The studies revealed that growth habit of a crop affects interaction between the plants and consequently needs to be accounted for recommending plant population. Moreover, it becomes imperative to develop such versatile techniques for planting of cotton that ensure efficient nutrient uptake and minimum mutual shading and inter plant competition. To overcome this problem, modern production technology emphasizes the role of proper plant spacing to ensure high productivity of cotton. So, keeping in view the importance of cotton crop the present study was undertaken to examine economics of various cotton genotypes which were planted at various planting densities.
exporter and consumer of raw cotton in world. The cotton crop significantly contributes to national export earnings (10 billion US$) annually, provide raw materials for local textile related industries. Consequent upon the need of cotton fiber products, cotton is surviving as most widely cultivated crop and its fiber is facing severe competition Abstract | Evaluation of optimum nitrogen rate in conjunction with plant density is an important concern of cotton production. The two years’ field trials were conducted at Central Cotton Research Institute, Multan to test the hypothesis whether nitrogen (N) requirement varies with planting density (PD) for dry matter production, partitioning, nutrient use efficiency (NUE), lint yield and associated fiber properties. In this RCBD split plot experiment, two planting densities (8.88 and 4.44 plants m -2 ) were assigned to main plot
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Crop growth and productivity may differ under different sowing methods and planting densities. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of different sowing methods and planting densities on growth, yield, quality and economic returns of cotton. Sowing methods included pit planting (1 m × 1 m pits), bed planting (75 cm apart beds), ridge planting (75 cm apart ridges) and line sowing with varied inter row spacing (25, 50 and 75 cm). Sowing methods significantly affected growth and yield of cotton. Pit planting imposed maximum increase in plant height (152 cm), number of monopodial branches (4.7) and sympodial branches (22.6) per plant, number of unopened (9.4) and opened bolls (41.1) per plant, and average boll weight (3.0 g) of cotton. However, highest seed cotton yield (2944.5 kg ha ) was obtained by flat sowing on 25 cm apart rows owing to highest planting density per unit area. Maximum ginning out turn (GOT) (41.6%) was noticed in pit planting of cotton, while, fiber quality was not affected significantly by sowing methods. Economic analysis showed that economic returns and benefit cost ratio (BCR) (1.52) was elevated by flat sowing on 25 cm apart rows. In conclusion, maximum seed cotton yield and economic returns can be acquired by flat sowing with 25 cm apart rows, while, fiber quality is independent of sowing methods.
Abstract— Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is a pseudocereal grown on limited extensions in Italy and Western Europe in general, but is currently the subject of considerable interest from the scientific community and consumers for its unique nutritional properties: it is rich in vitamins and mineral salts, dietary fiber and antioxidant substances, and it is free of gluten. This species also has agronomic characteristics that make it suitable for cultivation in mountain environments, enabling farmers to extend and change crop rotations: a short growing season, limited nutritional needs, good adaptation to acid soils, tolerance to pests and weeds. Buckwheat cultivation in Italy is more common in the Alps, but recently experiments have been carried out which have shown its good adaptation to the climatic conditions of the Apennines. In this paper, we present the results of an experimental field trial conducted in the year 2015 in two mountain localities of Umbria (Castelluccio di Norcia and Norcia) in which were compared 4 varieties and 2 seeding densities. The results confirmed the suitability of the mountain places of central Italy (especially those located at high altitudes) for the cultivation of buckwheat and indicated significant differences between yields and grain quality traits of different varieties. The different seeding rates resulted in significant differences in some biometric parameters of plants, but not in production yields.
The experimental design was a randomized block design set as a factorial 2 x 2 x 2, with three replications, with 0 and 160 kg manure N ha-1 (M 0 and M 160 ), 0 and 160 kg N ha-1 branches of pigeon pea (G 0 and G 160 ) and 500,000 and 1,000,000 plants ha-1 (P 1 and P 2 ). Two rows of pigeon pea were planted as alleys around the experimental area. On 07/02/01, the pigeon pea plants were pruned and their remains were placed on the plots of 2 m2, while the cattle manure was applied to the soil on 26/07/01. Roquette seeds were sown directly in trays with 128 cells and the transplanted directly on the field on 08/03/01, at one and two plants per pit at spacing 0.20 x 0.10 m, given a plant population densities of 500,000 (one plant per hole) and 1,000,000 plants ha-1 (two plants per hole), respectively, and were harvested 27 days after transplantation. The second planting of roquette to evaluate the residual effect of fertilization with manure and pigeon pea residues was carried out on the same plots of the first experiment. Seeds of roquette were sown directly on 09/27/01 and samples were taken 34 days after sowing (about ninety days after fertilization with cattle manure and 120 days after green manured with pigeon pea).
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percentage of the biomass being produced to aboveground tissues in detriment of belowground tissues. Furthermore, our estimates show that coarse root biomass is strongly correlated to DBH. DBH is highly affected by stand density, increasing as planting density decreases (Harms et al., 2000; Zhao et al., 2012). In a review study, Litton et al. (2007) analyzed the effects of stand density (among other treatments) on carbon allocation patterns in different species of pine and eucalyptus. They concluded that intraspecific competition (stand density) had no large or consistent effect on allocation patterns. Shifts in allocation to wood (bole and branches) and foliage were site specific, showing both small increases and decreases, while allocation to roots varied minimally with competition. In contrast with our results, higher root:shoot ratios as a result of higher stand density have been reported for lodgepole pine (Litton et al., 2003) and red pine (King et al., 2007). Russell et al. (2009) also observed an increase in root:shoot ratio with increasing planting density for 5- and 6-year-old loblolly pine trees at eight planting densities in a miniature-scale spacing trial, though the range of planting densities were far superior to the densities in this study.
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The biomass (fresh mass basis) of ‘Sensuous’ pineapple plants at flower-induction treatment ranged from 3.36-3.53 kg (Table 2) and did not vary significantly in response to the different planting densities used. Data indicates that ‘Sensuous’ pineapple plants in all planting densities are mature enough and inevitably will produce better fruit mass. T.S. Castro (personal communication, July 8, 2006) stated that in order to attain higher recovery of marketable fruits in ‘MD-2’ pineapple, plant biomass must be ≥2.50 kg. Py et al. (1987) reported that average plant mass of most crops decreases with increasing plant population density due to interplant competition for light, but no data illustrating this effect on pineapple were found. Results revealed that the planting densities used in this study did not influenced the biomass of pineapple.
Carbon pool can be found in all four spheres of earth and the flux of carbon from one pool to another would result in climate change. An increased awareness to offset release of carbon in the atmosphere is emphasized in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change through Kyoto Protocol. The establishment of rubber forest for the purpose of reducing at- mospheric carbon is one of the options to sequester carbon in addition to benefitting from timber harvests at the end of crop rotation. The study ana- lysed carbon concentration and carbon content in all plant parts of eleven-years-old rubber clones; RRIM 2020 and RRIM 2025 planted in four planting densities; 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 plants/ha. Carbon concentration was found the highest in leaf of RRIM 2020 at 500 plants/ha density (53.3% + 0.2%). This could be explained by the presence of photosynthetic activity and the resulted high amount of lignin. Carbon content is found the highest in large branch of RRIM 2020 at 500 plants/ha density (93.04 ± 11.22 kg), be- cause of the high biomass weight of large branch and the abundant amount of lignocellulosic material. Trend analysis of total carbon sequestered in plant parts with planting density was found to be in negative pattern; quadratic and cubic regression for RRIM 2020 and RRIM 2025, respectively. However when total carbon content per hectare was calculated it was found that carbon con- tent was the highest at 1500 plants/ha density (140.355 ± 9888 kg, clone RRIM 2025). Even though high density planting gave higher carbon seques- tration per hectare, planting at 500 plants/ha is still recommended as this gives more biomass weight to rubber plant parts and thus subsequently bene- fits the timber industry.
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Pumpkins (Cucurbita spp.) are an important specialty vegetable. Field studies were conducted on three pumpkin culti- vars characterized with different growth habits to determine the effects of plant population and genotypes on market- able yield. Increasing plant populations from 4780 to 9560 plant per hectare resulted in significantly greater fruit number and yield in both growing seasons and for all tested genotypes. Average fruit weight declined at the higher populations. The response of pumpkin genotypes to different planting densities was genotype (growth habit) dependent since the response was pronounced in large vine types compared to bush type. The phenotypic variation existed among pumpkin genotypes for yield seems to be under genetic control. Foliar application of potassium improved growth and yield of pumpkin plants although the non-significant effect. These results demonstrate that growers may increase pump- kin yield by increasing plant populations.
Changes in the NRI, NGI, and NBI values of the rice canopy The NRI values among all treatments gradually increased with the development of rice growth, which can be roughly divided into three periods (Fig. 2): (1) the grad- ually increasing period was from the tillering to head- ing stage, (2) the stable period was from the heading to late filling stage, and (3) the rapidly increasing period was from the late filling to maturity stage. NRI in the key growth stages of rice was primarily regulated by the amount of N fertilizer, and different planting densities have little effect (Table 3). Across different growth peri- ods, the NRI value in the N0 treatment was the highest among the most key stages, although different N rates also caused a significant difference in NRI values. Com- pared with the no N fertilizer treatment (Table 4), the NRI values in the N1 treatment were reduced by 4.86%, 3.51%, and 5.91% in the heading, filling, and late fill- ing stages, respectively, while those in the N2 treatment decreased by 5.31%, 3.88%, and 6.27%, and those of the N3 treatment decreased by 6.25%, 3.57%, and 6.65% across these same stages.
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ABSTRACT:- Strawberry (Fragaria ananasa), belonging to Rosaceae family, is a rich source of vitamins and minerals with delicate flavors. It is perishable crop which is exceedingly in demand for its taste, profitability, high yield and good quality. To make the plant growth successful in the container, the requirement of special media is very important step because plant growth is largely depended on the physiochemical properties of the growing media used. Winter strawberry production in a greenhouse using high plant densities and various media may be a viable alternative to open- field production system. Planting density can be increased thrice by using different production systems. Studies were conducted to see the impact of different planting densities and media on growth and yield of strawberry. The treatments were T = Control, with normal planting distance of 30 cm x 1
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We investigated the effects of planting dates, planting densities and varieties on ecophysiology of pigeonpea in Southeastern US We found significant differences in maximum net leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, WUE, and LAI among all four varieties. Plants in the late planting plots had higher leaf photo- synthesis, but used more water, resulting in a lower WUE. Higher WUE of plants in early planting plots could be attributed to lower stomatal conductance and lower tran- spiration losses. LAI was not influenced by the planting dates. Soil respiration was not influence by the planting dates, planting densities and varieties. No variable inves- tigated in this study was influenced by the planting den- sities. Based on these results, we conclude that late plat- ing with variety G1 or W3 produced higher biomass and yield, had high WUE, and had no significant influence on soil CO 2 emission.
In India, efforts are being made to design and develop a commercial cotton harvester to harvest selected cotton varieties sown by adopting common agronomic practices locally for cotton cultivation. The crop parameters for two different planting systems (existing planting system prevalent in India and experimental high density planting system) together with machine performance attributes of mechanical cotton harvesters using different types of mechanisms have been reviewed in this paper. Suitable cotton harvester was selected for both type of planting systems on the basis of attribute coding system.
The fulfillment of light and temperature requirements in accordance with the growth stage of cauliflower plants will increase the success of cauliflower planting in hot temperature areas. Explaining the condition of temperature, availability of water and sunlight during vegetative growth, especially when entering the flowering initiation phase significantly affect the cauliflower plants. Suitable environmental conditions will produce mass of flowers with good quality . Setting the distance in a solid sweet corn line that is 20 cm makes some sweet corn leaves cover each other so that it can reduce the intensity of light that reaches the canopy of cauliflower plants. In Figure 3 it is known that as the plant age increases, the amount of sunlight entering the canopy of the cauliflower plant becomes less (Y = 1158.15 – 8.19x, R 2 = 0.76). The decrease in radiation intensity reaching the canopy of the cauliflower plant will cause a decrease in air temperature Intensity and low temperature will inhibit the growth and yield of cauliflower plants. The heat resistant cauliflower varieties have decreased yield if on entering the period of initiation the flower mass has too low a temperature .
The study was conducted to determine influence of cowpea and soybean intercropping pattern and time of planting on yield and Gross Monetary Value (GMV) of sorghum. The treatments were included two legume crops, two time of planting, three planting patterns of legumes and sole crops (sorghum, soybean and cowpea). The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replication. Sorghum/soybean cropping system reduced sorghum grain yield by 23.9% where as sorghum/cowpea reduced by grain yield by 40.3%. The highest LER (1.55) and the lowest LER (1.19) was recorded in sorghum/soybean and sorghum/cowpea intercropping system. Highest gross monetary benefit (20561 Ethiopian birr) accrued from planting two rows of cowpea with the first weeding of sorghum in between the two rows of sorghum. However, it was at par with simultaneous planting of cowpea in double alternate plants within sorghum plants along with two rows of cowpea in between sorghum rows and two rows of soybean planted in between two rows of sorghum with first weeding of sorghum. Legumes crop soybean and cowpea should involved in sorghum cropping either simultaneously planting or sowing at first weeding or hoeing of sorghum.
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One of the most reliable methods of getting planting stocks is through wildings collection. These wildings are from seeds germinated on forest floor underneath or around mother trees. High percentage of survival can be achieved if wildings are collected after the rainfall and the seedlings are still small about 3–5 cm tall. When collecting wildings, great care must be taken to ensure adequate amount of roots are removed for high survival rate. The use of sharp spades or similar tools is often recommended to avoid severe damage or breakage of roots during extraction process of the wildings. Wildings are usually kept moist in closed polythene with their root being wrapped with moist newspaper or tissue paper to avoid dehydration upon transporting to the nursery for potting. Leaves are trimmed to reduce water loss through transpiration and evaporation. Newly potted wildings have to be kept under shade and high humidity (e.g. in plastic tent) for three to four weeks before transferring them to transplanting beds. This process will help the wildings to recover from transplanting shock and to get acclimatise with normal growing condition in the nursery.
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The greatest cause of seedling losses is planting out ‘soft’ plants that have not been hardened off as they are unable to survive the sudden change from the growing house to the field. In north Queensland seedlings are not generally grown under cover so hardening off is not as important. One week before planting out stop nutrient foliar sprays and reduce watering. Where plants were grown under cover, either remove the cover over the trays or move trays into the open to prepare the plants for field conditions.
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work, the physical and chemical properties of Fe 3 O 4 @ α-Cyclodextrin @ (12, 12) SWCNTs has been investigated. Our calculations have been done in point of chemical phenomenon and electronic properties. The Magnetic behavior, Electron densities and electrical properties such as NMR Shielding, potential energies densities, energy density, ellipticity for electron densities, ELF, LOL, index of eta and finally ECP for Fe 3 O 4 @ -Cyclodextrin@ (12, 12) SWCNTs have been calculated
The experiment was conducted in Motahari research station located in Kamalshahr of Karaj during 2014. The station is located at Latitude 35° 15' N and longitude 50°51' E with an altitude of about 1300 meters above sea level. This area with 180-150 dry days is considered of the hot and dry Mediterranean climate zones. Split plot factorial experiments were carried out in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatments of planting dates as main plots were placed on two levels, including 23 April, (appropriate time of planting) and 18 May, (at late planting ). Treatments of defoliation as sub plots were the early growth of cotyledon to two true leaves (2 leaves), establishment stage (about 12 leaves), middle of growth (about 32 leaves) and the end of the growing season (about 54 leaves) along with five levels of defoliation intensity factors including the removal of 25, 50, 75 and 100 percent of leaves and non-defoliation (control) as factorial and random. Row to spacing was 50 cm and the length of the rows was 8 m and each sub-plots had four lines and the final harvest took place taking into consideration marginal effects. The amount and time of use from nutrient elements were imposed based on soil test results. During the growing season, pests and weeds were controlled at critical times. Irrigations time was also determined based on the amount of evaporation between 80 and 90 ml from class A pan. Plant density on the farm was considered about 100 thousand plants per hectare.
dae densities. These parameters are characteristic of the stations located in urban area of Douala (MG, MP, MB, TB, TW and LM) and Edea (M2 and M3) which are highly subjected to organic pollution. The second group (II) is made up of parameters such as dissolved oxygen, pH and current velocity which are asso- ciated with the Copepods and Atyidae densities. These variables are characteris- tic of suburban stations of Edea (S1, S2, B1, B2 and B3) and the marshy station KO of the Wouri basin. These stations are less subjected to anthropogenic dis- turbances and have relatively good water quality.
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