthopedic doctors mainly caused by: Stress the neck area and the bottom of the head and shoulders higher, as a result of sitting for long periods in the wrong way, when studying, writing, or using a computer[1,2]. Human neck consists of three triangles (as seen in Figure 1).
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Neck pain can be a disabling and recurrent disorder

Neck pain can be a disabling and recurrent disorder

T SYNOPSIS: There is irrefutable evidence of an association between mechanical neck pain (MNP) and dysfunction of the muscles of the cervical spine. A myriad of impairments have been demonstrated that include changes in the physical structure (cross-sectional area, fatty infiltration, fiber type), as well as changes in behavior (timing and activation level), of the cervical muscles. Such changes sug- gest an impaired capacity of the cervical muscles to generate, sustain, and maintain precision of the required levels of torque needed for optimal function. In the context of physical support, these changes potentially have deleterious consequences for the cervical region, which relies heavily on its muscles for mechanical stability. While interventions focused on the retraining of cervical muscle function have shown favorable responses in alleviating MNP, the development of best practice strategies for the
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COMPARISON  OF  NECK  ISOMETRICS VS  A COMBINATION  OF NECK  ISOMETRICS  AND SHOULDER ISOMETRICS  IN  RELIEVING  NECK  PAIN AND IMPROVING STRENGTH

COMPARISON OF NECK ISOMETRICS VS A COMBINATION OF NECK ISOMETRICS AND SHOULDER ISOMETRICS IN RELIEVING NECK PAIN AND IMPROVING STRENGTH

Introduction: Neck disorders remain a common problem in modern world. Patients with chronic neck pain uses health care services twice as much as the population on average. The origin of neck pain can be multifactorial. Aim and objectives: To determine whether only neck muscle isometrics or neck along with shoulder muscle isometrics are more effective in relieving chronic neck pain. Methodology: 30 female subjects with mean age 20.23±1.96 yrs, have been included in the study as the sample size with 10 equal subjects assigned to each group with mean age of 20.5±2.20 in group A, 19.8±1.37 in group B, 20.4±2.24 in group C as per inclusion criteria via random sampling method. Conclusion: Results of the study shows that pain & strength of neck muscles were improved in the subjects with neck pain individually in all the groups but does not show any significant improvement among the groups. Thus, neck pain can be reduced after training periods of neck muscles and shoulder muscles with intensive strength.
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A Comparative study on the Effectiveness of Mulligan Technique and Stabilization Exercise on Pain and Neck Disability among Nonspecific Mechanical Neck Pain Patients

A Comparative study on the Effectiveness of Mulligan Technique and Stabilization Exercise on Pain and Neck Disability among Nonspecific Mechanical Neck Pain Patients

Neck pain as defined by Mersky is the pain “ anywhere within the region bounded superiorly by superior nuchal line, inferiorly by an imaginary line through the tip of first thoracic spinous process and laterally by sagittal plane tangential to the lateral borders of the neck ” (Richa Mahajan, et al., 2012 ). Insufficient cervical muscle strength has been regarded as an important factor to cause chronic neck pain and disability during work, sport or daily activities (Rezasoltani., et al., 2010) and also some other Contributing factors are poorly understood and are usually multi-factorial, including poor posture, anxiety, depression, neck strain, and sporting or occupational activities (Binder 2004). Mechanical neck pain, also known as nonspecific or simple neck pain becoming increasingly more common in our society. The 12-month prevalence has been reported to be between 30-50 % and lifetime prevalence as being approximately 70%. The prevalence of neck pain increases with age (Strine, Hootman 2007; Bovim, et al 1994). Neck pain is a frequent and disabling complaint in general population. (Strine, Hootman 2007; Bovim, et al 1994)
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Efficacy of neck stabilization exercises in the improvement of muscle endurance & function in subjects with chronic neck pain

Efficacy of neck stabilization exercises in the improvement of muscle endurance & function in subjects with chronic neck pain

They conducted a study to compare the effects of conventional proprioceptive training and craniocervical flexion training on cervical joint position error (JPE) in people with persistent neck pain. 64 subjects were divided into two groups by random sampling method. They measured the cervical joint position error, pain intensity and disability. Subjects were trained for about a period of 6 weeks duration. On the basis of the results they concluded that the proprioceptive acuity following intervention with both the exercise protocols occurred through an improved quality of cervical afferent input or by addressing inputs through the direct training of relocation sense. Math.J.Nykanen et al., (2006)
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Responsiveness of clinical tests for people with neck pain

Responsiveness of clinical tests for people with neck pain

To the best of our knowledge this is the first study to assess responsiveness of clinical tests for people with neck pain since only PPT variables have been evaluated previously in non-chronic neck pain patients [20]. The previous study demonstrated satisfactory responsiveness for PPT measured over the upper trapezius (AUC 0.76; 95% CI: 0.57;0,89) but not for PPT measured over the tibialis anterior (AUC = 0.65; 95% CI:0.46;0.84) [20] which is in contrast to the current findings. There could be several reasons for these contrasting results. Firstly, the study population differs between the two studies, as Walton and colleagues [20] included people with acute or chronic neck pain as opposed to the current study Table 1 Baseline demographic characteristics of unchanged and improved groups, presented as mean (sd) and p -value
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Analysis of deep tissue hypersensitivity to pressure pain in professional pianists with insidious mechanical neck pain

Analysis of deep tissue hypersensitivity to pressure pain in professional pianists with insidious mechanical neck pain

tendinitis and peripheral nerve entrapment syndromes. It seems that the prevalence of PRMDs in musicians is consistent with the prevalence of work-related muscu- loskeletal disorders for other workers [4]. In a systematic review, Bragge et al. reported a wide range in prevalence rates for PRMD from 26% to 93% in pianist [5]. Although pianists are prominent in data regarding pre- valence of PRMDs, there is poor understanding of piano-specific risk factors associated with particular PRMD. A recent study revealed that the prevalence of neck pain (29.3%) was the most common PRMD, and similarly to upper limb pain (ranging from 20% to 30.4%) experienced by piano students [6]. As economic burden of neck pain involves high annual compensation costs, [7] studies investigating etiological mechanisms in pianists with neck pain are needed.
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A randomised controlled trial comparing graded exercise treatment and usual physiotherapy for patients with non specific neck pain (the GET UP neck pain trial)

A randomised controlled trial comparing graded exercise treatment and usual physiotherapy for patients with non specific neck pain (the GET UP neck pain trial)

4 who were happy to be contacted, were telephoned by a trial co-ordinator who explained the study to them. Patients verbally consenting to participate in the trial were given a face-to- face appointment where the trial co-ordinator confirmed the patient’s eligibility for the trial. Patients were thoroughly screened by trained assessors and excluded from the study if they had serious neck or upper limb problems or any other potentially serious pathology e.g. systemic disease, progressive or worsening neurological disorders, inflammatory conditions, major trauma which would affect their ability to participate safely in the trial or if they had received physiotherapy for neck pain in the three months prior to trial entry. The aim of screening was to ensure that only patients classified as having non-specific neck pain and who were safe to participate in the GET programme were recruited to the study. Finally, patients who were eligible and consented, completed the self-report baseline questionnaires and were then randomised to one of the interventions.
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Analyzing musculoskeletal neck pain, measured as present pain and periods of pain, with three different regression models: a cohort study

Analyzing musculoskeletal neck pain, measured as present pain and periods of pain, with three different regression models: a cohort study

reported that women in the general working population were slightly more likely to report neck pain compared with men, but that the evidence is inconsistent regarding the role of gender in recovery from neck pain [16,37]. It would be interesting to investigate, in further studies, whether the differences between women and men in mus- culoskeletal pain mainly occur in the development of pain. A hypothesis worth testing would be that there is still some unexplained difference between men and women in the development of pain, while differences between men and women who already have pain can to a larger extent be explained by exposure to known risk fac- tors. Suggested reasons in earlier studies behind the gen- der differences in MSD include the over-representation of women in sedentary, and repetitive work, and the persist- ent gender imbalance in domestic work [38]. As the present study group consisted of young university stu- dents mainly without children the above explanation does not seem to apply here.
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IMMEDIATE EFFECT OF CERVICAL MANIPULATION ON PAIN AND RANGE OF MOTION IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC MECHANICAL NECK PAIN

IMMEDIATE EFFECT OF CERVICAL MANIPULATION ON PAIN AND RANGE OF MOTION IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC MECHANICAL NECK PAIN

provements seen in neck pain and ROMs are in line with a study that reports benefits of manipulation on pain and range of motion among neck pain patients of mechani- cal origin (Cassidy et al., 1992) [13] where both pain and range of motion improved after intervention. While, the findings of this study indicated that, all participants in the treatment group showed immediate improvement in pain and some of the planes of range of motion with cervical spine manipulation. It was also reported that cervical ma- nipulation among patients with mechanical neck pain sig- nificantly reduces pain (Miller et al., 2010) [16], (Hurwitz et al. 2008) [17] and increases cervical ROM as reported by Hurwitz et al. (2008) [17] and Hurwitz et al. (1996) [18]. On a general note, other studies have concluded that cervi- cal manipulation improves neck pain and Cervical Range of Motion (ROM) as published by Hurwitz et al. (1996) [18], Puentedura et al. (2012) [19] and Bronfort et al. (2004) [20] which is in line with the results of this study. Although the Experimental group of this study had sig- nificant increase in cervical forward flexion, backward extension, right and left lateral rotation post intervention, significant changes were not observed in right and left side flexion of the neck, which is contrary to the general in- crease in cervical range of motion in all planes as report- ed by previous studies (Miller et al, 2010) [16], (Hurwitz et al 2008) [17] and Hurwitz et al (1996) [18] it may be because cervical range of motion was taken as one entity not breaking it down to different planes by some studies (in the actual sense in this study, there were improvements in favour of the ETG because at pre intervention the CTG have significantly higher ROM but post intervention the ETG had increased ROM to the extent that no more sig- nificant difference between the two groups as presented in Tables 5 and 6).
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Effects of neck pain on reaching overhead and reading: a case–control study of long and short neck flexion

Effects of neck pain on reaching overhead and reading: a case–control study of long and short neck flexion

Left untreated, acute neck pain can become chronic and result in secondary health problems [4]. For this reason, research into the causes and effects of neck pain is imperative, especially in today’s aging society where 90% of office workers use computers daily (computer work being cited as contributing to neck pain and pos- tural muscle fatigue) [16]. Gender, age, poor social sup- port, job dissatisfaction, and high job demands all contribute to the development of neck pain [17]. Driessen et al. [17] identify that research into prevention is “scarce”, and due to the “multifactorial origin” of neck pain, it is necessary to educate individuals on how to prevent neck pain. Although our study is preliminary, it does provide preliminary information on the amount of neck motion used, and the types of motor strategies employed during two standardized functional tasks. Understanding how functional and work tasks are performed, and how this might contribute to neck disorders is an important and understudied area. Larger studies of task performance in different contexts such as workplaces, and in larger groups of individuals considering personal and environmental factors are needed to fully understand the exposures which might be contributing to neck pain.
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Investigating The Effect of Neuromuscular Facilitation and Stabilization Exercises On Pain, Algophobia, Kinesiophobia and Neck Range of Motion in Patients with Chronic Non-Specific Neck Pain

Investigating The Effect of Neuromuscular Facilitation and Stabilization Exercises On Pain, Algophobia, Kinesiophobia and Neck Range of Motion in Patients with Chronic Non-Specific Neck Pain

This study is single-blind randomized clinical trial in which 44 patients suffering from chronic neck pain visiting the research center of the department of physiotherapy in University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences were studied in 2016. The information collected from this study entered Iran Center for Clinical Trials Registration. Patients were randomly divided into two groups of 22. The first group of these patients was treated with specific neck stabilization exercises and the second group was treated with neuromuscular facilitation exercises. Patients were not informed about the theory and they were told that the purpose of the study was to review the difference between the effects of two different types of neck muscles exercises. Sample volume for each group was estimated based on an experimental study with 95% confidence and 90% test power. Demographic information of patients were recorded using a short questionnaire. Information such as the starting date of neck pain,, intensity of pain and age , weight , height , BMI were recorded (table 1).
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