Abstract: Mobile data transfer is the backbone of Information Technology industry. It is now becoming the daily bread and butter earning means for most of the third world and developed countries. This paper proposed a text based compression algorithm which can be used with existing algorithms as an OTT ( over the top) service and improves their functionality. It can take advantage of increasing processing power of new generation CPUs like Snapdragon and Mediatechas well as bandwidth efficiency of modern mobile infrastructure. This algorithm is based on .Net Assemblies of Microsoft Visual Studio 2017 (Community Edition) and VB.Net (Visual Basic.Net) language. This algorithm can help in improving data transfer speed over wireless and mobile networks. It can also secure data transfer for vulnerable attacks (Man in the Middle Attack, DDOS Attack etc.). It will also help in reducing network congestion as it can pack more data per packet as compared to traditional algorithms.
Wright, 2017, p. 488; FCC, 2015). This drastic shift was labelled as uncompelling and inefficient for the growth of the industry. This was viewed as indicative of the future internet regulation, largely owing to the fact that the FCC is treated as a single authority with the power to legally regulate existing internet networks, and hence, greatly capable of influencing the development of the global Internet industry (i.e., the minimum price set by FCC turns out to be the new market equilibrium price) (Prüfer and Jahn, 2007). In the EU, discussions on OTT is mainly based on the protection of personal data in relation to the US OTT services, which controls the largest share of the global market and “dominates” the European market (Ciriani, 2015, p. 44). The EU approved rules in April 2014, to ensure equal access of firms and individuals to online services, and also harmonized rules across national borders to create a unified European market. European countries like France and Spain have blocked OTT providers when offering voice services that connect to the public switched telephone network (ITU, 2016). On August 6, 2015, in France, a new law extended the authority of the Regulatory Authority for Electronic Communications and Postal Services to authorize operators as an electronic communication network and/or service provider (BTK, 2015b). In the UK, the government’s priority concerning the regulatory framework is to base any regulatory change on an economic reason (CTO, 2016a). On December 29, 2003, the Office of Communications (Ofcom) - the UK’s single communications regulator - officially replaced five separate broadcasting and telecommunications regulators: The Independent Television Commission, the Broadcasting Standards Commission, the Radio Authority, the Radiocommunications Agency, and the Office of Telecommunications (Önen and Tanyıldızı, 2010), in order to converge regulatory policies of television, telecommunications, and computing technologies, facilitated by digitalization (Smith, 2006). However, such technological convergence needs to be regulated in the “same (minimal) fashion” for all services (Storsul and Syvertsen, 2007). Therefore, the creation of a single regulatory body cannot ensure the regulatory convergence (Doyle and Vick, 2005).
The Over-The-Top service provider provides service or content and also offer Information Communication Technology services but does not operate a network system and it has no ties to any telecommunication or network service operator (TRAI, 2015). The Over-The-Top service architecture rely on the global internet itself and gains network speeds in other to deliver content to consumers, hence it goes “over-the-top” of telecom service provider’s network. Content and services provided with Over-The-Top are typically tailored towards media and communications at free or lower cost rates as compared to when the same services are delivered using the traditional network delivery process. One of the major reasons for the advancement of Over-The-Top services today is the fact that it has a dynamic architecture, all a consumer needs to access quality content is internet connectivity and another reason is also that it is cheap and at low cost of access to the consumer.
Kenya telcos can venture into development of local applications to gain competitive advantage over OTTs. It is evident that the growth OTT communication services cannot be stopped and it is there to stay. This then should make the telcos to look for alternatives to gain a competitive advantage over OTTs. Mobile money transfer service which has been introduced among all the Kenya operators. This is an example of applications outside the traditional telco services. The M-PESA money transfer platform, for example has enabled Safaricom Limited to earn a lot of revenue compared to voice, SMS and data combined. This is an evidence that there are enormous opportunities to be ventured by telcos apart from traditional services. Mobile-based applications in areas such as health, agriculture, business and security can be explored by the mobile operators. They can also develop telco-based local over the top services to capture the customers who are loyal to OTT services. All these, when realized, will retained the customer base and hence the revenue is sustained.
As communications and entertainment needs have gone mobile and social, consumers have increasingly embraced internet-delivered video for viewing TV shows and movies. If broadcasters and programmers are to reach this audience, they themselves must embrace a new set of video-delivery techniques. One of these is over-the-top (OTT) video delivery: digital video programming via the open internet rather than over the air or through a facilities-based service provider that can be sent to any connected-consumer electronics device, regardless of location.
In its desire to align the linear environment with the more flexible OTT space, the LTT process con- cluded with the regulator requiring the unbundling of cable and satellite channels by December 2016 (CRTC 2015-96). While maintaining requirements that broadcasters spend a set portion of revenues on Canadian content, the Commission eliminated all requirements for exhibition of Canadian content from television except in the prime time evening hours. These changes, taken together, are expected to affect the quantity of Canadian content that is commissioned, and the range of available choices, with spending on domestic Canadian content over the next four years forecast to decline to one-third of what it is today (Nordicity & Miller, 2015). The forced unbundling of channels is expected to re- duce content diversity since special interest chan- nels that could never survive in the small Canadian marketplace on their own are currently sold in bun- dles with other, more successful channels. Without this bundling, the channels are unlikely to achieve the audience share necessary to thrive in the Ca- nadian domestic market. It is in this sense that the
Preliminary questionnaires were distributed to confirm the concerns at the strategic level. The questionnaires ask six relevant questions, as shown in Figure 2, to thirty-six business managers who work in various business lines and who have been initiating various OTT initiatives both at the group holding level and in subsidiaries. The questionnaires are also distributed to four external consultants who have global experience in providing consulting to various CSPs to manage OTT initiatives for comparison purposes. From Figure 2 below, it can be recognized that the dominant portion of respondents are specialized in evaluating individual projects (initiative) first. After further clarification, the remaining portion of the respondents who are not specialized in evaluating individual initiatives explain that their answers represent their thoughts and not their actual practice. This clarification concludes that, in the current practice, all respondents normally evaluate each individual project first. While financial indicators are solely used as determinants for OTT initiative selection, the dominant portion of respondents believe that certain OTT initiatives are not financially feasible but should be included in the portfolio because they are required by other OTT initiatives. The remainder who do not agree with this statement are respondents who are actually responsible for project funding or business acquisition; in addition, apparently, the financial perspective has become their primary concern. Based on the logic sequence as requested in the questionnaire, it can be concluded that technical interdependency does exist; this is confirmed by all respondents. Most respondents conclude that, due to technical interdependency, construction of the overall portfolio should occur prior to the evaluation of an individual OTT initiative regardless of its financial feasibility. This finding is in contrast to framework of PPM suggested by Archer and Ghasemzadeh (1999).
The telecommunications operators are experiencing significant losses in revenue to applications VoIP services such Skype, WhatsApp and so on as shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3. The operators cannot match the Over- The-Top services in terms of cost and are left to find other ways to innovate and encourage the end users to use their platforms, one of such methods is offering the end users special bundles to encourage them to patronize their services like offering free call and free texts after a certain amount of money is loaded. The telecommunications operators are advocating for relegations been placed on the Over-The- Top services which would ensure a levelled business field for both the Over-The-Top services and the network operators. Some countries are currently regulating the Over-The-
In an increasingly competitive landscape, where DVB network operators must fend off traditional competitors as well as emerging over-the-top (OTT) providers, it is necessary to consider augmenting offerings with multiscreen video services, providing consumers with the ability to view content on devices other than their televisions. Progressive digital TV operators in various countries have chosen to adopt alternative video delivery technologies for OTT delivery to complement their own managed network services. Adaptive bitrate (ABR) streaming is a technology of particular interest to operators to help implement this new delivery model. It is an effective and complementary delivery method to the managed and multicast network services, resulting in hybrid DVB+OTT or IPTV+OTT delivery. In some cases, operators go beyond their managed network footprint to “unmanaged” IP third-party networks as a way of “following” their roaming subscribers or possibly reaching new ones, assuming content rights are secured.
Where operators have no choice but to support third-party OTT apps, new pricing strategies have been deployed. Rather than compete head-to-head in a price war with the OTT entrants, many operators have instead structured propositions to offer ever-larger bundles of minutes and texts – effectively at marginal price of zero without wider value destruction. This offers a partial solution when coupled with usage-based
develop an OTT TV platform? If so, should they act alone or in collaboration with other stations? Which programmes should they include in the OTT TV package: live broadcasts, catch-up TV (programmes from the past week, month or season) or catalogue? Should the OTT package include original and/or exclusive content? How much original content can the platform sustain on a longer term basis? Should the OTT service be subscription-based (paid for), advertising sponsored (free) or a mix of the two models? What consequences will the launch by a TV station of an OTT platform have on its relationship with its distributors and the fees it receives from the distributors (transmission fees)? Which content should a TV station license to other players (like Netflix) and which content does it keep for itself? Which rights should the TV station acquire to the programmes it airs? Which programmes should it acquire for linear or live TV and how should the programme mix evolve? Is the target group large enough in the long term to keep the TV station afloat? • Pay-TV companies face similar questions. Should
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tion is used to set limits on various new physics processes. The CMS all-hadronic search  uses the CMS Top Tagger described above, in combination with a require- ment on the rapidity separation, ∆ y, of the two top quark candidate jets, which serves to further enhance the sensi- tivity of this analysis in the high-mass regime. The main background in this search is non-top multijet production, which is estimated using a data-based method. This di ff ers from the ATLAS search, for which the main background is Standard Model t¯ t production. This is due to the de- tails of the di ff erent top tagging algorithms used. Figure 5 compares the m t t ¯ distributions used in each analysis.
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Injury from glufosinate applied to WideStrike varieties can reach 15 to 25% with one to two appli- cations without decreasing yield (Barnett et al., 2011; Culpepper et al., 2009; Dodds et al., 2011; Whitaker et al., 2011). WideStrike varieties designated as WRF also contain the CP4 EPSPS enzyme, which confers resistance to glyphosate. This gives growers the option of using both glyphosate and glufosinate as a part of their weed control program. These va- rieties have performed well in the Mid-South and as a result, are being used by a large percentage of the growers in this region (USDA-AMS, 2010). In Tennessee, ‘Phytogen 375 WRF’ and ‘Phytogen 485 WRF’ were the top two yielding varieties at six different locations in 2010 (UT, 2010). WideStrike varieties comprised 63% of the Tennessee cotton acres, 19% of the Louisiana cotton acres, and 3.5% of the Mississippi cotton acres in 2010 (USDA- AMS, 2010). Not only do these varieties perform well agronomically, they also allow growers to apply both glyphosate and glufosinate as part of their weed control program without reducing yields (Culpepper et al., 2009; UT, 2010). Growers have come to real- ize this and, although the application of glufosinate on WideStrike cotton varieties is not supported by the manufacturer of the herbicide nor the marketers of the cotton seed, many have used glufosinate in WideStrike cotton to control Palmer amaranth (au- thors personal experience).
For easy presentation, operations on the data documents are not shown in the framework since the data owner could easily employ the traditional symmetric key cryptography to encrypt and then outsource data. Considering a cloud data hosting service involving three different entities, the data owner, the data user, and the cloud server. The data owner has a collection of data documents F to be outsourced to the cloud server in the encrypted form C. To enable the searching capability over C for effective data utilization, the data owner, before outsourcing, will first build an encrypted searchable index I from F, and then outsource both the index I and the encrypted document collection C to the cloud server. To search the document collection fort given keywords, an authorized user acquires a corresponding trapdoor T through search control mechanisms, for example, broadcast encryption
Asia and southern China are uplifted to the upper troposphere under the action of early westward-moving tropical jet in the Middle East. Furthermore, the distribution of contaminants observed by satellite shows that high concentrations of carbon monoxide exist in the upper troposphere over the South Asia in summer . Gettelman et al.  used the global chemical model and actual observations to indicate that about 75% of water vapor flux delivered to the global tropical stratosphere occur over the South Asian monsoon and the Tibetan Plateau regions. Briefly, a strong ascending airflow in the deep convection plays an important role in the transition of air from the troposphere to stratosphere, which will affect stratospheric chemistry and troposphere-surface radiative balance [9, 10].
Though it is unethical to record the telephone calls’ and spy around in one’s personal life, which is the non-traditional ways of snooping over employees. Equity theory puts forwards the unbalancing act of employees due to the surveillance due to the direct and direct exchanges. Due to surveillance managers gain extra power and control over employees because employees understand that such kind of surveillance is always in the favor of the management. Similar to this theory is the concept of resistance, which explained that due to the surveillance employees behavior turns out to be negative.
In some advanced OTT markets such as the US, Spain and Korea, conflict between OTT SVOD providers and network operators has erupted because the SVOD providers (and their customers) are the main beneficiaries of increased video traffic, while network operators were left to bear the costs. In the USA, this has manifested itself in a battle over net neutrality. In South Korea, it led to Korea Telecom briefly blocking video services to Samsung smart TVs to relieve capacity problems in 2012, prompting intervention by the regulator. More recently in Spain, Netflix and rival Totalchannel have complained that their OTT video offer is being constrained by incumbent Telefonica’s network policies, reducing picture quality and lowering streaming rates.