Intramammary infections (IMI) are prevalent in non-lactating dairy cattle and their occurrence during periods of significant mammary growth and development (i.e. pregnant heifers and dry cows) is believed to interfere with growth, development, and subsequent milk production. However, direct study of IMI impacts on non-lactating but developing mammary glands is lacking. The objectives of this study were to (1) define how IMI affected total and differential mammary secretion somatic cell counts in mammary glands stimulated to rapidly grow using estradiol and progesterone, and (2) characterize changes in mammary morphology in response to IMI. Mammary growth was stimulated in 19 non-pregnant, non-lactating cows and 2 quarters of each cow were subsequently infused with either saline (n = 19) or Staphylococcus aureus (n = 19). Mammary secretions were taken daily until mammary tissues were collected at either 5 or 10 days post-challenge. Staph. aureus quarter secretions yielded greater concentrations of somatic cells than saline quarters and contained a greater proportion of neutrophils. Staph. aureus mammary tissues exhibited higher degrees of immune cell infiltration in luminal and intralobular stroma compartments than saline quarters. Infected tissues also contained reduced areas of epithelium and tended to have greater amounts of intralob- ular stroma. Results indicate that IMI in non-lactating glands that were stimulated to grow, produced immune cell infiltration into mammary tissues and secretions, which was associated with changes in mammary tissue structure. The observed reduction of mammary epithelium indicates that IMI impair mammary development in rapidly growing mammary glands, which may reduce future reduced milk yields.
Experimental results highlight the effect of feeding level on BW gain in non-lactating, late-gestation pasture-based dairy cows and quantify the apparent efficiency with which different feeds are used for BW gain, when pasture is the base feed. Body weight increased linearly with feeding level; this is supported by the blood metabolite measurements, with data indicating a greater uptake of NEFA to adipose tissue relative to NEFA release with greater ME intake. This relationship is further supported by the increase in plasma glucose and reduced plasma AST and GDH concentrations in supplemented cows. The efficiency with which ME was used for BW gain was dependent on feed type. When all feeds were compared with each other, pasture and maize grain were used with low apparent efficiencies, PKE with a relatively high apparent efficiency, and maize silage and pasture silage with intermediate apparent efficiencies. Results will help producers provide more effective dry cow rations.
The study population was 100 cross bred (HF × Local) healthy cows. In the farms, cows were in different age and production status, from which 50 lactating and 50 nonlactating (dry) cows were selected based on parturition record for the first time, but not exceed for more than three times. Cows were further grouped into three categories on the basis of calving history (parity) of which parity 1 (n=29), parity 2 (n=52) and parity 3 (n=19). Some of the dry cows were pregnant, but they were not grouped further. All animals were fed both roughage and concentrates. Normal feeding habits of animals were observed during the research activities. All animals involved in this study were clinically healthy and to ensure this clinical history was reviewed with the farm manager through the examination of physical condition.
The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between partitioning and isotopic fractionation of nitrogen (N) in sheep consuming diets with varying ratios of N to water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC). Six non-lactating sheep were offered a constant dry matter (DM) allowance with one of three ratios of dietary N/WSC, achieved by adding sucrose and urea to lucerne pellets. A replicated 3 dietary treatments (Low, Medium and High N/WSC) 3 3 (collection periods) and a Latin square design was used, with two sheep assigned to each treatment in each period. Feed, faeces, urine, plasma, wool, muscle and liver samples were collected and analysed for 15 N concentration. Nitrogen intake and outputs in faeces and urine were measured for each sheep using 6-day total collections. Blood urea N (BUN) and urinary excretion of purine derivative were also measured. Treatment effects were tested using general ANOVA; the relationships between measured variables were analysed by linear regression. BUN and N intake increased by 46% and 35%, respectively, when N/WSC increased 2.5-fold. However, no indication of change in microbial protein synthesis was detected. Results indicated effects of dietary treatments on urinary N/faecal N, faecal N/N intake and retained N/N intake. In addition, the linear relationships between plasma d 15 N and urinary N/N intake and muscle d 15 N and retained N/N intake based on individual measurements showed the potential of using N isotopic fractionation as an easy-to-use indicator of N partitioning when N supply exceeds that required to match energy supply in the diet.
In order to utilize NAF as both an adjunct to current breast cancer risk assessment tools and/or for breast cancer early detection, it is important to understand factors influenc- ing the obtainment of adequate fluid samples. Past stud- ies have shown four factors consistently associated with an increased ability to obtain breast fluid; age between 35–50 years, earlier age at menarche, non-Asian com- pared to Asian ethnicity and a history of lactation . Using a descriptive cross-sectional design, this study examined demographic, menstrual, reproductive and other factors in relation to the ability to obtain NAF in a group of 3043 non-lactating women from the Santa Bar- bara, California area.
The experiment was a cross-sectional study in a randomised complete block design to determine the effect of diet on urine volume and frequency of dairy cows in late gestation. The trial was repeated over 4 weeks with each week acting as a temporal block and 8 animals used each time totalling 32 cows. Animals for this trial were selected from an existing winter feed trial where cows had already adjusted to the treatment diet for over a month. The winter feed trial had 50 pregnant, non- lactating, spring calving, Friesian x Jersey cows from the Lincoln University Research Dairy Farm in each treatment which were blocked according to calving date, BCS, liveweight, age, and breeding value. The two treatments in this study were either a kale or fodder beet winter system. These treatments were chosen as representative of current industry practices. Cows for the trial in this study were selected (from cows in paddocks 1, 3, 7, and 10) using restricted randomisation as the sample size was relatively small (n = 12) and urine volumes are known to have large between-cow variability (Ravera et al. 2015). Consequently animals of similar liveweight and days since
Determination of serum prolactin level in nonlactating rats administered contractile fraction (F5) of Vernonia amygdalina: Five groups of 25 matured female rats were employed for the test. Group 1 was the negative control group and groups II, III and IV were experimental groups, Group V was the positive control group. Group 1 was giving 20% Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), groups II, III, IV received 40mg/kg, 50mg/kg, and 120mg/kg body weight respectively, group V received 0.1 µg of oxytocin intra-peritopeally for 5 days. At the end of the dosing period, the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and blood collected by cardiac puncture. Centrifugation of the blood was done immediately using a ultracentrifuge and the supernatant serum was removed with a Pasteur pipette. The serum was kept in the freezer until analysed.
approximately half of the glucose solution had been infused. Catheters were flushed with ~5 ml sodium citrate solution after each sample was taken. After the last blood samples were taken, catheters were again flushed with ~10 ml sodium citrate solution and the cows were returned to their dry lot enclosure. On day 3, the cows were again locked into stanchions, allowed the lactating cow TMR, and their catheters were checked and flushed. Each cow was then given an intravenous insulin tolerance test (IVITT) by administering a single intravenous injection of 0.1 IU bovine insulin/kg BW dissolved in saline (Sigma Chemical; St. Louis, MO). This insulin dose was chosen because it has been successfully used in nonlactating, nongestating Holstein cows (Pires et al., 2007; Pires et al., 2008) and growing beef steers (Kegley et al., 2000). The insulin preparation contained 27 IU/mg and the insulin was diluted so that injection volumes were 3-4ml. Blood samples were obtained at the same time points as the IVGTT. After sampling was complete, catheters were removed and the cows were returned to the dry cow herd.
In the second group of sows designated as “lactating group” (average body weight: 256 ± 17 kg), litters were standardised to 12 piglets per sow. To ensure an ad- equate temperature of 35°C for the piglets an infrared heater was placed directly above the site of the newborn piglets. The temperature and the relative humidity in the dry sow accommodation and the farrowing unit were kept at 19 ± 1°C and 60–80%, respectively, by means of an air conditioning system. In addition, a light:dark cycle of 12-h light and 12-h dark was applied. During lactation until the end of the experiment the sows were given a diet for lactating sows. Until day 6 of lactation, the amount of feed given to the lactating sows was successively increased (1.6 kg/d on day 1; 2.6 kg/d on day 2; 4.1 kg/d on day 3; 5 kg/d on day 4; 5.5 kg/d on day 5 and 6.0 kg/d on day 6), and from day 7 of lactation and thereafter the sows re- ceived individual amounts of feed depending on their body weights. In the non-lactating group, each sow was given an amount of food sufficient to cover the individual energy and nutrient requirement for maintenance.
Breast abscess due to Salmonella spp. has also been observed in the neonatal period. Multi-drug resistant Salmonella isolation from breast abscesses has been reported. In a study Singh et al. retrospectively evalu- ated the reported cases of Salmonella breast abscess in the literature and concluded that most of the patients were between 23 and 45 years of age, immuno compe- tent, non-lactating women. But they could not find a common predisposing factor .
Applying artificial induction of lactation technology in repeat breeder, non-lactating and infertile animals in the dairy herd, economic benefits can be obtained through sale of milk besides establishment of normal reproductive cycles in anestrous or repeat breeder cattle and prolonging the lifespan of genetically superior cows for milk yield. This technology can reduce herd culling, economic losses and replacement costs derived from reproductive failure (Inchaisri et al., 2010).
Body mass and food intake were also not affected by the exogenous prolactin. This latter result was inconsistent with previous work in rats that has indicated that prolactin may be part of the hormonal system stimulating the lactation hyperphagia (Noel and Woodside, 1993; Speakman and Król, 2005a; Woodside and Leon, 1980; Woodside et al., 1980). However, body temperature was lower in the prolactin-treated animals and they also had lower physical activity levels, showing that the infused prolactin was physiologically active. Lowered physical activity is characteristic of lactation (Slonaker, 1924; Wang, 1923; Zhao et al., 2013b). However, lactating females generally have greatly elevated body temperatures (Melanie et al., 1988; Scribner and Wynne-Edwards, 1994; Ulmershakibaei and Plonait, 1992). This inconsistent effect is explained by the observed impact of the prolactin treatment on UCP1 content of the iBAT. In the prolactin group this was significantly lower than that in the saline group. This reduction is consistent with the model suggested by Król et al. (Król et al., 2011), where gene expression in BAT during lactation appeared to be responsive to both prolactin and leptin levels. Normally in lactation the reduced heat production by BAT is more than compensated for by the heat production associated with milk synthesis. However, in non-lactating animals, as studied in Experiment 2, there is no compensatory heat production from milk synthesis for the reduced iBAT activity, and hence body temperature fell. The mechanism promoting greater thermal conductance of the pelage during lactation and mediating the elevated food intake in these animals remains unclear.
all kind of nutrient by the subjects is less than the recommended dietary allowances. The energy deficiency level (<70%) was 27.44% in adolescent, 9.76% in pregnant and lactating group and 35.66%.in non-pregnant and non-lactating group which is affecting the growth and development in adolescent. Our study showed a high level of pulse deficit. Pulse deficit indicates a deficit of protein rich (Kupputhai and Mallika, 1993). Protein deficiency is causing the development of protein energy malnutrition and the deficiency is highest among the adolescent (57%). So the rural tea garden females of Darjeeling district are mostly suffering from the deficiency of energy, protein, iron and calcium, carotene and riboflavin. In comparison with the recommendations (ICMR, 2000), the contribution of carbohydrates to the total energy intake is observed to be on the much higher (82-85%) than the range (55-70%) in all groups. Contribution of protein is less(5-6%) than the recommendation (10-15%) and contribution of fat to the total energy is also much lower(9-12%%) than the recommendation (20-30%).The chronic energy deficiency table suggested that non-pregnant and non-lactating group is suffering more (42%) than the other two groups. A high (35%) percent of adolescent and 29% pregnant and lactating group are suffering from chronic energy deficiency. So the macro and micronutrient level and health status of the entire three groups are very poor in the study zone.
A comparative study on thermophysiological responses of 24 lactating and non-lactating (dry) camels maintained under natural summer conditions was carried out with 2 Arabian native breeds. Study parameters (meteorology, thermophysiology, infrared thermography) were measured in both breeds at the evening milking (17:00h) throughout 3 consecutive days. It appears evident that lactating camels are more thermally labile than their dry counterparts under such environmental conditions. This fact was proven by higher body temperatures of lactating camels than their dry counterparts (rectal temperature: 38.01 ± 0.07°C VS 37.80 ± 0.06°C and vaginal temperature: 38.20 ± 0.08°C VS 37.79 ± 0.07°C, P< 0.05). Additionally, this was further emphasized by the noticeable increases of several thermophysiological parameters in lactating camels including their respiratory rate (6.57%), heart rate (9.36%), as well as body (11.06%), udder (4.74%), teat (5.52%), and milk vein (4.51%) surface temperatures. In conclusion, lactating camels expressed higher thermophysiological responses over dry camels. Infra-red thermography can be a suitable tool for non-invasive method that detects surface heat radiation in dromedary camels.
Males or non-pregnant, non-lactating females, ≥ 18 years of age, were eligible to participate provided they had a diagnosis of SLE according to the American College of Rheumatology revised criteria (fulfilled ≥ 4 criteria), with SLE for at least 6 months, and at least one elevated autoantibody level (antinu- clear antibodies/ANA and/or anti-dsDNA) and moderately active disease (a score of 6 to 12 for total British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) disease activity) at study entry. Patients were excluded if they had prior rituximab or other anti- body therapy, allergies to murine or human antibodies, experi- mental therapy within 3 months, active severe CNS (central nervous system) lupus, laboratory abnormalities (hemoglobin < 8.0 g/dl, WBC (white blood cells) < 2,000/mm 3 , ANC
Results: A total of 65 females with breast abscess were analyzed, of these 33 patients were randomized into the ultrasound guided needle aspiration and 32 patients in the Incision and drainage arm. The mean age was 23.12, most of them were lactating (66.2%), primipararous (44.6%) with peripheral abscesses (73.8%) located in the upper lateral quadrant (56%).The mean breast size was 3.49 cm. The two groups were comparably in demographic characteristic and breast abscess size. Survival analysis showed no difference in breast abscess healing rate between the two groups (Log rank 0.24 df 1 and P = 0.63). Incision and drainage was found to be more costly than ultrasound guided aspiration (cost effective ratio of 2.85).
Ten females bred in captivity were obtained from a colony of Sminthopsis douglasi Archer 1979 kept at La Trobe University (Woolley, 1995). Eight of the females were suckling young. Young less than 40 days of age were removed from the nipples and formed part of a separate study on growth and development, while those older than 40 days were fostered to other mothers. The adult females were killed by gaseous anaesthetic overdose, and a midline incision was made through the pouch and abdominal skin to expose the mammary tissue and ilio-marsupialis muscles. Branches of the muscles supplying particular nipples were identified, and 3–5 mm lengths were removed, blotted dry on filter paper and then placed under paraffin oil on a base of Sylgard 184 (Dow Chemicals, Midland, MI, USA). Some of the lactating females did not have a full complement of young and so muscles
Six lactating mice were randomly divided into two groups. One group was injected s.c. with rhodamine B-labeled Til-SLN (84.3 mg/kg, which is equivalent to 10 mg/kg of pure tilmicosin). Another group was treated as control with rhodamine B solution (0.2 mg/kg). Tissues were harvested from the mammary glands and the injection sites at 3 days after injection. The tissues were cut into very small pieces with scissors and put onto a slide and squeezed with a cover- slip. Photomicrographs were taken using an inverted optical microscope (Olympus 1 × 71; Olympus Corporation) with the fluorescence emission spectrum obtained using an LS 55 luminescence spectrometer (PerkinElmer Inc.).