ABSTRACT: The antimicrobial effects of I. balsamina seed hexane extract against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus vulgaris, and Serratia marcescens were determined using the standard technique. As well as the phytochemical properties of the extract on the test isolates were also examined using the standard methods. The phytochemical components of the hexane extract of the I.balsamina seed include falvonoids, alkaloids, phenol, tannin, alkaloids, steroid, saponin, phenol, flavonoids, triterpenes glycosides and carbohydrate. All the test organisms were susceptible to 25mg/ml of the extract. The MIC and MBC of the hexane extract of the I.balsamina against S. aureus and E. coli was 50mg/ml, while that of K. pneumonia and S. marcescens were 75mg/ml and 100mg/ml of the extract respectively. The result of this study suggests that the hexane extracts of I. balsamina could be suitable for the treatment of diseases infections caused by S. aureus, K.pneumonia, P. vulgaris and S. marcescens .
The objective of the present investigation was to isolate the active components present in whole plant of Ipomoea digitata. . The plant were extracted with various solvents (pet. ether, ethyl acetate and methanol), methanol was found to be more active among them. The preliminary phytochemical results revealed that flavonoids and amino acids as active constituents in methanolic extract of Ipomoea digitata.Themethanolic extract of Ipomoea digitata. was undergone column chromatography with different solvent fractions. Hence, two compounds were isolated from methanolic extract of Ipomoea digitata. with the compound 1 designated as compound 1 (110 mg)the solvent system(hexane :ethyl acetate80:20), and fractions 42 -50 (eluted with ethyl acetate: Methanol 75:25) gave a solid designated as compound 2 (135mg) compound 2 Rf value was 0.19 using to solvent system (ethyl acetate: Methanol 90:10). The structures of the two isolated compounds were characterized by using FT-IR, NMR and Mass spectrophotometric methods. Thus, the compound 1 was characterized as 3, 4, 5 – Trihydroxy – 6 – (c methoxy carbonyl methyl) – tetrahydro – 2H – Pyran – 2 Carboxylic acid and its molecular formula is C 8 H 14 O 8 ., and compound 2 was characterized as Tetrahydro 4,
qualitative phytochemical analysis and fluores- cence analysis confirm that this plant is the plenti- ful source of phytoconstituents. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, pro- teins, phenols, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, fatty acids, phlobatannins and emodins. In conclu- sion, it was recommended that the plant Acalypha fruticosa can be used as promising source for the development of novel drugs due to the presence of various phytoconstituents.
The qualitative phytochemical screening for the methanolic and aqueous extracts of the plant Elephantopus scaber were studied for proteins, carbohydrates, glycosides, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids and cholesterol. The methanol and aqueous extracts shows the presence of all these compounds in the plant E. scaber.
The phytochemical qualitative analysis shows the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, tannins, saponins, steroids and cholesterol in methanol and aqueous extract of the plant E. scaber, the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, cholesterol, flavonoids, steroids, and tannins in methanol and aqueous extract and the presence of saponins in the aqueous extract and the absence of saponins in the methanol extract of E. scaber (Kamalakannan et al., 2012) also shows the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, tannins and saponins in the aqueous and methanol extracts, the presence of flavonoids in the methanol extract and the absence of flavonoids in the aqueous extract, but it shows the absence of alkaloids and steroids in both the extracts of the plant E. scaber. The variation in type of phytochemicals present in different solvents as shown in the result of phytochemical screening might be attributed to the ability of the solvents to dissolve into
The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenols, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, alkaloids, saponins, tannins and the difference of secondary metabolites composition of fractions compared to crude extracts. This result can be explained by the fact that during fractionation, compounds are separated according to their affinity and solubility with extraction solvent (Cowan et al., 1999). However, the increasement of quantity of alkaloids and anthraquinones in methanol fraction compared to the loss of some classes of secondary metabolites in hexane and ethyl acetate fractions can be explain by the fact that fractionation could concentrated some classes of secondary metabolites and reduce others (Harbone, 1984; Bolou et al., 2011). The presence of all these classes of secondary metabolites in extract of root of L. mayombensis is an indication of its pharmacological importance. In fact, these classes of metabolites are reported to possess many importance biological activities including, antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxydant (Shariff, 2001; Ghoghari and Rajani, 2006; Hadacek, 2002; Panda and Kar, 2007). The fractionation of root extracts was lead to isolation and identification of 8 compounds and their antimicrobial activity was determined by disc diffusion method. The results showed that activity is closely related to structure of compounds tested. β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, respectively, two compounds of the same classes of steroids were found to target the same group of microorganisms. The antimicrobial activities of stigmasterol were found to be moderate as compared the reference drugs. This observation is in good agreement with previous reports that showed low antimicrobial (or antibacterial) activities of stigmasterol against Acetobacter sp., E. coli, S. aureus, and Streptococcus sp, P. aeruginosa (Ahamed et al., 2002; Tamokou et al., 2011). On the other hand, antibacterial activity of β- sitosterol was also found to be consistent with literature reports that discuss low/moderate antibacterial activity of β-sitosterol against several bacterial species that include S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa (Beltrame et al., 2002). : (8S,9R,10R,11S,13R,17R)- 6,11-dihydroxy-14,15-epoxy-4,4,8,10,13-pentamethyl-17-(2-oxo- 2,5-dihydrofuran-3-yl-)-11,12,13,15,16,17-hexahydro -4H- cyclopent[α]phenanthrene-3,7(8H,9H,10H,14H)-dione (1) was the less active compounds studied. This can be explain the steric
Seaweeds are marine macroscopic algae they are primitive non flowering plants without root, stem and leaves. They contain different vitamins, minerals. In the present study the Phytochemical screening of seaweeds showed the presence of proteins, amino acids and Flavonoids in the all the solvents and the glycosides are absence of acetone, ethyl acetate, and ethanol solvents. And the Phenolic compounds are absence of acetone, methanol, ethyl acetate and ethanol solvents. Among
been identified (Williams et al., 2004; Taylor and Grotewold, 2005). The health promoting effects of flavonoids may relate to interactions with key enzymes, signaling cascades involving cytokines and transcription factors, or antioxidant systems (Polya, 2003). Phenolic compounds have also been known as have shown medicinal activity as well as exhibiting physiological functions. It was reported that compounds such radical scavenging effects of most plants (Omale and Okafor, 2007). Due to the presence of these many compounds the extracts possess the medicinal potential to develop novel therapeutic agents.
countries. Chemical analysis of ginger shows that it consist of more than 400 different compounds. In the present study, antimicrobial Zingiber Officinalewere evaluated against S. Ethanol extract demonstrated a higher antibacterial activity than the acetone and aqueous extract. These extracts were prepared from fresh Ginger rhizomes. These extracts were evaluated for their part in increasing antibacterial activity of ATCC 25923) and E.coli (ATCC25922). The antibacterial activity of streptomycin and tetracyclin were enhanced against the test organism in the presence of these extracts. Phytochemical analysis gave positive results for steroids, triterpenoids, glycosides, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, amino acids and ntains pharmacologically bioactive constituents that may be responsible
Information on Arum cyrenaicum, which is a common herb in Aljabal Al-Akhdar (Libya), is very scarce. Hence it was planned to investigate the flavonoids of this species which is used in traditional medicine against some human disorders. Phytochemical screening of the whole plant revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenes, carbohydrates and sterols.Fractionation of the butanol fraction over a polyamide column gave three flavones- compounds I,II and III.The structures of these flavonoids were elucidated via a combination of spectral techniques(UV, 1 HNMR and MS).
Genus Glochidion have been used for a varied of biological activities in traditional medicine and also have been using by many ethnic groups. It is a vast genus in which many plants explored chemically, but most of the species in this genus were not standardized pharmacognostically. Thus in this current study a complete pharmacognostic study was done on the leaf part. Microscopical studies have given a clear detail regarding the various cell characters and various constants.The main TDI of leaf was found to be long unicellular covering trichomes. Determination of leaf constants, qualitative physical and chemical analysis has given standard numerical values for comparison and detection of adulterants it would also be a useful for compilation of a suitable monograph. Phytochemical test like preliminary phytochemical analysis and thin layer chromatography were performed .Through chemical test presence flavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids was revealed. From the TLC analysis presence of gallic acid was identified.
Introduction- The present article deals with study of phytochemical analysis of Withania somnifera Dunal roots. Withania somnifera also known as Ashwagandha or winter cherry. Various preparations of Ashwagandha (WS) are available in the market used in the treatment of many clinical conditions in India. Objective- Evolution of Physico-chemical values and phytochemical analysis of Ashwagandha Churna. Materials and Methods- The current investigation deals with extraction and detection or screening of active phytochemical compounds from different extracts of Withania somnifera root. Pharmacognostic studies, Physicochemical studies, Preliminary phytochemical studies was carried out. Result and conclusion - The result drown were 2% foreign mater was determined. Loss on drying 1.6%, total ash obtained was 9 %, acid insoluble ash was 1% and water soluble extractive was 12 % and Alcohol soluble extractive was 13 %. The phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of various phytochemical constituents such as alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrate, Steroids and Saponin Glycoside. Keywords: Ashwagandha, Withania Somnifera, Phytochemical.
In earlier studies Moringa oliefera phytochemical screening revealed presence of flavonoids and saponins, Tannins, Alkaloids, were reported by Napolean et al., (2009) and Phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of a cancer possibly due to their dietary fibers, polyphenol antioxidants and anti- inflammatory effects (Brow and Arthur, 2001).
ABSTRACT: Peasant farmers in northern Nigeria indigenously use many plants to protect cereals and legumes against pest damage during storage. Phytochemical screening of the seed extracts of Parkia biglobosa indicated the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, polyphenols, tannins, and terpenoids in ethanol extract and alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids and saponins in petroleum extract. In this study the test insects (Callosobrucus maculatus) for the antifeedant efficacy were cultured and the first generation progenies that emerged were used. Beans were dressed with different doses (0.04, 0.08, 0.12, 0.16, and 0.20g) of the extracts and the seed damage data were used to estimate the weevil perforation index (WPI). WPI was found to have decreased as concentration of extracts increased. Compared to the control which has WPI of 50%, both extracts were found to be highly effective antifeedants against the cowpea weevil storage pest for the time allowed for the study. The ability to protect the seeds from damage has been clearly shown by the percent protectant ability (PPA) whose value at 0.20g dose for ethanol extract was 94.74% while for petroleum ether extract it was 81.82%. The ethanol extract was therefore more effective than the petroleum ether extract at the highest dose. The results of this study therefore showed that Parkia biglobosa seed extracts possessed some antifeedant activity which may be associated with the presence of the secondary metabolites detected by the phytochemical screening.
development. Medicinal plant extracts are potential source for the development of new agents effective against many infections disease that are currently difficult to treat. The results of the preliminary phytochemical analysis of the sample AESP, HAESP and EESP reveal the presence of bioactive phyto components such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phenols and saponin. In this presence of terpenoids was only evident in the EESP which may be unique for EESP for its expected biological activity.
The result for phytochemical screening of ethanolic extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum showed the presence of tannins, saponins steroids and flavonoids, but alkaloids, , and triterpenoids not present in the extract (Table 1). The sample used for estimating phenols showed colour change from lowest concentration to highest concentration i.e. from 10-100 µg/ml The change in colour (from colorless to grey) with an increase in graph (Graph 1) indicates the presence of phenols in the sample. Also result was compared with standard (Gallic acid) The secondary metabolites present in the plants are known to be biologically active ingredients. The curative properties of Cinnamomum zeylanicum are due to the presence of various secondary metabolites such as tannins, saponins steroids flavonoids and phenols. The ethanolic extract showed the presence of various phytochemical components. The presence of flavonoids in the extract indicates naturally occurring phenolic compounds have beneficial effect in human diet.
Phytochemical screening of methanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Ailanthus altissima demonstrated the presence of Carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, phenols, saponins, diterpenes, fats and oils. However proteins, alkaloids and anthraquinone glycosides were found absent in all the extracts and phytosterols were also found absent only in aqueous extract. (Table-4).
Abstract: The extracts of Arthocarpus heterophyllus Lam. leaves were evaluated in vitro for their anthelmintic activity. Benhamia rosea and B. itoleisis were used as animal models and Albendazole as reference product (positive control). After calculating the yield, it appears that the ethanol extracts had given a better yield (0.70%) compared to the organic extracts. The result of the phytochemical screening by TLC (thin layer chromatography) showed the presence of phenolic compounds including anthocyanins, coumarins, anthraquinones, phenol acids and terpenoids. From this study, it appears that A. heterophyllus Lam. contains various secondary metabolites such as flavonoids (2.63±0.007mg EQ/100g MS), phenolic acids, coumarins, anthraquinones, terpenoids and anthocyanins (10.46±1.05 mg/100 MS) and total polyphenols (27.33±9.34 mg EAG/100 g MS). The organic/terpenic acids extract showed very high antioxidant activity against the ABTS radical (IC 50 : 0.97
In these screening process alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids and terpenoids, phenols shows different types of results in different solvents. From the fruit, water extract showed the presence of carbohydrate, alkaloids, saponins and tannins. However, 70% ethanol and acetone had the presence cardiac glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, proteins, alkaloids and terpenoids. The methanol extract had the presence of cardiac glycosides, carbohydrate, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenol, tannins, saponins and terpenoids..