Peer Groups and Their Influence Upon the Learning of Young Children

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Influence of Peer Groups to The Self-Esteem of Lampung and Javanese Students

Influence of Peer Groups to The Self-Esteem of Lampung and Javanese Students

Based on research results, it can be concluded that peer group have a significant effect on student self- esteem. Because in high school or vocational students desperately need the support of peer groups. With support, mutual understanding, mutual encouragement in everything that he gets from his peers as well as a positive influence both of behavior, and the way of thinking is good then adolescents have a high sense of self-esteem that teenagers are highly accepted, valued, and acknowledged in the environment of peers, so the more spirited the spirit because it gets support and good influence. Conversely, if the teen gets rejected or not noticed by peers he will feel lonely and arise feelings of hostility so that the teenager has a sense of low self-esteem and have less learning achievement. In addition, peer groups also contributed 34.9% of students' self-esteem. While the remaining 65.1% influenced by other factors, such as family factors, social status, economic status, personal factors (internal), and so forth.
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A Peer-to-Peer Health Education Program for Vulnerable Children in Uganda

A Peer-to-Peer Health Education Program for Vulnerable Children in Uganda

The final phase of the curriculum required students to work in small groups and choose a health topic to review and design one teaching method to use in educating the new members of the next school year. For example, students working with the topic “Safety and Avoiding Bad Peer Groups” wrote and performed a poem condemning adults who defile young children. A group working with the topic of puberty created an interactive lesson using a poster as a visual aid. They led a discussion about signs of puberty to help their peers better understand the similarities and differences in boys’ and girls’ experiences during development. The team had several weeks to prepare, rehearse, and then perform these teachings to the newest health team members at the end of third term. Team Facilitators modified many of the learning tools designed by students for use during a school wide health education assembly at the start of the first term in 2013.
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Understanding and Using Early Learning Standards for Young Children Globally

Understanding and Using Early Learning Standards for Young Children Globally

Contextual differences among countries generally consist of the following. First, there are marked differences in countries’ values and attitudes regarding early childhood education, so that, for example, some countries are quite pre-disposed to specifying standards while others favor setting broad learning goals for young children. Second, the degree to which the government actually led, mandated, or supported the standards considerably impacts their development, implementation, and monitoring, with government involvement hastening standards work. Third, in some countries, particularly those with fewer resources, the influence of external non-governmental forces, such as UNICEF or local NGOs, has been powerful in advancing standards work. Fourth, and finally, in countries where similar frameworks or guiding documents had existed, standards development and application processes were hastened.
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An Evaluation of the Impact of Nurture Provision upon Young Children, Including their Language and their Literacy Skills

An Evaluation of the Impact of Nurture Provision upon Young Children, Including their Language and their Literacy Skills

reported the findings of both methodologies. Scott and Lee (2009) used anecdotal evidence from case study reports, alongside the BP and measures of literacy, numeracy and motor skills. They considered academic outcomes in four part-time NGs with 25 children ranging in age from 4-10 years old. A control group was matched for age, gender, and behaviour and learning concerns for each individual child. The aggregated gains of each group were compared, indicating that the NG children displayed greater gains in all areas. Although literacy gains were greater for NG children, the difference was not significant. However, results were important in demonstrating that overall NG children were able to match or exceed the academic gains of their peers, despite a reduced access to the formal curriculum. The anecdotal evidence helped to triangulate the findings, indicating improvements in areas such as sharing concerns with staff, reduced aggression, greater independent working and improved confidence. A relative strength of the research is that the results suggest academic gains are evident in part-time provisions, although a lack of statistical significance suggests the area warrants further investigation. Interestingly, further analysis suggested that the children’s age may influence outcomes. Whilst younger children (key stage 1) displayed greater progress socially and emotionally, older children (key stage 2) appeared to display greater progress academically. The influence of age upon academic, social and emotional outcomes is therefore a factor requiring further research. To add robustness to the findings greater transparency in data analyses and further triangulation between quantitative and qualitative data would have been beneficial. However, by adopting a mixed-methods approach the researchers were able to identify that a reduced access to the formal curriculum is not detrimental, whilst identifying some contextual factors which may have influenced outcomes.
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Something to do The development of peer support groups for young black and minority ethnic disabled people

Something to do The development of peer support groups for young black and minority ethnic disabled people

Some supporters take on more of a leadership role, directing the group towards achieving their purpose. This is more apparent in the groups for people with learning difficulties, such as the Black People First Group. This group’s aims are to equip members with the means to speak up for themselves as well as to address issues around their identity as black people. The support worker organises activities with the consent of group members, such as cultural celebration days. Individuals are encouraged to think about their identities by, for example, putting pins on a map to indicate their countries of origin and those of family members.
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Socioemotional competence and academic profiles of young children with learning difficulties

Socioemotional competence and academic profiles of young children with learning difficulties

Despite the strong support for comorbidity among learning and socioemotional difficulties, other studies have failed to find an increased prevalence of socioemotional difficulties associated with the presence of a learning disability (Bender, Rosenkrans, & Crane, 1999; Greenham, 1999; Hall & Haws, 1989; Newcomer, Barenbaum, & Pearson, 1995). Variability among these findings highlights the limitations of two-group designs in reliably measuring differences among socioemotional competence, measured by social skill ratings, for children with and without learning disabilities (LD). Speculation as to the factors that may account for these discrepancies include gender (Heath & Ross, 2000), degree of academic success (Bender, Rosenkrans, & Crane, 1999), and type of learning disability (Pelletier, Ahmad, & Rourke, 2001). Thus, the failure to account for subtypes of LD or other variables likely contributes to the variability among findings. In addition, the majority of studies are plagued by methodological flaws, including non- typical samples, lack of a control groups, or broad age ranges (see Durrant, 1995 or Heath, 1996 for review). Given these weaknesses, a more parsimonious explanation may result from an exploration of the specific socioemotional deficits among students with specific subtypes or academic profiles of learning difficulties.
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Children's Understanding and Experience of Anger Within Their Peer Groups

Children's Understanding and Experience of Anger Within Their Peer Groups

Aggression includes a range of behaviours including verbal hostility, social exclusion, bullying and physical fighting. These can be considered learned behaviours that may follow children through adolescence and into adulthood if not addressed. Aggression may be experienced differently at different periods of development. Before school age, children are internalizing messages from their primary care givers about how they are meant to behave (Boland, 1995). During school years these messages may be reinforced through their peers. As adults they can experience aggression through relationships with colleagues and intimate partners. Schools are well placed to offer preventive programs with the hope that all students learning together about aggression at a young age with their peers will make a positive difference.
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The influence of the food environment on overweight and obesity in young children : a systematic review

The influence of the food environment on overweight and obesity in young children : a systematic review

Five intervention studies aimed to evaluate the potential role of school and nursery catering on children ’ s diets and obesity. Results from two intervention studies to reduce the fat content of school meals by training the catering staff and parents led to a decrease in the intake of calories from total fat and saturated fat. 45 46 In one of these studies in American-Indian children an interven- tion to reduce the fat content of school meals reduced the intake of energy and fat over the whole day in the intervention schools. 45 Webber and colleagues found an increase in physical activity and a reduction in serum cholesterol in the intervention group after 2.5 years, though there was no signi fi cant difference in obesity between intervention and control groups. 47 A fourth study examined the effect of modifying school lunch choices by always providing one low or moderate fat choice and only providing two high fat choices, and found an increase in the selection of the lower fat choices. 48 A large-scale trial of introducing daily fruit in schools in the UK showed a modest increase in fruit intake but no effect on vegetable intake or on the intake of energy, fat or sugar after 12 months. 49 A short trial from the USA where children were encouraged using reward tokens to choose fruit and vegetables and healthy drinks at school meals showed a reduction in BMI after 3 months but the results were not sustained
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Assessing Factors that Influence Food Choices by Young Children

Assessing Factors that Influence Food Choices by Young Children

the protein, grain, fruit, vegetable, and dairy food groups (n.d.). Therefore, healthier and less- healthy foods from these food groups were assessed, with the exception of foods from the dairy food group. Dairy foods were omitted because several subjects were either allergic to various dairy products or their parents required that they consume non-dairy milk substitutes (e.g., almond milk, coconut milk). In addition, healthier and less-healthy snack foods were included in the assessment because researchers assessing young children’s food choices have found that many children’s high-preference foods consist of snack foods (Skinner et al., 1998, 2002; Wardle et al., 2005). Cross-referencing the recommendations made by the USDA and the Child and Adult Care Food Program (the food program followed by the Edna A. Hill Child Development Center) identified the specific healthier foods included in the assessments. In order to compare these healthier foods to less-healthy foods, caloric-dense foods (e.g., chocolate, cheese, butter) were added to the healthier foods such that each food group consisted of four healthier foods and four less-healthy versions of the healthier foods (e.g., broccoli with cheese served as the less- healthy version of steamed broccoli). The foods included in the assessments are listed in Table 1. Nutrition facts for each food item included in the assessments are listed in Table 2.
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ipads and opportunities for teaching and learning for young children

ipads and opportunities for teaching and learning for young children

The findings highlight that the iPad is appealing and can support children’s developing literacy, communicative and participatory learning skills and understandings. The iPad’s key features including its portability/mobility, Internet connectivity, touchscreen, and educational apps allow for new and different ways of teacher-child/children interaction and the exploration of children’s learning interests. Teachers’ iPad supported practice fostered child-led interests, expanded children’s learning opportunities and enabled closer home-centre links in a range of planned and emergent ways. The iPads served as a relational tool, a communicative tool, a documentation tool, an informational tool, and finally, an observational tool that could support child-led learning. The quality of teachers’ talk and interaction with the children, when scaffolding children’s learning with and through the iPad, was an important aspect of teacher practice. In the same way they helped children become aware of the iPad’s affordances and its appropriate use. Quality teacher-child talk not only benefitted the individual child but also served as a model for children of how talk can be used and useful to group learning. Although young children can develop key skills for using the iPad through observing and trial and error, their interactions with the teacher and peers were most valuable to their exploration of iPad use. Just as importantly, iPad use afforded valuable interactions amongst children to allow for peer learning and collaborative exploration. iPad supported learning opportunities also helped to foster children’s emerging literacies as well as social relationships and sense of belonging at the centre.
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The Impact of Classroom Peer Groups on Pupil GCSE Results

The Impact of Classroom Peer Groups on Pupil GCSE Results

There has long been an interest in the effect of a pupil’s peers upon their outcomes. Britain, like all nations, has geographic areas of relative deprivation and affluence. Access to schools by catchment areas (residential location), academic selection or parental choice mechanisms all result in large variations in the pupil mix within schools (see Burgess et al. 2004). Whether the sorting of children in these ways have an impact on a child’s outcomes is thus a key and longstanding policy concern. If there is a significant effect of a more able peer group, then stratification of pupils into ability based teaching groups may lead to a polarisation of the population, with more able students only helping the similarly able. However, there is a standard problem when comparing pupil attainment across schools according to the school mix. Schools with intakes with low measured ability on average are likely to be attracting pupils that have unmeasured adverse characteristics influencing their future achievement prospects. These pupils may achieve less in the future, even given their initial measured ability, for reasons relating to their home or school characteristics rather than the mix of pupils within the classroom. The correlation of the unmeasured attributes with both the outcome measure and the peer group indicator results in an omitted variable bias that likely overstates the influence of the peer group.
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The influence of adult and peer role models on children’ and adolescents’ sharing decisions

The influence of adult and peer role models on children’ and adolescents’ sharing decisions

the development of fairness in sharing using the dictator game paradigm (e.g., Harbaugh, Krause, & Liday, 2000; Sally & Hill, 2006). In a typical one-shot dictator game, upon receiving a certain resource (e.g., $10), a dictator decides how much to give to a recipient and how much to keep. Because the dictator has received the resource without cause, splitting equally should be the fair solution. However, most adult dictators share only around 25% of the given resource (Camerer, 2003). While Olson and Spelke (2008; Warneken, Lohse, Melis, & Tomasello, 2011) found that preschool children are already sensitive to fairness and able to share equally, others suggested that sharing does not follow equality norms before 5-7 years of age (Benenson, Pascoe, & Radmore, 2007; Fehr, Bernhard, & Rockenbach, 2008). Furthermore, in some studies older children, adolescents, and young adults shared more in dictator games than preschoolers (e.g., Benenson et al., 2007; Harbaugh et al., 2000; Malti, Gummerum, Keller, Chaparro, &
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The influence of the food environment on overweight and obesity in young children: a systematic review

The influence of the food environment on overweight and obesity in young children: a systematic review

Five intervention studies aimed to evaluate the potential role of school and nursery catering on children ’ s diets and obesity. Results from two intervention studies to reduce the fat content of school meals by training the catering staff and parents led to a decrease in the intake of calories from total fat and saturated fat. 45 46 In one of these studies in American-Indian children an interven- tion to reduce the fat content of school meals reduced the intake of energy and fat over the whole day in the intervention schools. 45 Webber and colleagues found an increase in physical activity and a reduction in serum cholesterol in the intervention group after 2.5 years, though there was no signi fi cant difference in obesity between intervention and control groups. 47 A fourth study examined the effect of modifying school lunch choices by always providing one low or moderate fat choice and only providing two high fat choices, and found an increase in the selection of the lower fat choices. 48 A large-scale trial of introducing daily fruit in schools in the UK showed a modest increase in fruit intake but no effect on vegetable intake or on the intake of energy, fat or sugar after 12 months. 49 A short trial from the USA where children were encouraged using reward tokens to choose fruit and vegetables and healthy drinks at school meals showed a reduction in BMI after 3 months but the results were not sustained
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Emotion and coping in young victims of peer-agression

Emotion and coping in young victims of peer-agression

A growing literature documents the coping strategies used by young people experiencing peer-victimization (e.g. Andreou, 2001; Bijttebier & Vertommen, 1998; Olafsen & Viemerö, 2000). However, these are descriptive accounts which either outline the types of coping strategies used by children and adolescents when experiencing peer-victimization, or compare victims’ and non-victims’ strategies for coping with stress more generally. Neither of these strategies clarifies why victims cope in specific ways, or how we might influence their use of coping strategy. Only one study that we are aware of has examined the relationship between appraisals and coping strategy use. Hunter and Boyle (2004) found that threat appraisals (i.e. perceived negative effects of bullying) of bullied pupils aged nine to 14 years old did not influence coping strategy use. Perceived control was unrelated to seeking social support, avoiding the problem and trying to solve the problem, but was negatively related to use of wishful thinking (a ruminative strategy). This raised questions about the relevance of central aspects of the appraisal process within the peer-victimization framework (although ambiguity of challenge appraisals did influence social support, problem focused and wishful thinking coping). However, it may also reflect the use of insufficiently sensitive measurement instruments in that study (i.e. single-item, categorical measures of appraisal).
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Just picking it up? Young children learning with technology at home

Just picking it up? Young children learning with technology at home

understanding of the digital world. Research based on a series of focus groups and a survey of over one thousand parents with children aged six months to six years old in the United States (Rideout and Hamel, 2006) provides detailed data to show the ways in which technologies have become ‘part of the fabric of daily life’ for young children (p.4). The study found that parents do not introduce technologies into their children’s lives so much for the educational benefits as for the benefits it offers parents: ‘uninterrupted time for chores, some peace and quiet, or even just an opportunity to watch their own favorite shows’ (p.5). We found that parents did not routinely characterise their children’s activities as learning and had limited awareness of the ways in which families supported this learning, particularly in terms of learning dispositions and cultural awareness, but it is not our intention to suggest a deficit model of parenting. The purpose of this research is not to point to the ways in which families should support learning, or to inform programmes to promote family learning, but to describe and analyse the practices that lead to children’s learning without such interventions.
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The influence of self  and peer reflection on collaborative learning in educational institutions

The influence of self and peer reflection on collaborative learning in educational institutions

A total of 24 participants in the age group of 9 to 12 years participated (M=11.09, SD=0.44) in the study. Sampling was done through a cluster sampling and included 13 female participants and 11 male participants. All participants go the same fifth class of a German secondary school that prepares them for high school. The participants were assigned to 8 groups of each three students based on a previous received grade. The pre-grades consist of the written and oral performance of the students in history for the last half a year. The grades can vary from 0 points (minimum) to 15 points (maximum). The researcher assigned the groups with an odd number to condition one (peer-assessment) and the groups with an even number were assigned to condition two (self-assessment). The groups were formed in a way that the groups have similar pre-grade averages and therefore condition one and two have no significant differences in their pre-grade with averages of 8.92 points (condition one, using peer-reflection) and 9.08 points (condition two, using self-reflection); t(22)=-0.188, p=.853. The participants have based on their education some experience with collaborative experience but no further knowledge or experience about the digital feedback tool.
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The effect of productive failure instruction on the learning process, learning outcomes, and motivation of young children

The effect of productive failure instruction on the learning process, learning outcomes, and motivation of young children

Productive failure essentially is the complete opposite of direct instruction. Direct instruction is defined as “providing information that fully explains the concepts and procedures that students are required to learn as well as learning strategy support that is compatible with human cognitive architecture” (Kirschner, Sweller & Clark, 2006, p. 75). In practice this means that a teacher first explains the new concepts step by step and then invites learners to engage in guided practice. In a productive failure lesson, by contrast, the instruction in the new concepts is preceded by unguided exploration. As learners lack the knowledge to successfully solve problems during this exploration phase, they are likely to make mistakes. Although failure seems compelling and is generally considered a negative outcome of the learning process, advocates of the productive failure approach believe that this is not necessarily the case. According to Kapur, Dickson and Yhing (2009) failure can be productive when a situation is created in which children get stuck and in which children receive instruction that is connected to the experiences of the children during the lesson. When the instruction is connected to the experiences of the children, it becomes meaningful and children learn to understand the cause of the failure. Also, VanLehn, Siler, Murray, Yamauchi and Baggett (2003) suggest that successful learning of a new concept is related with failure, which means that it would be better to delay the instruction until after the students reach an impasse and are not able to go on with the task.
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Technology is a tool for Learning: Voices of Teachers and Parents of Young Children

Technology is a tool for Learning: Voices of Teachers and Parents of Young Children

Pakistan, as one of the developing countries, is facing challenges in terms of providing quality education to its student population. The outcome of many local research studies identified reasons of this failure, just as, not initiating reforms, which can help countries strengthen their education systems; converting teaching and learning process into effec- tive pedagogy; readiness of institutions; competency of teachers; organizational dynamics and policy implementation (Government of Pakistan Ministry of Federal Education and Professional Training Islamabad , 2017; Syed, Asif, & Yousaf, 2011) . With reference to the Goverment of Pakistan (2009), one of the most significant initiatives taken by Pakistani education system is to enhance the quality of early year education for the children to over- come problems which relate to the quality and accessibility of education. This agenda is set to meet the global demand of the society and to motivate people for providing better learning opportunities during early year education.
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Young women's dismissal of the influence of gender upon their future life trajectory as played out in 'New Times'

Young women's dismissal of the influence of gender upon their future life trajectory as played out in 'New Times'

It is within this discursive construct of a contemporary world – one constituted by and within neoliberal discourse and its imperative of individualisation, and marked by the complexities at play in such discourse and the act of constructing the self – that young women come to imagine and live out their lives. That is, they come to (or ‘fail’ to) draw upon the available cultural scripts of the time to build (or ‘fail’ to build) a portfolio of identities, to author (or not) their own biographies – their biography of the self. And of interest in this paper are the ways in which young women, in imagining their biographies, come to view the influence of gender upon the construction of the narratives of their lives. For it must be acknowledged that such biography work is also gendered work. Failure to acknowledge such is dangerous – to run the risk of buying into the “epistemological fallacy” (Furlong & Cartmel, 1997) that underlies the notion of ‘choice biographies’. That is, to underestimate the extent to which the biographies they are shaping are still constrained by structural factors such as gender (see Dwyer & Wyn, 2001). Identity – and indeed gender identity – is, in these New Times, dependent upon decision making, risk taking and reflexive action. As Rose (1996b, p. 302) asserts, “identity is no longer experienced as a natural, coherent and unchanging attribute of the individual, but as the uncertain and fractured result of personal decisions and plans. Biography and identity become self-reflexive, to be constructed, worked upon, the outcome of choices … in which the individual himself or herself is the self-conscious centre of action.”
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Parental and Peer Influences upon Accounting as a Subject and Accountancy as a Career

Parental and Peer Influences upon Accounting as a Subject and Accountancy as a Career

Parental effects on the educational pursuit and attainment of an individual is highly supported and validated in many studies, namely by the study conducted by [3] who found that parental guidance exerts effects on the learning achievement of an adolescent, particularly the socio-economic status of parents. This is further supported with a psychoanalytic theory which relates to childhood experience and memories voluntary and involuntary [4]. These are so often dominated by parents to the choices and mentality of an individual that the chosen occupation is either a duplicate of childhood experience, fulfillment of childhood needs or reify dreams due to familial heritage. Working mothers and homemakers are also great factor that determine the career lines for their daughters and sons in a household [5], [6].
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