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Decomposition of Organic Substrates and their Effect on Mungbean Growth in Two Soils of the Mekong Delta

Decomposition of Organic Substrates and their Effect on Mungbean Growth in Two Soils of the Mekong Delta

Agricultural land use in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam is dominated by intensive irrigated rice cropping systems on both alluvial and acid sulfate soils. A stagnating and occa- sionally declining productivity may be linked on the alluvial soils to low N use efficiency and low soil organic matter content while on acid sulfate soils to acidity, Al toxicity and P deficiency. For economic reasons, farmers increasingly diversify their cropping system by replacing the dry season rice by high-value horticultural crops grown under upland conditions. However, upland cropping is likely to further exacerbate the soil-related problems. Organic substrates from decentralized waste and waste water management are widely available and may help to alleviate the reported soil problems. During the dry season of 2003/2004, the effect of the application of various types and rates of locally available waste products on crop performance was evaluated at both an alluvial and an acid sulfate soil site. The C and N mineralization dynamics of nine organic substrates from waste and waste water treatment were determined by anaerobic (N) and aerobic (C) incubation in the laboratory. The response of 12 week-old mungbean (dry matter accumulation) to substrate application (1.5 – 6.0 Mg ha −1 ) was evaluated on a degraded alluvial and on an acid sulfate soil. In the alluvial soil, largest mineral- ization rates were observed from anaerobic sludge. Biomass increases in 12 week-old mungbean ranged from 25-98% above the unfertilized control. In the acid sulfate soil, highest net-N release rates were observed from aerobic composts with high P content. Mungbean biomass was related to soil pH and exchangeable Al 3+ and was highest with the application of aerobic composts. We conclude that the use of organic substrates in the rice-based systems of the Mekong Delta needs to be soil specific.
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Organic substrates for neem seedlings production

Organic substrates for neem seedlings production

The quality of the seedlings is affected by the conditions in which they are produced, especially by the substrate used. According to Wagner Jr. et al. (2007), the substrate is responsible for the fast and proper root growth, reflecting in the plant vigor. The substrate must support the changes, ensuring the development of a high quality plant in a short time and at low cost. It should present appropriate physical, chemical and biological characteristics to enable the full growth of root and shoot parts (Setubal and Afonso Neto, 2000). As it is used in the development stage in which the plant is very susceptible to microorganisms attack and is not very tolerant to drought, it must gather characteristics that promote moisture retention and nutrient availability to meet the plant's needs (Cunha et al., 2006). The use of organic substrates of own formulation is a viable alternative for the production of seedlings, since the commercial substrates may be expensive or unavailable in certain regions. In addition, they do not always present the best responses, as reported by Menezes Junior et al. (2000), who observed better results with own substrates than with commercial ones in the production of lettuce seedlings.
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The Effect of Organic Substrates Application on the Amylolytic Activity of Urban Soils

The Effect of Organic Substrates Application on the Amylolytic Activity of Urban Soils

The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of fresh and thermally treated sewage sludge on the amy- lolytical activity of the urban soils. Two experimental areas on the lawns along the main roads of Bialystok were prepared in 2011 and 2015. The factors taken into account in the experiment involved: the type of sewage sludge (mechanically dewatered – SS and thermally dried “Granbial” – G), three doses of sewage sludge (0 – control; 14.5 and 29 t DM/ha) and two grass mixtures (Eko and Roadside). The number of amylolytic bacteria in grass mixtures and rhizosphere and amylase activity in soil were monitored twice during 2011 and 2012 vegetation season (in July and October). The main properties of soil (soil pH, granulometric composition, total organic carbon – TOC, available phosphorus and total nitrogen content) after the application of organic substrates were also analysed. Addition of the dewatered sewage sludge to soil resulted in an increase in the number of amylolytic bacteria (from 7.4 to 18.8 ∙10 6 cfu/g DM) in July, while in the soil treatment with thermally dried sludge, the increased number
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Novel iron-pybisulidine catalysts for the selective aerobic oxidation and C-O/C-C cleavage of organic substrates

Novel iron-pybisulidine catalysts for the selective aerobic oxidation and C-O/C-C cleavage of organic substrates

Inspired by the capability of iron-porphyrines in oxidising organic substrates under aerobic conditions via the formation of an electrophilic Fe IV =O species, the group of Nocera investigated the use of iron bisporphyrine skeletons for undergoing similar aerobic oxidations. Extensive studies showed that bis-Fe III -µ-oxo-Pacman porphyrin complexes were effective for the oxidation of olefins 43 and activated unfunctionalised aryl hydrocarbon CH bonds 44 under aerobic atmosphere and visible light irradiation (Scheme 19). Even though the scope of the CH oxidation is very limited, good TONs were achieved for substrates displaying lower CH ionisation energies (EI). The catalytic cycle for such transformation is under current investigation; however, the formation of a Fe IV =O species capable of undergoing hydrogen atom abstraction from the substrate is postulated. In addition, a small kinetic isotopic effect (k H /k D ) of 1.55 at 25 ºC obtained by comparing the oxidation of
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Role of Zero Valent Iron and Organic Substrates in Chlorinated Solvent Degradation: An Ex-Situ Remediation Case Study

Role of Zero Valent Iron and Organic Substrates in Chlorinated Solvent Degradation: An Ex-Situ Remediation Case Study

In the practice of environmental remediation, excavating large quantities of contaminated soil is usually more expensive than treating the soil in-situ (i.e. without the need for excavation). This is the main reason why most remediation projects and research focus on destroying or immobilizing contaminants in-situ (Harkness & Konzuk, 2014). Though in circumstances such as tight project completion timelines, ex-situ remediation techniques may be the most preferable option to ensure clean-up criteria are met on schedule. The specific constraints of the project discussed in this work made ex-situ remediation the most preferable option. Practitioners and managers of the clean-up project also decided that an ex-situ approach provided more confidence in knowing the contaminant concentrations before and after treatment, allowing them to treat large quantities of soil that was predominantly clay based, which also made in-situ technologies less effective. The remediation strategy chosen involved mixing into the soil a proprietary blend of 40-50% micro sized ZVI, and 50-60% dry organic substrate (Figure 3.1).
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Comparative Study on the Rates of Production of Biogas from Organic Substrates

Comparative Study on the Rates of Production of Biogas from Organic Substrates

Foodwaste is a municipal solid waste containing organic matter with high ca- lorific and nutritive value which serves as feedstock to microbes for biogas pro- duction [6]. Kitchen food waste (both precooked and leftover) is also a biode- gradable waste discharged from various sources including food processing in- dustries, households, and hospitality sector. The disposal and accumulation of food wastes imposes serious threats to the society like environmental pollution, health risk, and scarcity of dumping land. Aside food and land resource wastage, the carbon footprint of food waste is estimated to contribute to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by accumulating approximately 3.3 billion tonnes of CO 2
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Systematic Study into Salt Formation of Functionalised Organic Substrates

Systematic Study into Salt Formation of Functionalised Organic Substrates

provide an insight into the formation of salts and form part of rigorous study into the formation of crystal structures.. The Idea[r]

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Effect of Organic Substrate on Promoting Solventogenesis in Ethanologenic Acetogene Clostridium ljungdahlii ATCC5538

Effect of Organic Substrate on Promoting Solventogenesis in Ethanologenic Acetogene Clostridium ljungdahlii ATCC5538

Previously, Tanner et al. [16] in the original study of C. ljungdahlii, while isolating the organism from natural sources, examined around 30 potential substrates for possible growth of the bacterium. However, the focus of that work was to establish the substrates capable of supporting the growth of the bacterium and culture density and product formation were not considered. Notice of little availability of data in the literature regarding the cultivation and fermentation of this acetogene which is partially due to the difficulty in cultivating this strictly anaerobic bacterium boosts the importance of research in this area. In this study, the batch cultivation of C. ljungdahlii was investigated using various organic substrates. The effect of fructose, glucose, ethanol and acetate as organic substrates on growth and product distribution of the bacterium in the acetogenic and solventogenic phases was assessed. The effect of fructose concentration as the best studied substrate to promote solventogenesis over acetogenesis was also considered.
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Drying and rewetting conditions differentially affect the mineralization of fresh plant litter and extant soil organic matter

Drying and rewetting conditions differentially affect the mineralization of fresh plant litter and extant soil organic matter

A potential way to address some of these uncertainties is to assess separately the contributions of fresh organic matter (recently incorporated) and extant SOM (more stable) as potential C sources of the Birch effect. Distinguishing between these two substrates can enhance our mechanistic understanding of soil C respiration sources (Bottner, 1985; Casals et al., 2000), and can provide modelers with information about how the mineralization of different organic substrates in soil may respond distinctly to changes in pedoclimatic conditions. Although fresh plant litter decomposition exhibits a lower sensitivity to temperature than SOM due to its lower recalcitrance (Bosatta and Agren, 1999), previous work shows that, contrastingly, it can be very susceptible to water limitations (Rovira and Vallejo, 1997; Magid et al., 1999). This susceptibility is not necessarily related to substrate quality (Sanaullah et al., 2012), but could be a result of decreased substrate availability during desiccation, or greater drought sensitivity of litter-decomposing microbes, although the mechanisms involved are still speculative. Moreover, it is still uncertain how soil temperature and moisture interact to control the mineralization of distinct substrates during Birch effects.
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Synergy of Electricity Generation and Waste Disposal in Solid-State Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) of Cow Manure Composting

Synergy of Electricity Generation and Waste Disposal in Solid-State Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) of Cow Manure Composting

70% and run 7 with the least concentration of PBS. C/N ratio decreased in all runs with lesser values in runs 3 and 5 with greater water content, moderate concentrations of PBS in the presence of catalyst. The decrease of C/N ration during composting has been reported previously [18, 36, 37], which indicated greater reaction rate with lesser C/N ratios. Since oxidation of organic substrates can be enhanced when the electrons in anode area can be removed quickly to the cathode, reactions in the MFC, especially with catalyst in cathode played a more important role in affecting microbial degradation of organic component as compared to other factors such as water content, PBS concentration and electrode area.
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Changes chemical organic substrate submitted to replacement water levels in pepper plants

Changes chemical organic substrate submitted to replacement water levels in pepper plants

In regions water scarcity the water reuse in irrigation is alternative for farmers. In this context, the study was conducted in order to changes the chemical attributes of organic substrates subjected to water replacement levels with different water qualities in pepper cultivation. The experimental design n factorial design 2x5x2, being represented by two types of water (water supply and wastewater), 5 water levels based on water requirement (WR) culture [100% WR ( L5), 80% WR (L4), 60% WR (L3), 40% WR (L2) and 20% WR (L1)] and second substrates (cattle and goats). Were evaluated the Ec, pH and sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR). Increasing water levels influence in the of Ec and pH. The pH was higher than 7 exchangeable and total acidity was zero, with was found that there were changes in chemical properties of the substrate elevating the levels of the elements, necessitating leaching blades
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Application of an Innovative Ultrasound Disintegrator for Sewage Sludge Conditioning Before Methane Fermentation

Application of an Innovative Ultrasound Disintegrator for Sewage Sludge Conditioning Before Methane Fermentation

Ultrasonic disintegration is one of the most interesting technologies among all known and described technologies for sewage sludge pre-treatment before the process of methane fermentation. This study was aimed at determining the effects of an innovative ultrasonic string disintegrator used for sewage sludge pre-treatment on the effective- ness of methane fermentation process. In this experiment, we used a device for disintegration of organic substrates, including sewage sludge, with the use ultrasonic waves. Its technical solution is protected by a patent no. P. 391477 – Device for destruction of tissue and cell structures of organic substrate. The volume of biogas produced ranged from 0.194±0.089 dm 3 /g o.d.m. at loading of 5.0 g o.d.m./dm 3 and power of 50 W to 0.315±0.087 dm 3 /g o.d.m. at
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Two-stage mixotrophic cultivation for enhancing the biomass and lipid productivity of Chlorella vulgaris

Two-stage mixotrophic cultivation for enhancing the biomass and lipid productivity of Chlorella vulgaris

By adding the natural antioxidant NaE and aerating the culture mixture with air in Phase I of the two-stage pro- cess, the oxidized intermediates from the NaE can be used by the C. vulgaris as organic carbon sources for mixo- trophic growth (Cui et al. 2017). This is why the micro- algal growth rates in the MX, MX-N, and MX-C samples were much greater than that in the PA group during the first 9 days (Fig. 2a), and why the average biomass produc- tivity was 63.6% higher in those samples compared to the PA group (Table 3). As reported in the literature, by com- plementing the photoautotrophic process with organic substrates, the mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae can improve the growth rate, shorten the growth cycle, and increase biomass productivity (Park et al. 2012).
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Bacterial Concrete

Bacterial Concrete

A series of tests were performed in order to investigate whether the incorporation of bacteria or organic substrates (needed for bacterial calcium carbonate formation) in the concrete matrix do not negatively affect strength characteristics. Therefore concrete bars with and without (control) bacteria or organic substrates were prepared for flexural tensile- and compressive strength determination. For the preparation of bacterial concrete, grown in DSMZ-2 medium, was obtained and total cell number was quantified by microscopy using a Burger-Turk counting chamber. Cells were harvested after a double washing step by centrifugation (20 min x 10000g) and suspension of the cell pellet in tap water. The washed cells were finally suspended in a 20- ml aliquot of tap water which was used as part of the needed make up water for concrete bar preparation. The quantity of the tested organic compounds was 0.5% of cement weight. The individual organic compounds (Na-aspartate, Na-glutamate, Na-poly acrylate, Na-gluconate, Na-citric acid and Na-ascorbic acid) were firstly dissolved in the needed make up water, prior to concrete bar preparation. Bacterial-, organic compound- and control sets of concrete bars for flexural tensile- and compressive strength testing were prepared. Each set consisted of three replicate bars (dimensions 16 x 4 x 4 cm) made from ordinary portland cement (ENCI CEMI 32.5R), make up water and aggregates. Aggregate (gravel and sand) composition and quantities of used components are listed in Table 1. The concrete bars were uncased after an initial curing period of 24 hours and were subsequently further cured in tap water-filled separate plastic containers at room temperature. The sets of three replicate bars were tested for flexural tensile- and compressive strength after 28 days curing, following the procedure according to EN 196-1 Standard Norm.
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Effect of Temperature, PH, Carbon and Nitrogen Ratios on the Parasitic Activity of Pochonia Chlamydosporia on Meloidogyne Incognita

Effect of Temperature, PH, Carbon and Nitrogen Ratios on the Parasitic Activity of Pochonia Chlamydosporia on Meloidogyne Incognita

The mode of action of organic materials added to soil to control soil-borne diseases and pests is not fully understood but may be due to: (i) release of toxic compounds from the plant material, (ii) release of toxic metabolites from increased microbial activity, (iii) enhanced growth of microbial antagonists and non-specific biological control agents, and (iv) general improvement of soil structure and fertility (Huang et al., 2006). This study has shown that the of population P. chlamydosporia in the soil increased with the increasing temperature at which the organic substrates sunn hemp and maize cobs were decomposed before application of the fungus, while the highest fungal population occurred at the lowest decomposition temperature (15 °C) for sawdust. Decomposing the sunn hemp and maize cobs at 25 °C led to the greatest population of the fungus. This temperature has also been reported as optimum for P. chlamydosporia growth (Kerry et al., 1986). The increase in the numbers of fungal propagules in sunn hemp and maize cobs at higher temperature could be a result of enhanced decomposition and the release of available nutrients such as N and C to the fungus. However, the use of organic amendments with high C:N ratio such as sawdust used in this study has been shown to have a negative impact on fungal growth. According to Oka et al. (2007), decompo- sition of organic amendments with high C:N ratio can result in the Fig. 1A. Effect of decomposing organic materials at various temperatures (°C) on
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Simultaneous Determination of Sugars, Carboxylates, Alcohols and Aldehydes from Fermentations by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Simultaneous Determination of Sugars, Carboxylates, Alcohols and Aldehydes from Fermentations by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Abstract: Despite the rise of ‘omics techniques for the study of biological systems, the quantitative description of phenotypes still rests to a large extent on quantitative data produced on chromatography platforms. Here, we describe an improved liquid chromatography method for the determination of sugars, carboxylates, alcohols and aldehydes in microbial fermentation samples and cell extracts. Specific emphasis is given to substrates and products currently pursued in industrial microbiology. The present method allows quantification of 21 compounds in a single run with limits of quantification between 10 ´7 and 10 ´10 mol and limits of detection between 10 ´9 and 10 ´11 mol.
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Phosphorus supply to organic agriculture:WHAT DOES THE ORGANIC SECTOR THINK ABOUT DIFFERENT PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZERS?

Phosphorus supply to organic agriculture:WHAT DOES THE ORGANIC SECTOR THINK ABOUT DIFFERENT PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZERS?

Food quality as such was never presented as a topic by any expert. An interesting result is that only 5% of respondents agreed completely, and 21% agreed that more recycled fertilizers in OA will damage the reputation of organic food (Fig. 9 “Bad image”). On the contrary, a majority disagreed in this statement. Further, 61% agreed (sum of completely agree and agree) that soil P status in OA will decline without external supply in feed and/or fertilizers. Only half of the respondents (48%) agreed that animals are needed in OA to reduce the need for imported P fertilizers. Half of the respondents disagreed that the modern toilet systems are inefficient and hence a reason to avoid products derived from human excreta, confirming the generally positive attitude towards some human excreta-derived fertilizer products found in this study. One stakeholder (Biofach, NL) commented to this question that wastewater systems can also be designed as a sustainable plant installation, and one from GB that “Sewage sludge is better used as enhanced treated biosolids from households”. Another (Biofach, Israel) stated that as population expands, there will be more and more sewage and sludges to dispose. We should find legislative ways to permit the use of composted human sludges in organic farms. In line with this statement, a respondent from Great Britain stated that there “must be a way of “setting” human waste to an organic standard”.
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Development of Visible Light Active Photocatalyst for Hydrogen Production and Environmental Application

Development of Visible Light Active Photocatalyst for Hydrogen Production and Environmental Application

Sensitization methods are widely used to utilize visible-light for energy conversion. In case of sensitization with organic dyes, dye molecule electrons excited by visible light can be injected to the CB of semiconductor to initiate the catalytic reactions as shown in Figure 1.2(a). Similarly, sensitization with a small band-gap semiconductor is made by coupling a large band-bap semiconductor with a small band-gap semiconductor with a more negative conduction level (i.e., hybrid or composite photocatalyst). In composite photocatalyst, the CB electrons photo-generated from a small band-gap semiconductor by the absorption of visible-light can be injected to the CB of a large band gap semiconductor, while the photo-generated holes are trapped in a small band-gap semiconductor. Thus, an effective electron-hole separation can be achieved, as shown in Figure 1.2(b). CdS with band-gap energy of 2.4 eV has been frequently used to form hybrid or composite photocatalysts.
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Impact of annealing on structural and optical properties of CoPc thin films

Impact of annealing on structural and optical properties of CoPc thin films

This work was partially supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) within project (Wu 243/20-1). The author thankfully acknowledges Al al-Bayt University for the support during the sabbatical leave in the academic year 2013/2014, and wishes to thank organic thin films group at Institute of Physics (IA) RWTH Aachen University, Germany for providing the experimental facilities.

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Fixation of Powdered TiO2 onto Metal Substrates by Electrophoretic Deposition and Its Use for Complete Decomposition of Volatile Organic Compounds

Fixation of Powdered TiO2 onto Metal Substrates by Electrophoretic Deposition and Its Use for Complete Decomposition of Volatile Organic Compounds

releasing a huge amount of exothermic energy of about 1.85 kJ/g. 5) Since this moment, we have been conducting a series of investigations on the use of the present technology for complete decomposition of organic wastes (mainly thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers) as well as for removal of diesel exhaust. 6–12) Our system is characterized by the use of thermally excited holes at high temperatures (e.g., about 350 C). Our system is similar to the photocatalyzer

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