Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

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Validity and reliability of a handheld blood glucose monitor during exercise and an oral glucose tolerance test

Validity and reliability of a handheld blood glucose monitor during exercise and an oral glucose tolerance test

The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity and reliability of the handheld Nova Max Plus blood glucose monitor during an oral glucose tolerance test and 60-minute bout of exercise. Thirty subjects (mean age±SD=22.3±1.9 years; body mass=77.6±14.2 kg) volunteered for an oral glucose tolerance test or a 60-minute treadmill test. Blood glucose concentrations were measured from the fingertip at six time points during both tests. The reference method of blood glucose analysis was the Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) 2300. Our results indicated that the blood glucose values provided by the Nova Max Plus were significantly (p<.05) greater than the YSI 2300 at all-time points of the oral glucose tolerance test and treadmill test. In addition, the Nova Max Plus exhibited an overall mean absolute relative deviation (±SD) of 9.0 (±7.0) and did not meet the 95% accuracy requirements of ISO 15197:2013. The Bland-Altman plot for constant error (YSI 2300 – Nova Max Plus) versus the reference method (YSI 2300) indicated an average negative bias (-8.2 mg·dL -1 ) that increased (r=-0.23) at higher blood glucose values. Intra-device reliability analyses for
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EFFECTS OF ‘CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS’ AND ‘CUCUMIS CALLOSUS’ ON ORAL GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST

EFFECTS OF ‘CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS’ AND ‘CUCUMIS CALLOSUS’ ON ORAL GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST

The term diabetes was probably derived by Apollonius of Memphis around 250 BC. Diabetes is first recorded in English, in the form diabete. Diabetes mellitus is derived from the Greek word diabetes meaning siphon – (pass through) and the Latin word mellitus meaning honeyed or sweet. This is because in diabetes excess sugar is found in blood as well as the urine. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is vital for the characterization of metabolic syndrome, the natural evolution from prediabetes to Type-2 diabetes, and characterization of the metabolic actions of cardiovascular and metabolic drugs. Although the OGTT is rarely used as a diagnostic test for Type-2 diabetes it is widely used as a sensitive indicator of gestational diabetes. Phytochemical screening revealed that the fruits of C. colocynthis L. and C. callosus L. contain tertiary and quaternary alkaloids, glycoside, carbohydrates and saponin components. These results suggest that the ethanolic extract of fruits of C. colocynthis L. and C. callosus L. possesses oral hypoglycemic effect and its combination (C. colocynthis and C. callosus) produced synergistic action at same dose.
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Seasonality, temperature and pregnancy oral glucose tolerance test results in Australia

Seasonality, temperature and pregnancy oral glucose tolerance test results in Australia

Full methodology for the HAPO study has been previ- ously described [7]. Briefly, each woman underwent a standard 75-g oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) after an overnight fast, between 24- and 32-weeks’ gestation. Venous plasma glucose (VPG) levels were taken in the fasting state and at one and two hours after the glucose load. All laboratory analyses were stored on ice and processed in an air-conditioned environment at the HAPO study central laboratory in Belfast, UK as previ- ously described. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated at the time of the OGTT visit. Ethnicity was self-reported by each partici- pant. Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was measured in the fasting state and serum C-peptide levels were measured fasting and one-hour post glucose load. Fetal blood was obtained from the umbilical artery immedi- ately following delivery. All procedures were designed to ensure extensive quality control and to reduce recruit- ment bias. [8]. HOMA-IR values were calculated utilis- ing fasting VPG and fasting C-peptide values [9]. Climate date and average monthly temperature was derived from the Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology. The Brisbane station is 1.5 km away from the Mater Hospital, where all Brisbane blood samples were taken. The Newcastle station is 5.3 km away from the John Hunter Hospital at which Newcastle blood samples were taken. We do not have records of the participants’ home addresses. The average temperature for each month was recorded as a monthly maximum and minimum temperature for each site for each month of each year. The mean of these two readings was used as the monthly average daily temperature, matched for HAPO site, month and year of the OGTT collection date [10].
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Impaired Glucose Regulation in Cirrhosis Liver – The Utility of Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

Impaired Glucose Regulation in Cirrhosis Liver – The Utility of Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

degree of hyperglycaemia is an important prognostic factor in assessing the long term survival; and hence early detection by comprehensive diagnostic approach is mandatory. In normal individuals 80 % of glucose is contributed by glycogenolysis after a prolonged fasting state. The hepatic glycogen is decreased in patients with chronic liver disease, which affects glycogenolysis adversely. Amino acids and lipids, the precursor of gluconeogenesis although are utilised prematurely to maintain the blood glucose levels, the fasting low blood sugar levels are not corrected. This is one reason for the utilisation of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in screening for diabetes in CLD, over fasting plasma glucose. The main mechanism for the carbohydrate intolerance in CLD includes insulin resistance and impaired secretion of insulin from the pancreatic cells.
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Significance of the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Newly Detected Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Significance of the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Newly Detected Pulmonary Tuberculosis

The aim of present study is to determine the significance of association of impaired glucose tolerance in pulmonary tubercolsis. To determine the prevalence rate of impaired glucose tolerance in tubercolsis patients by means of oral glucose tolerance test in newly detected pulmonary tubercolsis patients, attending the TB clinic of Government Coimbatore Medical College Hospital, Coimbatore.

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Value of oral glucose tolerance test in the acute phase of myocardial infarction

Value of oral glucose tolerance test in the acute phase of myocardial infarction

Use of the Shapiro-Wilk test demonstrated that the investigated variables were not normally distributed. Parameters are presented as arithmetic mean (M) ± standard deviation (SD) for quantitative data or as per- centage distribution (%) for qualitative attributes. We applied suitable non-parametric tests (the Mann- Whitney unpaired rank sum test, the Kruskal-Wallis unpaired rank sum test, and the Wilcoxon matched- paired rank sum test) for comparisons of quantitative dependent and independent variables. For evaluation of correlations between quantitative variables we used the Spearman’s correlation coefficient and the test of signifi- cance for this coefficient. Qualitative data were analyzed with the c 2 test (including Yates’ correction when indi- cated) or the McNamara test for unrelated and related qualitative variables respectively.
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Effect of Flunarizine on Blood Glucose Levels in Normal Albino Rats Through Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

Effect of Flunarizine on Blood Glucose Levels in Normal Albino Rats Through Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

The CBG differences at 2 ½ hours remain as high as at the 0 minutes of the OGTT thus indicating the persistent effect of flunarizine when given orally daily for a period of 5 successive days even though the time of peak plasma concentration of the stat oral dose is only 1-2 h. This gives an indirect evidence that the inhibition of insulin release by flunarizine persists with a daily dosing for 5 days irrespective of the of glucose challenge which is highlighted by the hyperglycemia even after glucose challenge is completed (150 minutes of OGTT).
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<p>Relationship of Two-Hour Plasma Glucose and Abdominal Visceral Fat with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content in Women with Different Glucose Metabolism Status</p>

<p>Relationship of Two-Hour Plasma Glucose and Abdominal Visceral Fat with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content in Women with Different Glucose Metabolism Status</p>

Background: Several studies have reported the relationship of diabetes mellitus (DM) and obesity with bone mineral density (BMD), but the conclusions remain unclear. This study aimed to provide more information for the relationship of plasma glucose and abdominal visceral fat (AVF) with BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) in women with different glucose metabolism status. Methods: Patients were screened by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and were divided into three groups: normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n=132), pre-diabetes mellitus (pre-DM, n=28) and newly diagnosed type 2 DM (T2DM, n=27) groups. Plasma glucose concentra- tions, anthropometric measurements, body composition, and BMD were measured. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), pearson correlation, and multiple linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between BMD, plasma glucose, AVF, and other variables. Results: The percentage of subjects with osteoporosis or low BMD was 29.9%, and 66.7% subjects in T2DM group were signi fi cantly higher than that in the pre-DM (28.6%) and NGT (22.7%) groups (p=0.005 and p<0.001, respectively). Both BMD at femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) of T2DM group were lower than those in NGT group (p=0.009 and p=0.003, respectively), and BMC of T2DM group was lower than those of NGT and pre-DM groups (p<0.001). The results of statistical analysis revealed that both two-hour plasma glucose (2-h PG) and age showed negative correlation with BMC, FN BMD, and LS BMD. AVF showed positive correlation with BMC and LS BMD. Furthermore, the lean mass (LM) showed independent positive effects on BMC.
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<p>Effects of Hydroxysafflor Yellow A on the PI3K/AKT Pathway and Apoptosis of Pancreatic &beta;-Cells in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Rats</p>

<p>Effects of Hydroxysafflor Yellow A on the PI3K/AKT Pathway and Apoptosis of Pancreatic &beta;-Cells in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Rats</p>

Results: The treatment with HSYA evidently reduced fasting-blood glucose and insulin resistance in T2DM rats, indicated by results from fasting-blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, fasting insulin levels and histology of pancreas islets. The Western blot results revealed that HSYA reversed the down-regulation of PI3K and AKT in liver. The TUNEL assay analysis of pancreatic tissue showed that HSYA could inhibit the apoptosis of pan- creatic β -cells to a certain extent. Moreover, HSYA-treatment increased the levels of glyco- gen synthase and hepatic glycogen and improved lipid metabolism by reducing the triglyceride, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, even though it did not change the rats ’ body weights.
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SERPYLLIFOLIA LEAVES EXTRACT ON STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

SERPYLLIFOLIA LEAVES EXTRACT ON STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

In oral glucose tolerance test aqueous, alcoholic and hydroalcoholic extracts improved glucose tolerance at 90 min and 150 min suggesting peripheral utilization of glucose. ASHAE was more potent when compared to ASAE, and aqueous extract (ASAqE) exhibited decreased glucose tolerance effect at a dose of 100 mg kg -1 . Therefore, aqueous extract (ASAqE) is not evaluated for further investigation. Streptozotocin is extensively employed to screen natural products for their insulinomimetic, insulinotropic and other antihyperglycemic activities 11 - streptozotocin- induced hyperglycemia by cytotoxic action on pancreatic beta cells 12 .
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Association between visceral adiposity index, hirsutism and cardiometabolic risk factors in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: A cross-sectional study

Association between visceral adiposity index, hirsutism and cardiometabolic risk factors in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: A cross-sectional study

Methods A total of 99 patients aged 18-40 years with PCOS diagnosed by the Rotterdam consensus criteria- 2003 and a hirsutism score of 8 or more according to the Ferriman-Gallway Score (FGS) were studied. BMI, WC, fasting lipid profile, serum leptin, insulin, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free-androgen index (FAI), fasting blood glucose (FBG) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were determined. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-beta, HOMA-insulin resistance (IR) and VAI were calculated. Diameter and rate of hair growth at sideburns and chin; density of hair at sideburns were measured. Data were analyzed by SPSS-22.0.
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Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in patients with schizophrenia, before and after antipsychotic treatment.

Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in patients with schizophrenia, before and after antipsychotic treatment.

Background: Treatment with antipsychotics increases the risk of developing diabetes in patients of schizophrenia but this diabetogenic potential of different antipsychotics seems to be different. Moreover, there may be an independent link between schizophrenia and diabetes. So we plan to study the prevalence of glucose dysregulation in patients of schizophrenia before and after treatment with various antipsychotics. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients (32 males and 18 females) diagnosed with schizophrenia were evaluated for glucose dysregulation using oral glucose tolerance test, initially (drug naive) and after antipsychotic treatment. Age‑ and sex‑matched healthy volunteer group of 50 subjects (35 males and 15 females) was taken for comparison. Results were interpreted using American Diabetic Association criteria. Results: Though the glycemic status of the patient group was comparable with healthy controls initially but antipsychotic treatment was associated with glucose dysregulation. For first 6 weeks the antipsychotic (olanzapine, risperidone, haloperidol and aripiprazole)‑induced glucose dysregulation was comparable, which was seen to be maximum with the olanzapine‑treated group at the end of this study, 14 weeks. Conclusion: We conclude that antipsychotic treatment of nondiabetic drug naive schizophrenia patients was associated with adverse effects on glucose regulation. For initial 6 weeks the antipsychotic‑induced glucose dysregulation was comparable, which was seen to be maximum with olanzapine at the end of study, i.e. 14 weeks. Keeping this at the back of mind we can stabilize a patient initially with a more effective drug, olanzapine, and later on shift to one with less metabolic side effects. Key words: Antipsychotic agents, diabetes mellitus, glucose tolerance test, schizophrenia
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Improved insulin sensitivity in mice heterozygous for PPAR γ deficiency

Improved insulin sensitivity in mice heterozygous for PPAR γ deficiency

OGTT. Another group of mice was subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at approximately 8 months of age. Animals were fasted for 6 hours, and a basal blood sample (225 µL) was collected from the tip of the tail (t = 0 minutes). This was achieved by nicking the tail tip with a scalpel blade, and gently stripping the tail and collecting the blood in a heparinized capillary tube. The mice were then gavaged with dextrose (1.5 g/kg), and additional blood samples were collected at 15, 30, and 60 minutes. All blood samples were spun and the separated plasma was immediately measured for glucose using a Clinical 2300 STAT Glucose & Lac- tate Analyzer from YSI Inc. (Yellow Springs, Ohio, USA). The remaining plasma was frozen for later deter- mination of insulin levels.
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Insulin receptor substrate 1 variants in non insulin dependent diabetes

Insulin receptor substrate 1 variants in non insulin dependent diabetes

Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) plays an important role in insulin-stimulated signaling mechanisms. Therefore, we investigated the frequency and clinical significance of variants in the coding region of this gene in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM). Initial screening included a population-based sample of 40 Finnish patients with typical NIDDM. Applying single strand conformation polymorphism analysis the following amino acid substitutions were found among the 40 NIDDM patients: Gly818-Arg, Ser892Gly, and Gly971Arg. The first two variants have not been previously reported. Additional samples of 72 patients with NIDDM and 104 healthy control subjects with completely normal oral glucose tolerance test and a negative family history of diabetes were screened. The most common polymorphism was the Gly971Arg substitution which was found in 11 (9.8%) of 112 NIDDM patients and in 9 (8.7%) of 104 control subjects. The Gly818Arg substitution was found in 2 (1.8%) of NIDDM patients and in 2 (1.9%) of control subjects, and the Ser892Gly substitution was found in 3 (2.7%) NIDDM patients and in 1 (1.0%) control subject. The Gly971Arg substitution was not associated with an impairment in insulin secretion capacity (estimated by insulin responses in an oral glucose tolerance test or by the hyperglycemic clamp) or insulin action (estimated by the euglycemic clamp). Of the three amino acid substitutions observed Ser892Gly is the most interesting one since it abolishes […]
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Antidiabetic Activity of Pandanus odoratissimus Root Extract

Antidiabetic Activity of Pandanus odoratissimus Root Extract

The aqueous ethanolic extract of Pandanus odoratissimus (Pandanaceae) root was tested for its effect on blood glucose levels in normal and diabetic rats. Hypoglycemia was observed in basal conditions when tested at an oral dose of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight. The ethanolic extract has displayed a significant dose-dependent antihyperglycemic activity in oral glucose tolerance test and also found to reduce the increased blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (37% at 150 mg/kg and 51% at 300 mg/kg body weight). Chronic administration (10 days) of the ethanolic extract of root significantly reduced the blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The extract was also found to reduce the increased blood urea, inhibit the body weight reduction and leucopenia induced by alloxan administration. The ethanolic extract was found to effectively scavenge the DPPH and lipid peroxide free radicals in vitro with an IC value of 50
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Volume 3 | Issue 4 - 2013

Volume 3 | Issue 4 - 2013

In the present study we have employed the screening of anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipedimic and anti-oxidant activities of ATH-2K13 formulation in Streptopzotocin induced diabetic rats. It is a chemical method of induction. To induce the type-1 diabetes mellitus 65mg/kg body weight of Streptozotocin is used. This dose is given by dissolve in normal saline solution and administered through intraperitoneal route. Before the major screening is employed acute oral toxicity studies and oral glucose tolerance test was conducted and the results were shown in table no-3and 4.The blood glucose levels were gradually decreased from day 1 to day 14.The regular interval blood glucose levels were shown in table no-5. The in-vivo anti-oxidant data was mentioned in table no-6. The total biochemical parameters of blood serum were mentioned in table no.7.The obtained data is biochemical estimations were expressed as mean ± standard error of mean (S.E.M.) and analysed for ONE WAY ANOVA and post hoc Dennett’s t-test using computerized Graph Pad Prism In Stat version 5.0, Graph Pad software. Differences between groups were considered significant at P<0.001 and very significant at P < 0.0001 levels.
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ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM (LINN ) STEM BARKS IN NORMAL AND ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM (LINN ) STEM BARKS IN NORMAL AND ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

For Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) animals were divided into six groups. Group VII to Group XI was prepared for testing hypoglycemic effects after glucose induced hyperglycemia in rats. Group VII received only vehicle methyl cellulose. Group VIII was selected for positive control, which did not receive either metformin, or plant extracts. Group IX stands for metformin control. Group X, XI and XII received SA 100, 200 and SA 400 mg/kg S. anacardium bark extract that had significant antihyperglycemic activity.

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“ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MADHUCA LONGIFOLIA BARK” by Srirangam Prashanth*, Annampelli Anil Kumar, Burra Madhu, Yennamaneni Pradeep Kumar, India.

“ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MADHUCA LONGIFOLIA BARK” by Srirangam Prashanth*, Annampelli Anil Kumar, Burra Madhu, Yennamaneni Pradeep Kumar, India.

A wide range of synthetic oral antidiabetic drugs such as sulfonylureas and biguanides have been used for 50 years now in the treatment of diabetes. However, they have not been of much benefit in controlling the complications of the disease. In the present study, the antihyperglycemic activity of ethanolic bark extract of Madhuca longifolia was assessed in normal and STZ induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of a single dose of ethanolic bark extract of Madhuca longifolia caused a significant decrease in serum glucose level in normal rats. A dose of 200 mg/kg of ethanolic extract produced maximum glucose lowering effect, whereas 100 mg/kg of ethanolic extract showed a significant hypoglycemic effect throughout the study period. In the oral glucose tolerance test, the Madhuca longifolia bark extract showed significant reduction of serum glucose levels and these effects were dose dependent. The extract of Madhuca longifolia bark displayed a significant hypoglycemic effect in normal rats. The main mechanism by which the extracts bring the hypoglycemic effects most probably involves stimulation of peripheral glucose consumption.
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ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF STROBILANTHES ASPERRIMUS IN RATS

ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF STROBILANTHES ASPERRIMUS IN RATS

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder initially characterized by a loss of glucose homeostasis with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Irrespective of somany synthetic drugs, Napralert database lists over 1200 species of plants representing 725 genera in 183 families extending from the marine algae and fungi with antidiabeticactivity. Literature survey reveals that Strobilanthes asperrimus (Family: Acanthaceae) is used as an antidiabetic agent by the traditional healers of Chhattisgarh. So an attempt has been taken for scientific exploration of this plant as an antidiabetic agent. Preliminary phytochemical test reveals that there is presence of alkaloids, glycoside, flavonoids, phenolic and tannins compounds. Antidiabetic activity was estimated by alloxan induced diabetic model. Ethanolic extracts of S. asperrimus have shown significantly decerease (P< 0.001) in glucose level for long period of time. S. asperrimus at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight) show low blood glucose level 190.16 ± 5.77 mg/dl as compared to dose of 100 mg/kg body weight shows 208.16 ± 5.13 mg/dl, Control, shows 376.5 ± 14.03 mg/dl and Standard Drug Metformin at the dose 120 mg/kg body weight) shows 183.33 ± 14.06 mg/dl respectively. In oral glucose tolerance test in hyperglycemic rats both extracts dose have shown considerable reduction in blood glucose levels. The maximum possibility is that the presence of flavonoids, tannins and alkaloids may responsible for hypoglycemic activity of ethanolic extracts of S. asperrimus.
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Acute lysine supplementation does not improve hepatic or peripheral insulin sensitivity in older, overweight individuals

Acute lysine supplementation does not improve hepatic or peripheral insulin sensitivity in older, overweight individuals

primed constant infusion and [1- 13 C]glucose oral in- gestion) during an oral glucose tolerance test in older, overweight individuals. Instead of relying solely on glucose AUC, HOMA-IR, or ISI that may have interpretative limitations in acute or intervention-based studies [16], this dual tracer approach allowed us to clearly delineate glucose kinetics during OGTT, which is commonly uti- lized in the clinical setting. Nonetheless, the data gener- ated from all methods were uniformly consistent, and our results were not consistent with our original hypotheses. In fact, we found no significant differences in glucose AUC, HOMA-IR or ISI between lysine supplementation and control. More specifically, lysine supplementation had
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