Abstract: Objective: The present study aimed to determine whether Default-Mode Network (DMN) connectivity at resting-state is altered in college students with mobile phone addiction (MPA) by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: The fMRI data were acquired during resting state from 24 college students with MPA and 16 age- and gender-matched normal control college students. Synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations were monitored to determine posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) connectivity in all subjects. In order to assess the relationship between MPA behavioral features and alteration in functional connectivity, the z value of areas that ex- hibited abnormal PCC connectivity in 24 subjects with MPA were correlated with the scores of the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), Sensation Seeking (SS), Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI) and Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI). Results: Compared with the control group, functional connectivity in the an- terior cingulate, bilateral middle frontal gyrus, bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, and right inferior temporal gyrus increased in subjects with MPA. Subjects with MPA revealed higher SAS (P = 0.0293), SDS (P = 0.0056), BIS-11 (P<0.0001), PSQI (P = 0.001), SPAI (P<0.0001) and MPAI (P<0.0001) scores and lower RSS (P = 0.0002) scores, compared to controls. No significant correlations were found between altered functional con- nectivity and MPA behavioral features. Conclusion: College students with MPA present different behavioral features and DMN functional connectivity, especially in cerebral regions related to cognitive control.
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Mobile Phone Addiction Scale (MPAS) was used to deter- mine the level of mobile addiction in the study subjects and it was observed that 43% participants had a high level of addiction, 30% had a moderate level of addiction, whereas 27% participants had a low level of mobile addiction. The revolutionizing nature of technology gives us a greater access to knowledge, limitless opportunities to grow and broaden our horizon. Despite this feat, due to the increas- ing amount of time people spend on this branch of ap- plied science through mobile phones and other electronic gadgets, the potentially harmful effects it produces on the quality of life, cannot be ignored and thus, investigations of present study on mobile phone usage and its correlation with physical and psychological changes are important. According to Peel et al (1995), “any form of extreme be- havior is addictive’’ . And although the meaning of addiction has come a long way behind substance abuse, it includes several psychological addictions such as gam- bling or overeating . Researchers explicate that these addictions are associated with social needs and stress the individual faces in his life . Similarly, the mobile phone dependency arises from such needs and it is now slowly moving towards addiction. The continuous need for these gadgets not only affects the human behavior but also brings about physical changes in the body.
The obtained results indicated that age significantly decreased the occurrence of cell phone addiction (OR = 0.87) (positive effect), signifying that by per year increase in age, the possibility of occurrence of cell phone addiction reduced by 0.13. Some other studies found sociological commonalities. In a study, young adolescents had a higher tendency towards cell phone use and were at more risk of smart phone addiction(24).Walsh et al. reported that self-identity at an early age is the predictor of cell phone use and that there is robust correlation among cell phone dependency, self-identity, and being female (8). Furthermore, De- Sola Gutierrez et al. (2016) found that an excessive use of cell phones has been correlated with personality traits including neuroticism, self-esteem, self-identity, and
Phone Addiction Monitor is application which is based on android platform. The “Phone Addiction Monitor” is to developed for manage the time of phone usage and overcome the spending time on social media. Using an advanced algorithm, the app studies your phone usage and calculates addiction score in real time. Show the graph on daily, weekly & monthly basis, so it is easy to analyse the data and manage time. Application show the Analysis application wise so you can see how much time you spend on each application. An adult checks his phone a taping 110 times a day. That makes it once every 14 minutes. And for most people this peak to once every 6 seconds in the evenings. So, people easily track the phone usage.
Analysis of the survey data about college students' mobile phone addiction, the total score shows a normal distribution. The higher score, the stronger degree of mobile phone addiction. In this study, 302 samples were collected; of which 212 students are obviously suffer from mobile phone addiction, accounting for 70.20% of the total. In terms of the degree of addiction, moderate addiction accounts for the highest. The study points out that there are some differences in mobile phone addiction among college students, regardless of grade, gender, college and other conditions .This coincides with the results of this study. In every dimension of mobile phone, uncontrollability has the greatest impact on College Students' mobile phone addiction, followed by withdrawal, and there is little difference between avoidance and inefficiency. It shows that college students can’t control their use of mobile phones. The low scores of avoidance and inefficiency indicate that the phenomenon of excessive use of mobile phones by college students in order to avoid unhealthy emotions such as life disorder is not particularly serious. After the analysis of College Students' mobile phone usage, it is found that college students spend much time on mobile phones every day. With the mobile phone changing from "communication tool" to "personal multimedia terminal", smartphone is gradually integrated into people's daily life, benchmarking into a new media culture. The function of mobile phone is more and more, changes the life style of College students. It used to listen to music with MP3, watch Videos on TV, shopping, read paper books, chat face to face, but now these can be finished through mobile phones, that is, mobile phones can meet most of the needs in life. Investigation found that there was a correlation between user needs and mobile phone addiction behavior .As to its functions, the most popular is Wechat, then Payment 、 Shopping online and Information Acquisition .
of the mobile phone are a subject of much concern. Mo- bile phone addiction is characterized by uncontrolled mobile phone use that leads to adverse consequences on an individual’s physical and mental health and social func- tioning . Individuals with symptoms of mobile phone addiction tend to bring their phone with them wherever they are and think about their phone even if they cannot use it, which ultimately influences daily tasks . Of all applications, instant messaging receives the highest use among mobile phone users in China (92.1%), with 11.0% higher use than the second most common use, the search engine . This shows that individuals use the mobile Internet for social needs more than for other functions. Some users believe that mobile phone instant messaging not only can help them build deeper friendships but also is more comfortable than face-to-face interactions . However, people who overuse mobile phones are more likely to have difficulties expressing their emotions than the general population is . Individuals with mobile phone dependence may have deficient facial expression recognition and take more time to identify types of emo- tion. Alexithymia is significantly correlated with dysregu- lation of emotions and affects, which makes it difficult to guide one’ s own behavior . Mobile phone addiction among university students could result from pre-existing factors . Alexithymia is considered a high-risk factor for mobile phone addiction .
Today Mobile phones is one of the manifestations of communication technology which have a strong position in modern life and human society and are considered as an integral part of everyday relations. . In today’s communicational world mobile phone are used largely as a means of personal communication. Psychiatrists proclaim that in the 21st century mobile phone addiction has become one of the major non-drug addictions. It can be said that for many people living without mobile phones is not possible or at least is not desirable. Mobile phone can be considered as a form of technological addiction. Many mobile phone addicts are people with low self-esteem and have difficulty in their social relationships and feel that they need to constantly contact with others. Turning off mobile phones can provide anxiety, sensitiveness and sleep disorders and insomnia and even shivering and digestive problems. Also it creates emotional attachment for users, so these people believe that without the use of mobile phones they are unable to live. The popularity of cell phones among young people is not unique in India, but it is a worldwide phenomenon. The formation of a global youth culture around mobile phones is an emerging topic of academic interest and research. Several studies have been conducted on the use of mobile phones among young people in different countries across the world such as Japan, Norway, Finland, USA, and Britain. This study adds to the growing body of research by providing empirical information about the use of mobile phones by youngsters in India.
Phone addiction causes significant social and psychological damage to people who excessively use mobile phones. Rapid social rhythm, busy daily life, and complex interpersonal relationships make people, especially the student groups, increasingly dependent on mobile phones, and also gradually change their communication behaviors. This paper uses the way of psychological em- pirical study to investigate 220 students in a Beijing high school through the Mobile Phone Addiction Index, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale and UCLA Loneliness Scale. The results show that: (1) the ratio of phone addiction among phone users of high school students is about 17.95%, and it varies sig- nificantly from different school department; (2) there is no correlation be- tween phone addiction and social anxiety; (3) there is a higher sense of lone- liness in classmates who have phone addiction. It can be seen that in modern society, mobile phone has become the main tool of social communication, and that it has little effect on social anxiety. Loneliness is one of the main reasons for phone addiction of high school students. Therefore, this paper suggests that in order to prevent high school students from excessively relying on the phone, the school need to take measures to limit the time of students using mobile phones; and strengthening the intimate relationship among school, family and students can help to reduce phone addiction by lowing the loneli- ness of students.
Researcher found that, excess use of mobile phone is most important problems. It causes 1.Poor attendance of students, 2.Poor learning ability, and 3.Poor academic performance and overall result will be dark future and poor career. As shown in Diagram 2. Thus researcher concludes that, student absenteeism is associated with excess use of mobile phone.
The aim of this study was to investigate the relation- ship between addiction to mobile phone and sense of loneliness among students of medical sciences in Ker- manshah, Iran. The results showed that most of the stu- dents (71.3%) had mobile phone addiction. The rate of mobile phone addiction has been reported quite differ- ently among students in different countries. For exam- ple, this figure in China was 13.5% , in Iran was 1.2% , and in Korea was 0.9% . Since the sample size and tools used to measure mobile phone addiction have been appropriately chosen in all of the above studies, the difference in the rate of addiction to mobile phone can be related to the differences in the study popula- tion or the time of study. We found that the degree of loneliness that students felt was at average level. In some studies, students’ sense of loneliness has been reported at moderate level [3, 6], which is consistent with our results. We found a significant and negative relationship Table 1 Demographic characteristics of study subjects
All statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS software version 18 (SPSS, Inc. Chicago, IL, USA). The p-value <0.05 was considered to be significant. Quantitative variables are shown as mean±SD and qualitative variables are represented as the number of frequency and their percentage. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed the normal distribution of data. Hence, comparison of cell phone addiction between the border and satisfactory status of HL was done using independent sample t-test, considering the fact that none of the students had insufficient HL. To investigate the correlation between HL and cell phone addiction in total, nursing, and non-nursing students, the Pearson’s correlation test was used.
Despite the widespread use of mobail phones in Iranian students, psychological and behavioral effects of addiction to it and its consequences have not been investigated yet. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between cell phone dependency with psychological disorders and academic burnout among nursing and midwifery students. In this study, 169 students were chosen through stratified random sampling method. Data collection tools included mobile phone addiction index, symptom check list-90- Revision and academic burnout inventory. Correlation coefficients of mobile phone dependency with psychological disorders was 0.487 and according results from regression analysis mobile phone dependency predicted 23.8% of the variance of psychological disorders. Correlation coefficients of mobile phone dependency with academic burnout was 0.677 and results from regression analysis mobile phone dependency explained 47.6 of the variance academic burnout. Considering the positive and significant relationship between cell phone usage with psychological disorders and students' academic burnout, identifying the people at risk and holding mobile phone injury training workshops is recommended.
India stands in second position i.e., just behind China in wireless communication subscription worldwide. In September 2018, number of active wireless subscriptions in India was 1,013.23 million and is projected to increase largely in the next few years . The smartphone revolution since 2000 is bringing noticeable changes in daily lives of people as it is providing more convenience in day to day life but along with that many adverse-effects in interpersonal relationships, psychological wellbeing and physical health. Considering the youth in the present scenario, they are the first generation to have grown up with so much exposure to high-tech media and this makes them more susceptible to the adverse-effects of smartphones and social media than older adults . Excessive behaviour in using technology tools such as smartphones, android applications or its entertainments can be termed as mobile phone addiction or internet addiction . Mobile phone use can be classified as being of a ‘dangerous’ level when daily activities start being affected by it . Smartphone usage can be considered as an antecedent of behavioural addiction and has been linked to side effects like lower academic performance, decreased real life social interaction and negative effects on relationships .
In this study, GHQ total score in subjects with poor sleep quality was higher than those with good sleep qual- ity. So that the group with favorable sleep level had higher level of general health than the reference category (stu- dents who had unfavorable sleep level). Previous studies have shown that the variable of sleep quality has played an important role in the general health of students, and the increase of favorable sleep level could improve the general health, and as a result it could improve the quality of life and academic performance of students. Mohammadi et al., in their study in 2012, found a positive and significant relationship between the sleep quality and general health . Likewise Chegini et al. in their research stated that the scores of sleep quality had strong and significant cor- relation with the general health’s total score . According to the results of the present study that indicate the positive relationship between general health and cell phone overuse, there is a presumption that cell phone addiction affects the quality of medical students ’ sleep, and consequently abnormal sleeping pattern in students negatively affects their general health [29, 33].
The purpose of this study was to investigate the cellular phone addiction status and the relationship between cellular phone addiction and self-esteem of elementary school students in today’s highly mobile environment. The study participants were 1,173 upper grade elementary school students in Chungnam province. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire from November 5 to 26, 2012. Collected data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS 20.0 program with descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA and Scheffe test. The level of the cellular phone addiction in upper grade elementary school students was generally low but high risk students also existed. In addition, a negative correlation was observed between self-esteem and cellular phone addiction in upper grade elementary school students. These results suggest that various interventions to prevent and manage the cellular phone addiction should be provided for elementary school students in today’s highly mobile environment and interventions for high risk students of cellular phone addiction should be provided urgently. In addition, inclusion of interventions to increase the self-esteem of upper grade elementary school students in those interventions should be also needed.
The mobile phone addiction is a new phenomenon, and because diagnostic criteria of mobile phone in our country may be different from other communities, it is necessary to examine the diagnostic criteria based on our culture. Also, diagnosis based on clinical interview is probably the best method to diagnose mobile phone addiction. However, these criteria and their relationship with related problems in other countries have been discussed (10). Since no criteria have been set for mobile phone addiction in Iran and no research has been done on this topic yet, we aimed to conduct this study in behavioral sciences. Finally, there is an urgent need for the development of a valid and reliable diagnostic instrument to assess mobile phone dependency that can be used by clinical psychologists and psychiatrists. The primary aim of this study was to assess the Persian version of the semi- structured diagnostic questionnaire of mobile phone dependency in students of Tehran universities.
Fortunately, effective interventions exist to treat and manage OUD and other SUDs in the hospital. Interven- tions for treating hospital-based OUD include: a) care de- livery checklists [6–9]; b) initiating opioid agonist therapy ([OAT]—methadone and buprenorphine) [10, 11]; and c) addiction medicine consult (AMC) services [12–20]. The literature base describes the design, implementation, and effectiveness of hospital AMC services. Most published studies are single-site prospective evaluations [14, 16], retrospective assessments [18, 19], or descriptive imple- mentation case studies . Research suggests that AMC services are feasible from the perspective of the health sys- tem  and the patient , that AMC services increase the delivery of evidence-based care during hospitalization [13, 14] and upon discharge , and improve patient re- lated addiction outcomes .
Despite these limitations, the results of this study have several suggestions and implications. First, this is the first meta-analytic study to be primarily concerned with the psy- chosocial correlates of Internet addiction and with identify- ing the features that either increase or decrease an individu- al’s risk of developing an addiction. Second, while previous studies investigating the associations between psychosocial factors and Internet addiction have rarely analyzed the com- parative effects of intrapersonal and interpersonal variables, the present meta-analytic study revealed that intrapersonal variables have a greater contribution than interpersonal vari- ables. Thus, intrapersonal problems must be seriously con- sidered when developing strategies to prevent Internet ad- diction and in planning educational programs for Koreans who are addicted to the Internet. In addition, high-risk indi- viduals can be identified via an assessment of psychological traits (e.g., temperamental vulnerabilities) so that further methods of protection from Internet addiction can be devel- oped. Further, these findings have some additional implica- tions regarding the most appropriate types of treatment and prevention programs. For example, such programs should aim to improve the psychological factors related to self- identity problems and negative emotions as well as influ- ence changes in Internet use. Finally, the present study con- tributes to the field by taking a step toward understanding the psychosocial factors through which vulnerable people develop an Internet addiction. Although confined to Kore- ans, the results of this study are expected to provide the ba- sic data for developing a better theoretical overview of Inter- net addiction.
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A large number of association studies of SNP 118A>G have been reported and reviewed (93, 94). In two studies from this labora- tory, the 118G variant was associated with alcoholism and heroin addiction in a sample of Swedish subjects with little genetic admix- ture (95, 96). The 118G allele has been associated with phenotypes including opioid dependence and other substance dependencies, alcoholism, attenuated HPA axis response to stress, and reduced clinical effects of opioid analgesics, although findings were not always consistent (86, 97–99). The mixed results may be explained in part by different haplotype patterns between populations. In a recent analysis (100), we showed that the 118G allele is positioned within a haplogroup in a population-specific manner and is in high linkage disequilibrium (LD) with several distant variants that may have a regulatory effect. Several studies showed a positive effect of the 118G allele on treatment response to the opioid antagonist naltrexone (101). The 118G allele was associated with a robust cor- tisol response to the MOP-r competitive antagonist naloxone in a population-specific manner (102–105). The 118G allele blunted the ACTH response to metyrapone in healthy subjects (106).
Summary of the baseline generalized additive mixed model for the second question, containing only data from the first-in-first-out and last-in-first-out conditions. Target order was scaled to be symmetrical around the intercept. A smooth term marked as s() denotes a thin plate regression spline, and te() a tensor product smooth. The smooth terms for standard deviations and the sum of phone frequencies were treated as penalized random effects.