Whenever in the voltage variation suddenly send message to user (owner) of mobile number then monitor the voltage user Previous existing system is NET meter energy from the grid and solar for billing. Then meters reading taken by the manually forever month ends .Methods is NET energy meter technique. Utility Tools used for implementation is two energy meters, 8051 microcontroller, SPDT relays, LCD, solar penal and inverter. existing system is considering NET energy meter, here taking billing is taken in the different for different energies (renewable and nonrenewable energy) instead of NET of the energies and also modification taking meter nting the number pulses consumed Increases in speed of the pulses in energy meter on how much loads will consumed. Then recorded by ARM processor then send to company website its stored in data base of individual user continuously updating recorded reading is counting the number of pulses. Real time updating by using GPRS in automatically. In this one more application here two modes one is for GPRS for automatically working Another one mode is in the GSM for king and switching by the user, message is sent by ARM to user or owner of NET meter of that home .based on that user message user can switch the relay. This paper is organized as follows. Section II is a brief description of e describe implementation. Section IV experimental result and finally section V
time although the strength of the trend varies by country. Tunisia is by far the biggest emissions producer with Turkey and Egypt in a distant second. Sudan consumes the least energy. The economic performance of all countries has been increasing along a fairly tight linear trend (without large downturns). Algeria is the largest economy while Israel, Jordan and Tunisia are the smallest. For renewable electricity consumption, all countries have been trending upwards across time although the strength of the trend varies by country except Algeria. Turkey is by far the biggest renewable electricity consumer with Egypt in a distant second. Algeria consumes the least renewable electricity. Concerning non-renewable electricity consumption, all countries have been trending upwards across time although the strength of the trend varies by country. Turkey is by far the biggest non-renewable electricity consumer and Algeria is the least renewable electricity consumer.
This research tries to identify the relative importance of renewable and non-renewable energy inputs along with international trade, capital and labour on production functions of the EU-15 countries. As far as this study is concerned, there exists no previous empirical study particularly researching the relative importance of renewable and non-renewable energy inputs on economic output in the case of the EU-15 countries. This study aims to measure the relative importance of renewable and non-renewable energy inputs on economic output, along with other major production inputs such as capital and labour. Finally, the relative importance of international trade on economic output is considered to be an important factor due to its essential role in open economies, such as the EU-15 countries, Rainer (1994), Frankel and Homer (1999), Silberberger and Koniger (2016). European countries are not well endowed with non-renewable sources of energy, such as oil and gas; therefore it is important to investigate relationships of renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth in the most advanced framework, which will reveal details for further policy implication, Salim et al. (2012), Jebli and Youssef (2015), Narayan and Doytch (2017). This research may also help policy makers adopt more appropriate policies for a cleaner environment and prolonged economic growth in the EU.
Our Granger causality analysis shows the existence of a unidirectional causality running from trade (exports or imports) to renewable energy in the short-run, and a unidirectional causality running from exports to renewable energy in the long-run. In the long-run, there is also an indirect causality running from exports to renewable energy occurring through non- renewable energy consumption. Indeed, more imports necessitate more renewable energy to use and to transport these goods from ports to consumers. Moreover, increasing imports may promote renewable energy consumption in Tunisia because of the renewable energy technology transfer occurring when importing capital goods, such as machines and equipment to produce renewable energy. Nearly forty firms are importing solar water heaters from different countries including Greece, Turkey, Italy and China, and distributing them on the Tunisian market. Moreover, several new companies have been established in the assembly sector for the installation of photovoltaic systems. These companies import modules from various countries such as Japan, Germany, Spain, France and China (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH ). More exports necessitate more renewable energy to produce and transport these goods to ports. In Tunisia, the impact of exports on renewable energy is evident. Indeed, the European industrial initiative Dii plans to promote the implementation of several large-scale renewable energy projects in Tunisia intended to produce electricity for national consumption as well as for export to the EU. A trans-Mediterranean cable is previewed for exporting renewable electricity to the EU which is expected to reach 200 MW in 2016 (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH ). This finding is not in accordance with that of Ben Aïssa et al.  who report the absence of causality between trade and renewable energy in a panel of 11 African countries.
A considerable literature exists on the behavior of monopolistic or oligopolistic sellers of a non–renewable resource (Bergstrom et al., 1981; Dasgupta and Heal, 1979; Lewis et al. 1979; Ulph and Folie, 1980) but less progress has been made in analyzing imperfections on the buyer’s side of the market. Karp (1984) studies the effect of allowing the buyers to exercise market power by using a tariff against sellers that assumed to behave competitively or monopolistically. While Kemp and Long (1980), in the same tariff argument, derive the open loop tariff for a non–renewable there is a considerable objection on the buyer’s announced tariff. Precisely an importing country (modeled as a buyer) wants to revise the originally announced tariff. Kemp and Long point out that the open loop extracted tariff, in their model with constant extraction costs, is dynamically inconsistent. Karp (1984) in a different, with respect to extraction costs, model makes the assumption that the seller obtains no utility from consuming the resource, finds that the inconsistency on open loop tariff caused by the assumption of stock – dependence cost.
In this paper, we re-examine the possibility of endogenous long-term economic growth in neoclassical models with non-renewable resources. Unlike most of the existing studies which focus exclusively on Cobb-Douglas production function, we adopt a general speci…cation of production technology and seek general conditions under which endogenous economic growth can emerge. Our results suggest that this can happen only when the elasticity of substitution between labour and natural resources is constant and equal to one. This condition, however, has found little support in empirical studies. For all other speci…cations that we have considered, including those that are supported by empirical evidence, the model predicts that long-term economic growth is entirely driven by the exogenous labour-augmenting technological factor. This has the stark implication that practices and policies related to natural resource utilisation and management are irrelevant to long-term economic growth. Our results thus expose the di¢culties of using the standard one-sector neoclassical model to analyse the relationship between natural resources and economic growth. A multi-sector model, or one that accounts for productive government spending and R&D activities, is probably more suitable for this line of research.
Nonrenewable energy source are natural resource which are divided into two, nuclear fuel and fossil fuel. In Nigeria, unclear fuel is not well developed but fossil fuel is the major source of energy use in the country. Fossil fuel includes coal, petroleum and natural gas, play an important role in Nigerian economy. This study reviews past work on environmental effect of nonrenewable energy source and apply it to Nigeria situation. The nonrenewable energy sources have helps Nigeria to improve their standard of living; unfortunately, it has tremendously damage the environment by affecting the existence of humans. The environmental effect of fossil fuel has two dimensional effect; the localized effect and the globalize effect. The localized effect is the effect of fossil fuel within the area of extraction, transpiration, refining and consumption; this manifest in the following ways pollution (Air, noise and water), forest degradation soil and land degradation, wildlife disruption land subsidence and drilling mud release. Globalize effect of fossil fuel is the effect of fossil globally and it take the following form, air pollution, acid rain, global warming, sea level rise, Ozone layer depletion, effects on human health and other organism, the environment problems which of fossil fuel has cause can be minimized by adopting the following measured by improving the efficiency of petrol engines and outright banned on second hand cars, conservation of energy and alternate source of energy are developed to reduced carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Abstract: This research deliberately searches the present scenario of renewable and non-renewable resources in Bangladesh and also focuses on their effective management. Therefore, the research is unique in terms of focusing the present scenario of natural resources and the research highlights the present conditions of natural resources. Most of the study and research on NRs focus on superficial problems, poverty, gender, and scientific measure of resource degradation. This research gives special attention to find the present scenario and to find the actors who are responsible for NRs management. There are considerable opportunities of Bangladesh to boost the economic growth through renewable and nonrenewable resource. With the help of these resources Bangladesh can generate electricity and can meet the required demand in the future. Therefore, the Government and the Private sector should work hand to hand to emphasize more renewable energy sources to produce electricity to solve our power crisis problem. Renewable energy sources discussed above can help Bangladesh to produce more power in order to reduce Load-shedding problem. Time has come to look forward and work with these renewable energy fields to produce electricity rather than depending wholly on conventional method. In addition, we observed that Bangladesh has a huge amount of natural Gas and other mineral resources. Proper and corruption free management can be able to solve the problem of energy crisis.
From the supply side point of view, resource-extracting oligopolists continually engage in the search for additional stocks or in finding new technologies to transform re- sources that are economically non-exploitable into resources that can be profitably extracted. If the demand curve facing the industry is elastic, the discovery of additional stocks will raise the industry’s profit. It is not clear, however, if all firms will benefit from a windfall “gain” (discovery) that increases the stock of each firm.
investors through property rights, developing human expertise, enhancing macroeconomic stability, transparency, and removing political barriers. On the financial side, governments should place emphasis on investment subsidies, lowering tariffs, credit incentives, tax incentive, establishing quotas, and green certificate trading for the development of renewable energy. The role of trade openness is also important for the development of economic growth in APEC through technology transfer, which would support investment in the renewable energy sector across these countries. However, energy production from the non-renewable energy share is still 82% in the energy mix. APEC countries’ energy policies’ focus should be in decreasing energy consumption from fossil fuel sources gradually without harming economic growth. Moreover, APEC is seeking to reduce energy intensity by up to 45 percent between 2005 and 2035. The positive relationship between R&D expenditures and economic growth encourages the role of R&D expenditures in APEC for sustainable economic growth. In addition, APEC countries’ governments should develop such strategies that strengthen public-private linkages and provide such incentives to the private sector for spending more on the research & development sector.
Several researchers have found similar results that the share of non-renewable energy was greater than that of renewable energy consumption in cropping systems (Esengun et al. 2007; Ozkan et al. 2007; Kizilaslan 2009 and Komleh et al. 2011). Results of these studies indicated that paddy production was mostly depending on fossil energy sources. The farmers had used more of non-renewable energy sources due subsidized price of these energy sources. This could be harmful to the environment and ecology in the long run. Therefore, paddy farmers need to switch over to renewable energy sources in paddy production, although such an effort could be painful and costly affair. However, many external factors come in the way of adoption of environmentally benign energy sources such as dwindling availability of FYM as livestock number are declining and labour scarcity is mounting for agricultural operations.
In essence, the employed risk indicator condenses empirical information on the imports of fossil fuels, such as oil, gas, and coal, originating from a multitude of export countries, as well as data on the indigenous contribution to the domestic supply of all kinds of energy sources, including biofuels and other renewable energies. The empirical outcome is a single figure that characterizes the long-term total risk of a country's reliance on fossil fuel imports at a given point in time. While taking account of all energy sources used in a country, both renewable and non- renewable, the basic ingredients of the risk indicator are: (1) a country's own contribution to the total domestic supply of any fuel vis-a-vis the fuels' import shares, (2) proxies for the probabilities of supply disruptions in export countries, and (3) the diversification of the primary energy mix, that is, the variety of energy sources and technologies employed to satisfy demand.
developed and industrialized countries and a negative impact on emerging countries and N-11 countries. This scenario can be explained in terms of the cost aspects of renewable energy generation. If the individual countries of the N-11 panel are considered, then the countries in the developed and industrialized categories can afford the cost of renewable energy implementation without dampening economic growth. Conversely, the immediate impact of renewable energy consumption is noted in the case of the emerging countries because they undertook this initiative at a later stage. Therefore, the impact of this initiative is negative on their economic growth pattern. The overall impact of renewable energy consumption is negative on economic growth of N-11 countries. In contrast, the impact of non-renewable fossil fuel consumption is positive on the economic growth pattern for all panels. The results indicate that non-renewable fossil fuel consumption continues to be the major player in the energy mix and economic growth is driven by energy sources. Therefore, it is not surprising that this impact is positive. Various prior studies noted that non-renewable energy consumption has a positive impact on economic growth and this segment of our result aligns with these studies (for more details, see Ozturk, 2010).
total used energy. The high ratio of non-renewable energy in the total used energy inputs causes negative effects on the sustainability in agricultural production of small-scale farms. In particular, castor requires a high amount of capital and input. However, small-scale farms are characterised byinsufficient capital and relatively cheap family labour. So, as the renewable energy ratio increases in the product inputs, farms feel more comfortable due to less dependence on farm outputs. Although, there is important technological innovation in castor productionin countries where agricultural production is based on family operations (small- scale farms), the renewable energy ratio is very important for production decisions, thus resulting in production sustainability. Therefore, a reduction in the total non-renewable energy ratio, specifically in chemical and fertiliser usage would have positive effects on the sustainability of castor production as well as other positive environmental effects.
Design of zero energy building is important because of the limited stock of non-renewable energy sources and effectively uses of renewable energy sources like solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and rainwater harvesting. And also to fulfill the requirement and comfort of the human being. As you may know, net-zero energy designation is, in some ways, a matter of accounting on an annual basis, a building must use less energy than it is able to generate. The key is to design to be efficient as possible, and then squeeze out every possible kilowatt-hour in operations especially plug loads, which is high performance; ultra-efficient buildings can make up as much as 50 percent of the load.
and emission of radioactive substances. These issues must be taken into consideration simultaneously if humanity is to achieve a bright energy future with minimal environmental impacts. Much evidence exists, which suggests that the future will be negatively impacted if humans keep degrading the environment (4). Other environmental considerations have been given increasing attention by energy industries and the public. The concept that consumers share responsibility for pollution and its cost has been increasingly accepted. In some jurisdictions, the prices of many energy resources have increased over the last one to two decades, in part to account for environmental costs. (5) suggests that the most promising means of reducing the effect of energy consumption on the environment in the short-run is through energy conservation which calls for a change in the energy-using behaviour of consumers. In the long run however, a permanent and reliable solution should be designed to mitigate the effect of energy consumption on the environment. Renewable energy becomes the ultimate choice since its consumption reduces the effect of energy consumption on the environment, the fast depletion of non- renewable energy and its availability, especially in rural areas (6).
The use of renewable energy reduces environmental pollution and leads to achievement of sustainable development. The current study investigates the dynamic interrelationship between sustainable development, renewable and non-renewable energies and environment nexus by applying Bayesian vector autoregression (BVAR) and impulse response functions in Iran with an annual data frequency for the time span of 1980-2013. In this study, genuine savings (GS) were particularly examined to indicate sustainable development. The empirical results confirm the existence of cointegration long-run relationship among the variables. Based on BVAR analysis, SSVS-full and normal-Wishart functions were used as optimal prior functions to estimate renewable and non-renewable energies models, respectively. Results of impulse response functions indicate a positive impact of renewable and non-renewable energies consumption on sustainable development. Also, renewable and non-renewable energies consumption shocks positively affect CO 2 emissions, but the effect of non-renewable energy consumption on air