in international development and global governance. It is within this context that the OpenSociety Institute can be found. Like most private philanthropic enterprises, the OSI is a legally independent organization. However, various units of the OSI are to be found in partnership with UNDP, the World Bank or parts of the European Commission. As OSI expands its “global agenda, partnerships with other donors are becoming ever more significant” (OSI, 2006: 174). Many more organizations that are recipients of OSI grants are likewise enmeshed in regional policy dialogues, international alliances or multilateral initiatives. Instead of global civil society being a flat open sphere for apolitical ‘associational life’, ‘social engagement’ and ‘non- governmental public action’, it is also a politicised domain traversed by rich and powerful groups and networks seeking influence through policy analysis and quiet diplomacy or lobbying. With their substantial financial resources, foundations are in a prime position for promoting norms and setting agendas for policy debate.
The Soros national foundations operate as autonomous organizations with a local board of directors and considerable independence in determining how to implement the ideals of the opensociety. Due to an ethos of localism and of budgetary control within national boards, “the Soros national foundations are often perceived in their host countries as being organizations of those countries” rather than subordinates of OSI-NY or subject to the personal whims of Soros (Carothers, 1999: 273). In addition, there have been gradual pressures on the national foundations to become more self sufficient and less reliant on OSI funds. To varying degrees, these foundations participate in Network wide activities coordinated from New York and Budapest. This paper is primarily focused on the network wide activities and Initiatives as these are most transnational in design and holder greater potential for policy transfer.
Finally, of course, it is necessary retain a sense of proportion. While the library profession may consider that its contribution to opensociety to be self-evident, others may not agree. Roberts (1992) speaks of ‘… the contribution of world librarianship to individual and social wellbeing, with a status not less than education, economy, livelihood and health. The contribution to political life and cultural life that information can make is self evident, and there must therefore be full public means of provision’.. But this is an over optimistic assessment. For one thing, there are other needs and rights which may seem of more immediate importance than access to information: as Yilmaz (1999) puts it ‘the phrase “right to information” for a person who is hungry, who does not have enough money to live, who is not educated, and who does not have freedom, does not have any meaning’. The commendable proposition that access to information may be a powerful aid in overcoming all these difficulties is not an obvious one.
Chesterfield et al. 2010), but more are needed to help researchers better understand our coach education organisations and institutions, especially the extent to which they can be characterised as open or closed. In addition to this important work, more critical sociological studies – of the sort recently undertaken by Taylor and Garratt (2010) and Piggott (2012) – will be needed to reveal, and therefore challenge, the kinds of deeply engrained cultural practices that are likely to inhibit progress towards the OS. Studies of formal, non-formal and informal educational experiences in different cultures, across different sports, and at different levels would be immensely useful (coaching research in the UK, for example, tends to be expert-focussed and soccer-centric). Critical
Having established the size of its national operation, and its self-identity as it engages political society, the third step is to see to what extent it has engaged civil society, in an effort at enunciating a public theology. Heinrich Bedford-Strom argues in “An Open Church in an OpenSociety: Civil Society and an Element of Theological Ethics,” that churches can usefully en- gage civil society in several broad areas, including the formation of community networks, social services and serving the needs of the poor (Bedford-Strohm, 2010). These good works may frame a public theol- ogy for believers and non-believers alike, and are in clear harmony with Scripture: “even if you do not believe me, believe the works” (John 10:38). Saint Francis of Assisi is also seen as a patron of using good
dividual, but to the impersonal order; and, lastly, that the administrative staff is com pletely separated from ownership. All these characteristics are in accord with Pop per's demand to change the question 'Who shall lead?' to the question 'How can we limit the leadership?'. Popper's anger at his contemporary closed societies, the Third Reich and the Soviet Union, was fed by his dislike of a social order and its admini stration that had lost all means of legitimacy. In other words, Weber's bureaucracy with its impersonal order is a step away from a feudal towards a 'rational', rule-bound order set up to guarantee the rule of law. In Popperian terms, this is a step from clo sure towards openness. This can also be seen in Popper's notion that the societal as sumption of humans as equal in value (though unequal in character) is a trait of openness, and closely connected with his claim for equal opportunities in an opensociety. Only a bureaucracy can guarantee equal opportunities, for the establishment of equal opportunities and the abidance to a law to treat individuals equally requires some sort o f administration. The total absence of bureaucracy is equal to a re establishment of feudal, charismatic, or arbitrary forms of dominance. The abolition of bureaucracy in totalitarian systems as documented by Gross (1984) with respect to a communist/military case, or by Bim (1986: 363-395) with respect to the replace ment of bureaucracy by personal dependence in the Third Reich's SS, is quite clear in this respect. Against this background, Nottumo's (1999) account of bureaucracy be ing an enemy of the open society28 appears to be rather superficial.
In defence of the actual text, it should be realised that in most EC Member States the concept of an opensociety is still far from being fully accepted. Knowledge gives power and the administrations-public authorities, the ruling political parties or economic operators and other vested interests have normally not great interest in transparency of public administration. Seen from this angle, and comparing the environmental sector with other sectors such as food of health administrations, transport, state aid or energy authorities, it remains remarkable that Directive 2003/4 achieves, in the follow-up of the Aarhus Convention, this amount of openness of public administrations. I therefore consider that this legislation complies with the objective of a high level of environmental protection as laid down in Article 174 EC Treaty.
In 1963 the Buchanan Report in the UK advocated a combination of new road capacity, improved public transport and traffic restraint as a means to tackle congestion. Forty years on and the advice from many transport experts remains the same. However, the scale and complexity of the problems associated with a mobility-dependent society have grown. The need for politicians to make tough but realistic policy decisions on transport is now becoming unavoidable. They must confront the realities of living with the car as must the general public. Policymakers now also have social well-being and sustainable development moving higher on their agendas alongside transport. Against such a backdrop, this paper makes the case for transport research, policy and practice to acknowledge more fully the inherent links between transport and society. It argues that greater recognition and understanding of such links is crucial to confronting the realities we face. Transport does not merely serve society, it shapes society, as in turn society shapes transport. The future of each is dependent on the other and we must recognise this. The paper advocates in turn that the transport profession must move from its heartlands in engineering and economics to also embrace more fully such disciplines as sociology and psychology. A factual picture of the many facets of present-day society is presented and the implications for travel demand are discussed. Through considering phenomena such as social norms and habitual behaviour, the paper then argues that the travel choices and behaviour of individuals are not simply a matter of economic optimisation. This points to the need for decision makers to be furnished with better evidence concerning the transport problems we face and the potential efficacy of measures that might be taken. Discussion of public attitudes and the role of the media is included in the context of assessing how politicians can be encouraged and supported in their implementation of realistic but unpopular policies. Evidence and experience within the paper are UK based although many of the issues and arguments apply worldwide.
These altered the thinking of journal editors about the type of papers they wanted to publish, as well as the thinking of authors about which journal to use for their publications. An important innovation is publishing online and thereby saving on printing and postage costs. Open Access, that is the publishing of papers that all readers can access without charge, is a challenging development for established journals. John Huchra, a former scientific editor of the Astrophysical Journal, suggests that the only way for journals to stay relevant is to maintain high quality refereeing and to identify ‘value added’ services such as the archiving of papers and data, and providing fully linked cross references. 9
Saying that religion is the opium of the people, Marx wanted to draw the attention of men on the manipulations that religious leaders could exercise over the believers in the name of God. To Marx religion is illusory happiness or short happiness and not the happiness that last. Somehow he sees the religion like a big hole that delay the realiza- tion of true freedom. That’s why according to him, religion should disappear so that men could face their real situation and find the way to go out of it. According to Marx, religion is an expression of material realities and economic injustice. Thus, problems in religion are ultimately problems in society. Religion is not the disease, but merely a symptom. It is used by oppressors to make people feel better about the distress they are experiencing because of poverty and being exploited.
The answer that is compatible with the vision of a good society spelled out here is that the best way to change the direction of a society is to have megalogues about the substance of members’ values and the intensity of their commitments to values they affirm. By megalogue, I mean a society-wide dialogue, one that links many community dialogues into one, often nation- wide, give and take. While at first it may seem that it is impossible to have a society-wide dialogue, such megalogues, often triggered by some dramatic event or deliberately staged drama, occur almost incessantly about one topic or another. For example, oil spills served to trigger megalogues about the environment; the Thomas-Hill hearings about sexual harassment; the impeach- ment hearings about what constitutes offenses that will drive an elected official out of office. It is true that megalogues are fuzzy in the sense that one cannot determine a priori with any precision when the process will be completed, which values will prevail, or which new public policies will be endorsed. In effect, one can only predict that the process often will be disjointed, emotive, repetitive, and meandering. But these qualities are earmarks of processes that truly engage a mass of people in examining, rede- fining, and redirecting their values and moral commitments; they point to the kind of moral dialogues that are essential for truly endorsed social change. All this is not to deny that laws and public policies have a place in societal change, including moral regeneration, but rather to stress that they are not the main factor. Most importantly, in order for a good society to evolve, the laws and public policies themselves must reflect the change in values rather than significantly diverge from them. This is the case because the more a society relies on members’ convictions that the societal demands on them are just, and the more they conduct themselves voluntarily in line with these values because they themselves subscribe to them, the better the society. To put it more sharply, the good society is not first and foremost one of law- and-order, but one based on shared moral values that the members affirm.
program, and running a book loan scholarship program. Eventually the frustration with the escalating costs of commercial text books and the online homework systems that charged for access led to action. First, David developed IMathAS, open source online math homework software that runs WAMAP.org and MyOpenMath.com. Through this platform, he became an integral part of a vibrant sharing and learning community of teachers from around Washington State that support and contribute to WAMAP. These pioneering efforts, supported by dozens of other dedicated faculty and financial support from the Transition Math Project, have led to a system used by thousands of students every quarter, saving hundreds of thousands of dollars over comparable commercial offerings.