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The effect of eight-week walking program on plasma levels of amino acids in early/mid pubertal obese girls

The effect of eight-week walking program on plasma levels of amino acids in early/mid pubertal obese girls

Thirty-two obese girls aged 9-11 years-old took part in the present research. Based on the recommendations of the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) obesity was de- fined in the participants. All the girls had not experienced menarche and were checked to be within Tanner's stages of 2-3. Breast budding and pubic hair growth in the girls were done using the visual inspection method of Marshall and Tanner (23). The health of these girls was checked by an experienced physician, and none of them had a history of cardiovascular disease, asthma, diabetes, etc., and they did not have any kind of injuries or physical problems. After a complete description of how the research was carried out, written consent was received from their parents. In this study, the inclusion criteria were as follows: age range be- tween 9-11 years old; BMI ≥22.81, BMI ≥24.11, BMI ≥25.42 for ages 9, 10 and 11 year old respectively; Tanner's stages of 2-3; absence of diabetes mellitus; no history of neuromuscular, orthopedic, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases; not under any anti-fat, weight loss, and cortico- steroid drugs; lack of regular physical activity during the previous 6 months. Exclusion criteria were participants’ unwillingness to continue the study; the incidence of dis- eases during the study and drug use; orthopedic problems that prevented participation in a walking program and ir- regular participation in training sessions, also, absence in exercises (consecutive or intermittent) for more than 3 ses- sions in the training groups; participation in exercise ses- sions more than twice a week in the control group.
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Effects of 8 Weeks of Combined Training (Resistance and Endurance) on the Serum Vaspin Level in Obese Girls

Effects of 8 Weeks of Combined Training (Resistance and Endurance) on the Serum Vaspin Level in Obese Girls

Background: Vaspin is an adipokine secreted from fatty tissues that has serious effects on adipose tissues, muscles, liver, and inflammation. Purpose: The study aimed at determining the effects of 8 weeks of combined training (resistance and endurance) on the serum vaspin level in obese girls. Method: The examinees consisted of 25 obese female students (BMI> 30) from Sistan-Baluchestan University in 2016-17 academic years who voluntarily participated in the research. Samples were divided randomly into two groups: Training (n = 13) and Control (n = 12). Combined training group had both resistance training (5 stations of foot press, Lat pulldown, biceps curl, knee flexion and knee extension for 75-70 minutes) and; endurance was running on the treadmill; in the 2 first weeks, with 60% HR max for 25
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Effect of physical activity programme for 4 months on body composition, aerobic capacity and on the rating of perceived exertion in obese boys vs. obese girls Tunisians aged 10 to 12 years

Effect of physical activity programme for 4 months on body composition, aerobic capacity and on the rating of perceived exertion in obese boys vs. obese girls Tunisians aged 10 to 12 years

Results: For the boys group the Waist circumference loss was 2cm (P < 0.001), the percentage of Fat Body Mass (% FM) was decreased 2,6% (P < 0.001) and total Fat Free Mass (FFM) has increased 3,3kg (P < 0.001). For the girls group (GF), (WC) loss was 1cm (P < 0.05), the (% FM) was decreased 1.7% (P < 0.01) and total (FFM) has increased 2,7kg (P < 0.001). When we compared the variation of aerobic parameters between (GF) and (GG) , there were differences in maximal Metabolic Equivalent of Task (10,8% vs 4%, P = 0.2 ), in maximal workload (15% vs 3,3% P < 0.001 ) and in maximum Heart Rate (0,9% vs 3,5%; p=0.04). The scores of rating of perceived exertion at baseline and at the end were respectively for GG and GF (7,22±1 vs5,89±1,1,p<0,01) and (7,4±1 vs 6,3±0,8).
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Body image: a survey of children in Caribbean Bonaire

Body image: a survey of children in Caribbean Bonaire

Europe of whom 43% think they are normal weight or too thin. 17 Likewise, in the Health Behaviour in School- aged Children survey (229 614 children) conducted in 24 countries across Europe and North America in 2010, 19% overweight (including obese) boys and 36% overweight (including obese) girls underestimated their weight. 18 However, in Puerto Rico, more overweight (including obese) children (59%) misperceived their weight status. 17 In the USA, these percentages were even higher: 76% of overweight (excluding obesity) youth and 42% of obese youth did not have a reality-based body image. 16 Com- pared with the USA, in Bonaire, the percentage of obese children who underestimate their weight (children who classified their weight as underweight, normal weight or a little too fat) is much higher (boys 87%, girls 77%).
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Child-rated versus parent-rated quality of life of community-based obese children across gender and grade

Child-rated versus parent-rated quality of life of community-based obese children across gender and grade

Furthermore, after potential confounders had been controlled for, we found that 3rd- and 4th-grade obese boys had several physical and emotional difficulties, and that 5th- and 6th-grade obese girls had some social diffi- culties. These findings are in accord with Steinsbekk et al. [37], who reported that the elevated levels of psychopathology in obese children contributed to their impaired parent-reported QoL. Traditionally, boys are ex- pected to be muscular, independent, and tough [38-40]. However, because obese boys are substantially overweight, they generally do not have strong bodies (“are not muscu- lar”) or minds (“are not independent and tough”) [2,3], which probably affects how they rate their physical and emotional functioning. Likewise, girls need friends to share their emotions and to play group-oriented roles [38,40]. However, obese girls are generally not welcomed by their peers, and are teased about their weight during puberty [3,41,42]. Thus, obese girls may feel frustrated by social interaction. This information is helpful for health- care providers who plan intervention programs tailored to the children’s needs. For example, physical training and emotional support are important for obese 3rd- and 4th-grade boys, and social interaction groups for obese 5th- and 6th-grade girls.
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A study to assess the effectiveness of lifestyle modification package on knowledge and attitude regarding weight reduction among women with pcos at janet nursing home, Trichy.

A study to assess the effectiveness of lifestyle modification package on knowledge and attitude regarding weight reduction among women with pcos at janet nursing home, Trichy.

A study was conducted on effects of lifestyle management on prevention of Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) in obese adolescent girls. A sample of 59 obese girls between age group 12-18 year were included in the study and intervention was a 1 year lifestyle management based on diet, exercise training and behavior therapy. The study result shows that 26 girls had reduced body mass index improved most CRF(cardio respiratory fitness) and decreased their IMT (intimal medial thickness) also testosterone concentrations decreased and SHBG(sex hormone binding globulin) concentration increased significantly in girls with weight loss. The prevalence of amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea decreased in the girls with weight loss. The study concludes that weight loss due to lifestyle management is effective to treat menses irregularities, normalize androgens and improve CRF and IMT in obese adolescent girls with PCOS
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Intima-media thickness and arterial function in obese and non-obese children

Intima-media thickness and arterial function in obese and non-obese children

In this study, stiffness parameters in obese girls dif- fered significantly from those in normal weight sex- and age-matched controls which is not the case in male par- ticipants. Marlatt et al. [26] did not find significantly sex differences for arterial stiffness parameters in normal weight children. Ahimastos et al. [13] took pubertal- status of children into account and found significantly stiffer arteries in pre-pubertal girls compared to age- matched males, but not in post-pubertal boys and girls. Sex steroid hormones are known to influence vessel structure and function. Hence, authors hypothesize a modulating effect of male and female sex steroids, caus- ing a reduction in arterial stiffness in girls and an in- creased stiffness in boys during puberty. This may result in non-significantly different post-pubertal stiffness mea- sures. For aortic PWV, Hidvegi et al. [27] have shown a steep increase during puberty in boys and girls, which starts about 2 years earlier in girls than in boys. This earlier development in girls and presence of obesity might be the reason for significantly higher stiffness measures in obese girls in our study and identifies them as being at higher risk for early signs of atherosclerosis. Though, results of our study support a sex specific ap- proach to arterial distensibility with obese girls being at higher risk to develop early atherosclerosis.
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Self-Assessment of Pubertal Stage in Overweight Children

Self-Assessment of Pubertal Stage in Overweight Children

present investigation, we found that both obese and nonobese girls assessed pubic hair Tanner stage without significant bias, but when obese and nono- bese groups were analyzed separately, only nono- bese girls estimated their Tanner breast stage with- out significant bias. By contrast, obese girls significantly overestimated their Tanner breast stage. Although our study population consisted of chil- dren who were younger than those in some previous investigations of Tanner stage self-assessments, we do not believe that the children’s age significantly contributed to the overestimation of breast Tanner stage. We found no correlation between age and the ability to correctly assign either breast or pubic hair Tanner stage. Furthermore, that girls were able to assign their pubic hair stage with good accuracy suggests that a lack of the cognitive ability to under- stand the rating diagrams did not contribute to these findings.
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Obesity and Risk of Low Self-esteem: A Statewide Survey of Australian Children

Obesity and Risk of Low Self-esteem: A Statewide Survey of Australian Children

RESULTS. Obese children had significantly lower perceived athletic competence, physical appearance, and global self-worth than their normal weight peers. Obese girls scored lower in these domains than obese boys and also had reduced per- ceived social acceptance. Obese children were 2– 4 times more likely than their normal weight peers to have low domain competence. In terms of prevalence, 1 of 3 obese boys and 2 of 3 obese girls had low appearance competence, and 10% and 20%, respectively, had low global self-worth. Body dissatisfaction mediated most of the association between BMI and low competence in boys but not in girls.
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Effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) administration on body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in obese adolescent girls

Effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) administration on body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in obese adolescent girls

Methods: 22 obese girls 13 – 21 years old were followed for a randomized 6-month trial of rhGH vs. placebo/no treatment. At baseline and 6-months, DXA was performed for body composition, MRI to measure visceral, subcutaneous and total adipose tissue (VAT, SAT and TAT), and fasting blood drawn for IGF-1, inflammatory cardiovascular risk markers [soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM), high sensitivity CRP], lipids and HbA1C. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Twelve girls completed the 6-month visit. Baseline and mean 6-month change were compared between the groups using the Student t-test and the relationship between variables was determined through multiple regression analysis.
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Dietary Habits and Physical Activity of 18-Year-Old Adolescents in Relation to Overweight and Obesity

Dietary Habits and Physical Activity of 18-Year-Old Adolescents in Relation to Overweight and Obesity

According to a cross-sectional nutritional study (11), both obese girls and boys reduced the num- ber of meals per day, skipped the breakfast, and avoided sweets and salty snacks, which are more evident in girls, as a method to counteract the obesity. Consuming the first breakfast enables to maintain appropriate body weight, whereas avoiding the first breakfast to limit energy con- sumed during the day may lead to consuming more meals later in a day (12–15). Moreover, the consumption of breakfast provides a higher in- take of valuable nutrients in a diet, including ce- reals, fruit, vegetables, and dairy products (16). Sandercock et al. (17), during the examination of 4,326 children aged 10–16 years, proved a corre- lation between skipping breakfast consumption and higher BMI. Other well-designed studies also confirmed these results (13, 14, 18). We found similar associations showing that obese individu- als less frequent ate their first breakfast compared to eutrophic adolescents. These differences were particularly evident among obese boys and those with proper body mass. A lower proportion of obese adolescents consumed a meal during breaks between classes at school in comparison with normal BMI students. These differences were particularly evident among obese girls and those with proper body mass.
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Risk Factors of Poor Posture in Children and Its Prevalence

Risk Factors of Poor Posture in Children and Its Prevalence

They highlighted that 30.17% of the subjects who resulted with forward gravity center projection were also identified with posture problems such as calcaneus valgus, hyper-extension and knee valgus, pelvic anterior-version and head protraction. They concluded that the displacement of the gravity center because of excessive body weight could lead to compensatory posture position to redistribute the body weight. These can be the causes of posture deviation. As fast as possible individuals will prevent long term effects of obesity, this can reduce risk of posture deviations appearance as result of increased BMI. Silva L.R et al., 2011 after investigating postural changes in obese and non-obese children and adolescents, showed no significant differences between obese and normal weight girls due to the presence of postural deviations. But the results indicated a higher prevalence of muscle pain on obese girls muscle compared to normal weight girls. Obesity is a factor that affects the appearance of postural deviations, but is not the main factor. Also, in this study, was quoted that "obesity increases the probability for the appearance of posture deviations. (Silva L.R et al., 2011)
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A Comparison of Polysomnographic Variables between Adolescents with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Healthy Controls

A Comparison of Polysomnographic Variables between Adolescents with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Healthy Controls

Regarding sleep architecture in adults with PCOS, Ta- sali et al. reported that in comparison to healthy non-obese controls, extremely obese women with PCOS (mean BMI 41.1 kg/m 2 ± 2.9) had significantly lower sleep efficiency, longer sleep-onset latency, and less REM-sleep [9]. Our findings are in line with the data from Tasali et al. as in comparison to healthy normal- weight controls, the extremely obese girls with PCOS demonstrated significantly lower sleep efficiency, longer sleep-onset latency, and less REM-sleep. Vgontzas et al. found obese PCOS women (mean BMI 38.7 kg/m 2 ± 1.1) to have significantly longer sleep-onset latency than healthy controls, but found no difference in percentage of REM-sleep [6]. The healthy controls in the study by Vgontzas et al. had a mean BMI of 26.4 kg/m 2 ± 0.3 and were therefore overweight, a weight status between nor- mal-weight and obese. In accordance with Vgontzas et al. [6], the obese girls with PCOS in our study demonstrated significantly longer sleep-onset latency than healthy normal-weight and obese controls and did not differ sig- nificantly from the healthy obese girls regarding per- centage of REM-sleep. However, we found a significant difference in percentage of REM-sleep between the obese girls with PCOS and the healthy normal weight controls. We can only speculate whether Vgontzas et al. would have found a significant difference in percentage of REM-sleep between the study group and healthy nor- mal weight controls if they had divided their control group according to weight status, as the BMI of the women in their control group ranged from 16.1 to 59.9 kg/m 2 [6].
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Physical fitness characteristics of Omani primary school children according to body mass index

Physical fitness characteristics of Omani primary school children according to body mass index

compared to normal weight boys in lower limb power, and obese girls characterized by. 256[r]

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Childhood obesity is a growing and alarming problem, associated with several short-term and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular complications. In addition, it has also been suggested that excess adiposity during child- hood influences growth and pubertal develop- ment. Several studies have shown that during pre-pubertal years, obese patients present higher growth velocity and that this pre-puber- tal advantage tends to gradually decrease dur- ing puberty, leading to similar final heights between obese and non-obese children. Excess body weight might also influence pubertal onset, leading to earlier timing of puberty in girls. In addition, obese girls are at increased risk of hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary syndrome. In boys, a clear evidence does not exist: some studies suggesting an earlier puberty associated with the obesity status, whereas other have found a delayed pubertal onset. Overall, the existing evidence of an association between obesity and modification of growth and pubertal patterns underlines a further reason for fighting the epidemics of childhood obesity.
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Medical Costs of Childhood Obesity in Maine

Medical Costs of Childhood Obesity in Maine

The purpose of this study is to examine the medical costs of childhood obesity in Maine. Primary data collected on school-aged children across the state, supplemented with statistics from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, indicate that 7.8 percent of Maine children and adolescents are obese. These statistics combined with adult obesity rates from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention show that 23.1 percent of the overall Maine population is obese. Using information from published academic studies, we find that the annual medical costs of obesity in Maine are an estimated $452.7 million. Childhood obesity is particularly problematic because it contributes to higher medical costs today, and in the future because obese children and adolescents are more likely than their non-obese peers to become obese adults. The (discounted) medical costs of obesity associated with the current cohort of Maine children and adolescents — both those who obese and non-obese — will be an estimated $1.2 billion over the next twenty years. The study considers a few different outcomes that could lower the future medical costs associated with the current cohort of Maine children and adolescents as they transition into adulthood. Efforts could be aimed at reducing the incidence of childhood and adolescent obesity, or decreasing the likelihoods that children and adolescents—regardless of their current obesity status—become obese adults.
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Relationship between leptin levels and lipid profile in obesity adult in Puskesmas Nanggalo Padang working area

Relationship between leptin levels and lipid profile in obesity adult in Puskesmas Nanggalo Padang working area

Methods: Comparative cross sectional research design. The research was carried out in the Nanggalo Padang Health Center, Biomedical and Biochemistry Laboratory, Medical Faculty of Andalas University in December 2017 until August 2018. The sample was 22 obese adults and 22 non-obese adults. The sample was taken by consecutive sampling technique. Serum leptin levels was measured using the ELISA method and lipid profile using the CHOD- PAP and GPO-PAP methods. Data analysis using data normality test with Shapiro Wilk, mann whitney T-Test and correlation.
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Lifestyle Trends and Obesity among College Going Girls of Delhi

Lifestyle Trends and Obesity among College Going Girls of Delhi

Fathers involved in different occupations are found interested in encouraging their daughters to continue studies after schooling. Servicemen and businessmen are found highly concerned about the same for which they have even allowed their girls to go to different cities and towns other than their native land also for pursuing academics. Furthermore, those from agricultural background as well as retired men are not hesitant to let their daughters stay away from home for study purpose. Mothers, be it homemakers, running a business or involved in any ser- vice are equally focused to provide education to their daughters either at their own place or far away from home.
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Eating disorder examination questionnaire : factor structure for adolescent girls and boys

Eating disorder examination questionnaire : factor structure for adolescent girls and boys

from the original shape and weight concern subscales), a Restriction subscale (containing four items from the original restraint subscale and an item related to fear of weight gain) and a Preoccupation and Eating Concern subscale (containing all five items from the original eating concern subscale and two additional items). Scores on all subscales and the global score were significantly higher for girls than boys. Furthermore, girls were more likely to report participating in eating disordered behaviors than boys, with the exception of any or regular laxative misuse, regular self-induced vomiting and regular excessive exercise.
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Junior PNB 2012

Junior PNB 2012

• Encourage the girls to use award activities as a springboard to taking things further—even if those further activities don’t count towards an award. Help them not to expect a badge for everything they do so that they can learn to feel a sense of accomplishment for a job well done.

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