The aim of this study is to examine how the changes occurred at national education organization structure are perceived by teachers according to gender, professional career and the institution which schooling grade the teachers work. The study was carried out with the correlational research method. According to results obtained in study; It’s found that Gender parameter has shown significant difference on deciding organizational need and evaluating organizational variations of Organization Structure of National Education. It’s observed that there is no significant difference on planning, applying and philosophical aspects of Organizational Variation At National Education Organizational Structure, there exist significant difference at variable of Professional seniority and this variation was observed for the teachers who have 1-5 and 16-20 years’ service period. It’s observed that there is no significant difference on planning, applying and philosophical aspects of Organizational Variation At Organization Structure of National Education, there exist significant difference at variations of organization structure of National Education, there exist significant difference on planning and evaluating organizational variation according to school type and this difference is found between primary and high school teachers. It’s found that there is no significant difference on planning, applying and philosophical aspects of Organizational Variation.
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The study of organization structure has been both intensive and extensive. The overriding objective has been always to identify ideal organization structure for the given era. The features of organization structures and their forms have been espoused by the organization design theories. Such features have generated a lot of interest from both the classical organization development theorists and contingency school proponents. The classical theorists aimed at identifying ideal structural forms for all organizations. The contingency school Abstract: This study examines factors that determine organization structures. The objective was to examine the extant empirical literature in order to identify the salient factors that influence organization structures. Several studies have been cited revealing that structural contingency framework has for a long while provided the determinants of organization structures. The assumption has always been that structural-contingency framework is deterministic on organization structures. Many of such studies are bivariate, testing the relationships between size, strategy, technology, environment and structure. But the structural contingency framework fails to explain the process by which decisions on structures are reached although it names the factors that have to be considered. This paper concludes that the structural contingency factors are not deterministic in the formation of organization structure. These factors are necessary but not sufficient condition for restructuring organizations. The process of structuring organizations is a political process through which those who have the power to direct firms play significant roles. In any case the factors do not choose but people do. This paper recommends that the designers of organization structures must pay attention to the political process that ultimately influences the organizational forms. The need for alignment with the respective contingency factors cannot be taken for granted. The bargaining powers of those who have the power to direct the organizations ought to be channelled towards the most optimal structural forms.
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Though a surge of papers and practitioners have shown their interest in whether structure or process affects organizational performance respectively, little re- search has addressed the issue of how this happens and the exact relationship between structure and process. For a long time, they are viewed as two indepen- dent research domains in management. As a consequence, the field of crossing research is currently disorganized, without a possibility to lucubrate. Neverthe- less, since both organization structure and business process are considered as determinants of organizational behaviors, there must exist certain linkages or common attributes which make them work as expected. The present lack of knowledge regarding the operating laws of organizations has largely restricted the practical progress. Numerous results show that many efforts devoted to or- ganization structure design and business process management tend to be in vain and fail to meet managers’ expectations.
On the research of industrial organization theory, acc- ording to the different theoretical basis and research me- thods and choosing a different focus, scholars proposed numerous ideas in different times. Harvard University advocated the structuralism of antitrust and anti-concen- tration, which is based on monopolistic competition the- ory, by the statistic methodology of empirical study, and focusing on market structure. Chicago University used company performance as a judging criterion. The theory is based on the competitive market and focuses on mar- ket performance of an organization. The new industrial organization theory advocated the behaviorism which objects unfair conducts and is based on the transaction cost theory by the deductive methodology of reason- ing-based.  Market structure and market performance are the main fields of the Harvard Theory. It advocates that market structure rests with market conduct and that the market conduct rests with market performance, that is, S→C→P. The SCP paradigm of the Harvard Theory established the basic analytical framework for the early theoretical studies of industrial organization. The Har- vard Theory mainly puts the empirical studies on the relationship of market structure and performance, such as the Bain's concentration, concluding that the entry barri- ers were positively correlated with the profitability. The Chicago Theory focuses on the price conduct. The new industrial organization theory focuses on the company conduct.
Once these two books are understood, they may open a massive research agenda for the designers of practical computer-friendly algorithms that construct mechanisms (protocols). It remains to be seen, for example, whether the general results in these books will eventually allow a computer to generate protocols that yield the minimal-length dialogues studied in the computer-science communication- complexity literature (briefly discussed above in 2.2.8). At present that literature finds bounds on the length of the dialogues but does not tell us how to construct the minimal-length dialogues themselves. 2.6 Finding a best action rule (outcome function) once a mechanism has conveyed infor- mation about the environment to each person: the methods of the Theory of Teams The central problem studied in the Theory of Teams (J. Marschak and R. Radner, 1972) is the choice of a rule that tells each member of an organization —called a team — what action to choose, given cer- tain information about the organization’s randomly changing environment. The rule has to maximize the expected value of a payoff function whose arguments are the environment and the team action. Mechanisms, as we have defined them, do not appear in the statement of the central problem studied in the Theory of Teams, but they are part of the story which implicitly precedes that problem. 28
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Research Question: The paper explores the problem of defining the number of required employees and their skills, as well as optimizing the work time. Motivation: Motivation for this paper arises from the fact that an organizational structure of business system has to be conceived and proportioned so as to justify the main company jobs and goals. Almost every job set for the management must be performed properly and reliably in changeable environmental conditions. In order to maintain the efficiency of complex business systems with dynamic and stochastic changeable and unchangeable variables, it is essential that the organizational structure be flexible and constantly adjusted. Idea: The idea of the paper was to develop a model for human resource allocation (HRA) in fuzzy environment. Data: The model is tested in realistic industrial environment - the example of the logistics administrative bodies in the Petroleum Industry of Serbia. Tools: To solve the problem, the following approaches are used: Fuzzy logic, Neural network and Simulated annealing. The model for HRA is based on an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and fuzzy mathematical model (FMM) for treating uncertainty. ANFIS-FMM model enables the human resource strategy development based on the optimisation of the employees’ work time. In this ANFIS-FMM model the input variables are described using fuzzy sets represented by Gaussian functions. Using expert reasoning, an unique knowledge base is formed which enables the human resource strategy development based on the optimisation of the employees’ work time. Findings: Based on authors’ knowledge there is a lack of the fuzzy logic applications, adaptive neuro-fuzzy models, linear and dynamic programming, as well as heuristic and metaheuristic models related to HRA. In most of the papers, the classical methods of strategic management have been used for HRA. Contribution: In this paper the model for HRA is developed based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy technique application and FMM . The model has four main advantages over other HRA methods: the system possesses adaptability, the model is efficient in conditions of uncertainty, the neuro-fuzzy based HRA model allows dynamic decision making in HRA management through the implementation of a computer-based system, it can be IT-supported tool.
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In order to create a good organization chart, we must know types of organizational chart. There are three most common organization chart namely simple functional, divisional and matrix structure. The functional structure which also known as bureaucratic organizational structure. The structure is divides by company specialty. For example, it is divided by department specialty like marketing, sales and finance. The advantage to have this type of structure is each employee is dedicated into a single function which they can focus and have clearly understanding the job scope. Second type is divisional structure. This structure refers to the structure leadership according to the different product or project. Third type is the matrix structure. This type of structure shows where employees have multiple bosses and reporting superiors. Matrix structure come with flexibility and balanced decision making. This type of structure has commonly found in advertising agencies, research agencies, consulting, universities and entertainment industries.
Survey method will be used to collect data. Both the primary and secondary data have been used in the proposed study. Questionnaire will be constructed by formulating closed ended so that there is a maximum margin to know about the impact of organizational factors leadership style, organization culture, organization structure, workplace environment, job stress, and financial rewards on the employees’ performance in the banking sector of Nagapattinam Town. There are 21 private and public sector banks are located in Nagapattinam town. The research has adopted systematic random sampling procedures. There are 335 participants was taken for the study of which 200 employees from public sector banks and 135 employees from private sector banks. The 335 employees were split and randomly assigned to two lists, ‘1’ and ‘2’. When the target persons on list 2 could not be found, owing to a move or incorrect archival information, a person on list 1 was then substituted. The duration of the study took nearly two months from 20th December’ 2015 to 21th February’ 2016.
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An experimentally verified homology model of rat Prestin (SLC26A5) has recently been published based upon the high resolution structure of UraA from the NCS2 family . Both Slc26A and NCS2 families belong to the APC superfamily. We generated a homology model of YeSlc26A2 based on the UraA structure using a similar method to compare with our experimentally determined structural architecture (Figure 8 and Supplementary Figure S7). All-atom molecular dynamics simulations in a solvated bilayer were used to determine the structural integrity of this model. The final model has a secondary structure content of 55% -helix and 11% -sheet in excellent agreement with our experimentally determined composition of 53% -helix and 11% -sheet for the TM domain. Furthermore, the trypsin, and hence solvent, accessible sites identified previously  cluster on the predicted cyto- and periplasmic edges of the molecule (Figure 8B).
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To take advantage of these opportunities, trends regarding the relationship between organizational design and design work should be studied and identi- Þ ed. In such a chain structure takes a more central position. Its task is to translate strategy into organizational levels. If management makes serious mistakes in the translation, it can be dif Þ cult to achieve the goals set by it. In order to design orga- nizations that will be able to successfully confront upcoming competition and increasing changes in consumer expectations, it is necessary to look for systemic and cause-and-effect relationships between emerging practice at various levels of analysis - industry, organization, and work.
of the pattern, what might be called their degree of free dom, is controlled by the existing social organization i.e. the process of ordering of action. Now if this process does not occur by chance, but is orderly and recurrent, we should be able to discover the principles of its operation, just as we can discover the principles of social structure. In Upper Mandailing I was able to find some such principles of social organization. I shall call them precepts of in teraction. These precepts of interaction are axioms which the Upper Mandailingers apply consistently when behaving in social situations. They are the rules of the social game which apply to any social action and they are free of attachment to particular roles. I found them to be quite generally understood and put into practice throughout Upper Mandailing. These precepts are abstractions from empirical observations. Just as some informants are able to talk, at a certain level of understanding, about their own social structure so some Upper Mandailingers could talk about their principles of social organization. I began to iden tify and to understand these principles as I sought some meaningful clue to the way in which Upper Mandailing
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The methods of studying thepersonal identity (V. B. Nikishina, E. A. Petrash) and the time perspective questionnaire (F. Zimbardo) modified by A. Syrtsova, E. T. Sokolova, O. V. Mitina) were used as psychodiagnostic research tools. Mathematical-statistical analysis was carried out through the procedure of calculating the student's t-criterion, conducting a correlation analysis. The respondents were men and women aged from 20 to 28 years. Based on the results of the diagnosis of personal identity, the respondents being interviewed were divided into two groups, one of them consisted of 30 people with a coordinated structural organization of personal identity, the other group included 30 people with a uncoordinated structural organization of personal identity.
Currently, mankind faces more and more problems that transcend national boundaries, including the gap between rich and poor, frequent occurrence of terrorist attacks, outbreaks of refugee crises, deterioration of the environment, and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. None of these issues can be addressed by one country alone. Global issues cannot be solved without collaborative action and collaborative action is impossible without consensus. In this context, global governance was proposed as a major approach to global issues. As the world’s most representative, legal and international organization, the UN is regarded as one of the most popular multilateral authority for global governance. It is also considered as the best platform for coordinating various players. To these ends, the UN has developed a set of complicated and systematic mechanisms for information dissemination, taking on the dissemination of information on global issues and the development of global awareness International Journal of Asian Social Science
‘Man is a social animal’ is a cliché that is largely heard in different spheres of life. From the beginning of time, man has lived collectively in the form of tribes, groups, and communities. These collective groups are formed on the basis of collective norms and obligations which tie all the people of the group together. The concept of society is also derived from the concept of social animal where individuals and groups coexist and interact. Thus, a society is made up of people and can be seen as an organization where people interact with each other on the basis of different relationships with each other. Everything from family, school, banking system, markets, communities, and hospitals become part of this social organization. The social interaction takes place at certain levels, both individual and collective. Individuals, groups, and institutions interact with each other on the basis of their unwritten assigned roles given to them by the society. Thus the pattern of interaction that takes place between these players of the society sets the social organization running. Brown and Barnett (1942) defined social organization as a system of relationships based on obligations which is present between and among groups in a certain society. It is argued that the social organization and social structure (where social structure refers to the position of individuals within a social organizational setup) of the society are based on obligations- relations.
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reaching this point does not mean that ventures can actually scale their operations up. Hence, we add the scalability loop phase, in which illustrates how, once USOs have become financially sustainable, they may start to expand their operations (again), marketing more products/services and serving more customers. Second, by adding the RCOV framework (Demil and Lecocq, 2010) to emphasize a dynamic perspective towards business model concept, this study provides a more comprehensive framework for university spinout processes that takes into account how BMs change during these ventures‘ development phases. We clarify that, as well as describing the configurations of business model elements (in a static view), the way in which business models evolve over time (taking a dynamic view) must be taken into consideration and examined. Hence, we explained how business models evolve through phases of development until operational scalability is reached. Using a business model perspective to address the topic of organization change and evolution is consistent with the concerns of both practitioners and academics (Moyon and Lecocq, 2014)
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(HP 647nnF/G/H/J/K). In original documentation that is shipped with modular products, where you see references to the outdated alpha characters, please substitute the new alpha characters. The external analyzer is now referred to as HP 64703A, as shown earlier in the table of equivalent components. This replaces references to the external state/timing analyzer as an "L" at the end of the product number in the original structure.
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The findings of this research confirm that local knowledge of the unplanned settlements inhabitants has specific spatiality and play the important role in spatial strategy-making. This understanding about specific spatiality of local knowledge in unplanned settlement structure formation is important to develop interactions between communities and policy makers. ,  Beside the understanding about specific spatiality of local knowledge, various manifestations of self-organization based on diverse objectives of different development actors (see table 1) leads to managing interactions between formal and informal planning or between top down and bottom up planning approaches. The result of this study has also confirmed that socio-spatial patterns are the backbone of unplanned settlements regeneration. Therefore mapping, structuring, and analyzing the socio-spatial patterns as the most important part of unplanned settlement structural network will guide the regeneration strategies of an participatory urban project.. This participatory urban project also means a transformative socio-spatial planning, which enable resourceful communities in producing better places. Development strategies must be sought to improve resourcefulness of the community, which means that the community capacity to use their resources effectively and efficiently must be improve.. The concept of bordering socio-spacial unit, which is non-finalizable processes, must be understood as constantly creating, confirming, and challenging of socio-spatial distinction. Borders with social institutions or socio-spatial unit in it, must be constantly created, re-created and maintained as a means of negotiating in context of place making proces within a complex everyday life. , , . Based on this concept of bordering socio-spatial unit, one approach to urban planning is reconfiguration or rescaling of the urban settlement and urban space hierarchy, as well as
Some social organizations have different structure from the online social network topology with group cellular structure. The cellular organizational network is a model which describes the inter cooperation relationship and organizational form of task oriented groups, such as working team, project team, terrorist group . In our research, the virtual structure of cellular is used, and the organization is described as a network of cells. The tasks are performed by the cells, and within them, the activities include not only performing operational tasks which are designated, but also collaborative process among members. Fig. 1 illustrates the concept model of cellular network. A cell is a cohesion structure of members, and the command relation is built according to the hierarchical structure of organization. The relations between the cells depict the command and control structure from meso-scale perspective, and the relations in the cells describe the local structure of how the members connect and communicate to each other from micro-scale perspective. In each cell, there is a leader in charge of designated task, and the other members operate various subtasks.
Once the basic understandings regarding organization and operations had been worked out and a certain amount of validating success had been achieved, it was possible to expand the group. Such expansion was important both politically in terms of continuing to secure, indeed increase, state funding and because of a core vision which emphasized the importance of increasing access to scholarly resources (both purchased and locally held) to all members of the higher education community. After the initial gestation period growth was rapid. In the mid 1990s the two year colleges (23 libraries) were added. In the latter part of the 1990s we began adding the private colleges and universities (44 in total) and in 2004 we added the first public library (Cleveland Public Library) on an experimental basis. We did decide, in the mid 1990s, however, not to add “for profit” commercial colleges/universities.
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The success of an organization depends upon its design of organizational structure which encompasses employees at different levels in hierarchical positions with particular accountability and responsibilities. An organization carries out functions to accomplish the desired goals of the organization at various level. The main managerial activities consist of supervision, coordination and task allocation in direction to obtain the objects of the organization. Designing organizational structure is a matter of high- quality decision making. Thus, the success of the organization depends on the appropriate organizational structure to carry out effective levels in hierarchical structures to achieve the goal of an organization effectively. In some organization’s structures are vertical with an array of hierarchy or else flatten arrangement with a horizontal structure with little hierarchy or commands of the chain. It is mainly decided with the nature of the organization, size of organization and leadership style.